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1 Name Ancient India Study Guide Vocabulary to know: subcontinent a large landmass that is smaller than a continent meditation focusing of the mind on spiritual ideas karma effects that good or bad actions have on a person s soul monsoon seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry season caste system division of Indian society that grouped it s members based on a person s birth, wealth, or occupation Sanskrit The language spoken by the Aryans Believed to be the language spoken by the gods missionaries people who work to spread their religious beliefs reincarnation rebirth nirvana a state of perfect peace nonviolence avoidance of violent actions inoculation injecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help him or her build up defenses to a disease Religions to know: Religion Origins Main Teachings Hinduism Aryan invaders beliefs mixed with those of local people - a religion of Indian people - believe people live many lives until they reach spiritual perfection - Preach the caste system - the highest level of reincarnation is called moksha - Three main gods are: Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer) - Holy book written in Sanskrit is the Vedas (meaning knowledge)

2 Buddhism -an ancient religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama who became known as Buddha (meaning Enlightened One) - a religion based on teachings of love, nonviolence -believed that selfish desire causes human suffering - people should look for truth, love, the joy of knowledge and quiet mind The Four Noble Truths- 1. Suffering is part of life 2. Wanting things leads to suffering 3. People can find peace by giving up wants 4. Following 8 basic rules, called the Eightfold Path, can lead to nirvana (a state of complete bliss, free from all suffering). Eightfold Path- 1. Practice proper concentration 2. Control feelings and thoughts 3. Strive to free your mind of evil 4. Hold a job that does not hurt others 5. Respect life and property 6. Say nothing to hurt others 7. Resist evil 8. Seek to know the truth ultimate goal- People should seek love, truth, the joy of knowledge, and a calm mind. Selfish desire causes human suffering. Following the Eightfold path can end a person s cycle of reincarnation and lead to nirvana, a state of complete bliss that is free from all passion, desire, and suffering. Jainism Mahavira - an Indian prince who founded Jainism - spent 12 years seeking enlightenment then became teacher - based on the belief that everything living has a soul and temporary physical body - urged people to become vegetarians - preached nonviolence

3 More on Hinduism: Hindus worship one universal god called Brahman 1. Hinduisms 3 main gods and a little about them: A. Brahma the creator B. Vishnu the preserver C. Shiva the destroyer ultimate goal- People live many lives until they reach spiritual perfection. This process is called reincarnation. Everyone strives to reach the highest position, moksha. Let s talk about the Aryans: 2. Who were they? - They were a nomadic group of herding people/pastoral society - Arya means nobles in Sanskrit - When they reached the Indus Valley, they began to grow crops, like the residence of the Indus Valley. They competed for farmland, and drove many of the natives farther south. They assimilated with the natives that remained in the northern part of India. The Aryan religion, language, and social culture became part of Indian culture. The structure of the Aryan social classes became the caste system of Hinduism. 3. What language did they speak? Sanskrit 4. What was the name of their holiest book? What does that word mean? Vedas meaning knowledge 5. Describe their social classes: A. Brahmans: (highest class)= priests/scholars B. Kshatriyas: (second highest class)=rulers/warriors C. Vaisyas: (third highest class)=farmers, craftspeople, traders

4 D. Sudras: servants/workers E. Untouchables: believed to be so evil that their shadows would pollute members of higher classes; did not belong to caste, held unpleasant jobs The Geography of India: 6. How did the Indus Valley civilization prosper? Each year the Indus River flooded, leaving silt. In this fertile soil, early farmers grew barley and other grains. Farming villages began to. Over time, on of the largest ancient civilizations formed called the Harappan civilization. 7. What were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro? What are some possible causes of the end of the Harappan civilization? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were two large cities in the Indus Valley. They were well planned (set up stores, workshops, etc), had huge fortresses to defend themselves, and had public wells. Possible causes of the end of the Harappan civilization include: change in the course of the Indus and other rivers (possibly flooded cities/lost their sources of water and transportation), or natural disasters such as: a monsoon, an earthquake, or a flood. 8. Which imposing land feature separates India from the rest of Asia? The Himalayas Indian Empires 9. Maurya Empire Candragupta Maurya seized control of entire northern part of India o Ruled with complex government and huge army Trade flourished, agriculture improved, weights and measures were made standard Money was first used Services like trash collection and famine relief were provided Mostly strict ruling until Ashoka (Candragupta s grandson) o Extended Mauryan rule over most of India, but after bloody battles converted to Buddhism o Dug wells, built roads, sent missionaries to spread Buddhism

5 10. Gupta Empire United India after period of unrest Empire expanded Well-kept roads, beautiful temples, monuments, palaces, hospitals Time of achievements in art, literature, mathematics, and medicine Hindu-Arabic numerals, set broken bones, treated wounds, mended ears and noses,, inoculation, traded People: 11. Candragupta Maurya Ruled with complex government Huge network of spies and enormous army Used war elephants and chariots Farmers had to pay heavy tax for army s protection Became Jainist monk, gave up throne 12. Asoka - one of India s best known emperors; Candragupta s grandson - extended Mauryan Empire - Fought many bloody battles o He gave up war, he decided that problems could be solved in more peaceful ways (nonviolence) he adopted the teachings of Buddhism, he became known as the greatest and noblest ruler India has known Sent missionaries around to teach Buddhism 13. Siddhartha Gautama founded Buddhism and became known as Buddha (aka Enlightened One) 14. Mahavira- an Indian prince who founded Jainism Describe the Caste System: 15. Where did it come from? Aryan social classes 16. How is the caste system maintained? By having caste members work in their own group and only marrying those within their caste

6 Reincarnation: 17. How does it work in Hinduism? Those who obey Hinduisms teachings and lead good lives will be reborn into a higher caste; eventually can reach moksha otherwise born into lower life-forms 18. Why does it prevent Hindus from eating meat? All life forms have souls, so should not eat other s souls that are to be reincarnated Gupta Rule: 19. Know the important advances in Indian art, literature, mathematics, and medicine during the time of Gupta rule? Art= new temples built, which included artistic paintings Literature= epics, plays, poetry, Mathematics=developed a base-10 number system, created 0 Medicine=setting broken bones, treated wounds, worked on broken bones and torn earlobes, removed tonsils

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