Digital Integrated Circuits EECS 312


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1 Fujitsu VP2000 IBM 3090S Pulsar 4 IBM 3090 IBM RY6 CDC Cyber 205 IBM 4381 IBM RY4 2 IBM 3081 Apache Fujitsu M380 IBM 370 Merced IBM 360 IBM 3033 Vacuum Pentium II(DSIP) NTT Fujitsu M780 IBM RY5 Jayhawk(dual) IBM RY7 Prescott TRex Mckinley Squadrons IBM GP Pentium Radio Receive for Mesh Maintenance 26 ma Typical Current Draw 1 sec Heartbeat 30 beats per sample Sampling and Radio Transmission 915 ma Low Power Sleep ma Heartbeat 12 ma Time (seconds) Digital Integrated Circuits EECS Teacher: Robert Dick Office: 2417E EECS Phone: Cellphone: GSI: Office: Shengshou Lu 2725 BBB HW engineers SW engineers Current (ma) IBM ES9000 Bipolar CMOS Power density (Watts/cm 2 ) Year of announcement IBM Z9
2 Announcements Nonidealities Logical effort. 3, problem 9 will be moved to 4. Review DeMorgan s Laws and gate design. 2 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
3 Examples Nonidealities f (a) = a. f (a) = a f (a, b) = ab f (a, b) = ab (Check Figure 633 in J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective. PrenticeHall, second edition, 2003!) f (a, b, c) = ab + bc (try both ways). Derive and explain. 3 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
4 Lecture plan Nonidealities 1. Nonidealities Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
5 Miller effect Nonidealities If V D switches in the opposite direction of V G, the effect of C GD is doubled. Consider an inverter. Model by using a 2C GD capacitor to ground. 5 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
6 Stack effect Nonidealities V DD A Z N2 B Each series transistor drops the voltage seen by the next transistor. V T ( = V T 0 + 2φF γ + V SB ) 2φ F N1 V int V Tn2 ( = V Tn0 + 2φF γ + V int ) 2φ F V SS 6 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
7 Dynamic hazards Nonidealities Potential for two or more spurious transitions before intended transition Results from uneven path delays in some multilevel circuits Dynamic hazards Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
8 Dynamic hazards Nonidealities G1 S low G2 0 1 G G4 1 0 Very slow G Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
9 Eliminating dynamic hazards Some approaches allow preservation of multilevel structure Quite complicated to apply Simpler solution Convert to twolevel implementation 9 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
10 Static hazards Nonidealities Still have static hazards Potential for transient change of output to incorrect value Static 1 hazard Static 0 hazard 10 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
11 Problems with glitches These transitions result in incorrect output values at some times Also result in uselessly charging and discharging wire and gate capacitances through wire, gate, and channel resistances Increase power consumption 11 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
12 Glitches increase power consumption V DD V DD A 1 B V SS V SS 12 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
13 Detecting hazards Nonidealities The observable effect of a hazard is a glitch A circuit that might exhibit a glitch has a hazard Whether or not a hazard is observed as a glitch depends on relative gate delays Relative gate delays change depending on a number of factors Conditions during fabrication, temperature, age, etc. Best to use abstract reasoning to determine whether hazards might be observed in practice, under some conditions 13 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
14 Eliminating static hazards Ensure that the function has a term maintaining a 0 output for all 0 0 transitions. Ensure that the function has a term maintaining a 1 output for all 1 1 transitions. There are precisely defined algorithms for this, but they build on a knowledge of logic minimization. 14 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
15 Where do static hazards really come from? Static0: A A Static1: A + A Assume SOP form has no product terms containing a variable in complemented and uncomplemented forms Reasonable assumption, if true, drop product term 15 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
16 Where do static hazards really come from? Assume POS form has no sum terms containing a variable in complemented and uncomplemented forms Reasonable assumption, if true, drop sum term Assume only one input switches at a time Conclusion: SOP has no 0hazards and POS has no 1hazards In other words, if you are doing twolevel design, you need not analyze the other form for hazards 16 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
17 Living with hazards Sometimes hazards can be tolerated Combinational logic whose outputs aren t observed at all times Synchronous systems Systems without tight power consumption limits 17 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
18 Lecture plan Nonidealities 1. Nonidealities Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
19 Differential cascode voltage switch logic 19 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
20 Differential cascode voltage switch logic example 20 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
21 Differential cascode voltage switch logic response 21 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
22 NMOSonly wired and 22 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
23 Level restoration Nonidealities 23 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
24 Restorer sizing Nonidealities 24 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
25 Depletion mode V T = 0 V pass transistor Consider leakage. 25 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
26 Lecture plan Nonidealities 1. Nonidealities Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
27 Static vs. dynamic logic Static logic relies only on steadystate behavior of system. Eventually the output converges to a correct result. Dynamic logic relies on transient behavior and is sensitive to timing. Reliable design is generally trickier. Why use it? Static logic requires (k P + k N ) transistors for kinput gate. Dynamic logic requires k N + 2 transistors for kinput gate. 27 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
28 Dynamic logic Nonidealities Twophase operation. 28 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
29 Dynamic logic example 29 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
30 Dynamic logic operating principles I 1 Can only discharge output node once per clock period. 2 Inputs must make only one transition during evaluation. 3 Output can be in the high impedance state during and after evaluation. 4 Logic function is implemented by the pulldown network only. 5 Requires only k N + 2 transistors. 6 Full swing outputs. 7 Nonratioed  sizing of the devices does not affect the logic levels. 8 Reduced load capacitance due to lower input capacitance. 9 Reduced load capacitance due to smaller output loading. no Isc, so all the current provided by PDN goes into discharging CL. 30 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
31 Dynamic logic operating principles II 10 Power consumption usually higher than static CMOS. Good: No static current. Good: No glitching. Bad: Higher transition probabilities. Bad: More load on clock distribution network. 11 V M = V IH = V IL = V TN so noise margin is low. 12 Needs precharge and evaluation cycle. 31 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
32 Upcoming topics Nonidealities Example problems on recently covered material. Latches and flipflops. 32 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
33 Review Nonidealities What are dynamic hazards? What are static hazards? What problems do hazards cause? What is the root cause of static hazards? Let s implement a function using. Derive and explain. 33 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
34 Lecture plan Nonidealities 1. Nonidealities Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
35 Dynamic logic charge leakage 35 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
36 Dynamic logic charge leakage timing diagram 36 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
37 Leakage prevention Nonidealities 37 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
38 Nonidealities 38 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
39 model 1 Determine condition by setting V out = V Tn. 2 This yields Ca C L = V Tn V DD V Tn. 39 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
40 equations { ( ) (final) V out + V DD = V out = Ca /C L V DD V (V X ) Tn if V out < V Tn C V a DD C a+c L if V out > V Tn Note: The book has a sign error when deriving the boundary point. 40 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
41 Preventing charge sharing problems 41 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
42 Transition from combinational to sequential circuits PC Instruction fetch Inc DMUX Instruction decode & register fetch A... SP MUX MUX Execute ALU Write back Memory I Decoder MUX MUX <0 0 NPC 42 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
43 Upcoming topics Nonidealities Sense amplifiers. A more formal approach to gate sizing. 43 Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
44 Lecture plan Nonidealities 1. Nonidealities Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
45 assignment 31 October: Read Sections 6.3 and 7.1 in J. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic. Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective. PrenticeHall, second edition, November: Project Robert Dick Digital Integrated Circuits
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