European Industrialization and Imperialism. Western Europe Western Europe Mr. Millhouse AP World History Spring 2006

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1 European Industrialization and Imperialism Mr. Millhouse AP World History Spring 2006 Western Europe Big Picture: Spread of First Industrial Revolution & Rise of Representative Government 1770 Beginning of Industrial Revolution Effects of Industrialization Seven Years War 1757 Battle of Plassey British imperialism in India Rise of middle class suffrage in the West American Revolution French Revolution Reign of Napoleon 1850 Revolutions of 1848; Marx s Communist Manifesto 1815 British Annex Cape Town Begins colonization of S. Africa 1803 Denmark abolishes slave trade Western Europe Beginning of 2nd Industrial Revolution High Point of European Imperialism German Unification 1882 Triple Alliance created Political Reform Movements Origin of welfare state & rise of socialism 1914 Start of WWI 1880s Bicycle becomes first consumer fad Rise of mass leisure culture 1

2 Origins of the Industrialization Agricultural improvements leads to urbanization (population pressure) Favorable natural resources Growth of large manufacturing sector (Commercial Revolution) Advantages in world trade (colonization) Government policies supporting economic growth Early Industrial Advances Factory system Technological Advances: telegraph, steamboat, railroad Interchangeable parts Metallurgy advances: Bessemer steel Negative Effects of Industrialization Air and water pollution Decline in health conditions Urban overcrowding Rise of crime Public status of women declines Deplorable working conditions Child labor 2

3 Global Impact of Napoleon Invasion of Egypt in 1798 leads to the rise of Muhammad Ali Brings political and economic stability to France Sells Louisiana Purchase to U.S. in 1803 Grants Haiti its independence in 1804 Invasion of Spain and Portugal in 1808 facilitates Latin American independence Invasion of Russia in 1812 facilitates statebuilding in Germany and Italy Rise of nationalism throughout Europe Universal Male Suffrage Early 1800s property was a requirement to vote in U.S. Reform Bill of 1832 grants suffrage to middle class men in England By mid-1850s all white males could vote in U.S. Benjamin Disraeli grants working class suffrage in th Amendment (1870) grants universal male suffrage in U.S. British Control of India st British trade center at Bombay 1690 British establish center at Calcutta 1707 Start of imperial decline Seven Years War 1757 Battle of Plassey Cornwallis s reforms in India 1857 Sepoy Rebellion 1858 British gov t assumes control of India 3

4 British Control of South Africa st Dutch settlement at Cape Town 1815 British annex Cape Town 1830 Boers begin Great Trek 1867 Diamonds discovered at Orange Free State 1879 Zulu defeat British at Isandhlwana Boer Wars Abolition of Slavery Haitian Revolution French National Convention abolishes slavery in 1793 Denmark abolishes slave trade 1803 Britain abolishes slavery 1833; abolitionist William Wilberforce died 3 days later Emancipation Proclamation th Amendment abolishes slavery 1865 Brazil abolishes slavery in nd Industrial Revolution U.S. & Germany lead 2 nd Industrial Revolution Thomas Edison formed Edison Electric Light Company to build power plants in 1878 Growing importance of oil Henry Ford perfects the assembly line New business structures: corporations, trusts, and cartels 4

5 2 nd Industrial Revolution New technology: electric lights, radio, automobile, telephone, medicine, science Continued problems: urbanization, pollution, sanitation, work conditions, etc. Reform movements Demographic Transition accelerated Pasteurization of germs in 1862 Widespread use of vaccines 1880s Better diets and living conditions 2 nd Industrial Revolution New waves of immigration Global industrialization: Russia, Canada, Mexico, and Japan 2 nd wave of industrialization sparks Western imperialism Political Reform Movements Changes in Government Functions Civil service exams, regulatory laws (factory safety, sanitation, child labor laws, etc.), compulsory schooling Origin of the Welfare State Workers compensation, unemployment, sick leave, etc. The Social Question Social issues become focus of government, rise of women and working class in politics 5

6 Political Reform Movements Rise of Socialism Socialism: Social and governmental system, based on equality and social and economic justice, requires government intervention in economic affairs Communist Manifesto 1848 Supports creation of labor unions and worker strikes Socialist political parties 1868 New Imperialism Great Game between Russia and Britain over Central Asia 1858 British government controls India 1882 British takeover Egypt Berlin Conference Sino-Japanese War 1898 Spanish American War; U.S. annexes Hawaii New Imperialism Motives: 2 nd Industrial Revolution increases need for resources and markets, Social Darwinism, White Man s Burden, manifest destiny Means: Machine gun, medicine, telegraph, steamboat, railroad 6

7 Mass Leisure Culture Widespread advertising creates consumer fads (bicycle) Newspapers become popular Radio and motion pictures Organized sports: baseball, soccer, boxing, horse racing Family vacations for the wealthy and middle class Road to World War I Imperialism Nationalism Militarism Alliance system Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) formed 1882 Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia) formed

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