Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet

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1 Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet 1

2 Name History of Atomic Theory Period Fill in the missing information in the chart below: Name of Researcher Equipment Sketch of Model Major Idea/Discovery N/A All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties Rutherford N/A Electrons travel around the nucleus in welldefined paths called orbits (like planets in a solar system) Thomson N/A Electrons have distinct amounts of energy and move in areas called orbitals Developed after the famous discovery that energy can behave as both waves & particles 2

3 3

4 4

5 Atomic Structure Worksheet **Assume all are neutral atoms! Fill in the blanks in the following worksheet. Please keep in mind that the isotope represented by each space may NOT be the most common isotope or the one closest in atomic mass to the value on the periodic table. Atomic Atomic Protons Neutrons Electrons Mass symbol number number C W 183 Cr Md 259 Se Notice there are two different atoms of zirconium (Zr) listed. They have drastically different mass numbers. What are these two therefore considered to be in relation to one another? 5

6 Atomic Theory- Neutral Atoms and their subatomic parts How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are present in the following neutral atoms? vanadium potassium nitrogen platinum argon helium What is the name of the element that has neutral atoms that contain: 5 protons? 16 electrons? 17 protons? 32 electrons? 25 protons? 1 electron? 82 protons? 8 electrons? 92 protons? 2 electrons? 6

7 Complete the following chart: (assume the overall charge on all atoms = 0.except the last one!) Element Symbol Atomic Number # of Protons # of Neutrons Hydrogen 1 Mass Number (amu) # of Electrons He 4 Na 12 Potassium Rb 86 Carbon 6 Xenon At Copper 64 Ne Lithium Ion Li + 3 7

8 P, n, e of ions Write the full chemical symbol for the ion with: 1) 12 protons and 10 electrons: 2) 74 protons and 68 electrons: 3) 95 protons and 89 electrons: 4) 33 protons and 36 electrons: Determine the number of p, n, e for the following ions: Cu 2+ Li + O 2- p = n = e = Cl - Al 3+ I 7+ # protons # electrons # neutrons Atomic # Mass # Lithium Phosphorus Vanadium Krypton Barium Uranium

9 ATOM or ION? PROTONS NEUTRONS ELECTRONS MASS NUMBER NUCLEAR CHARGE Al Cl 23 Na +1 He 15 O C C Au +3 U 222 Rn Cu +1 Cu +2 Question: Which of the above atoms are isotopes of one another? Explain how you know this. 9

10 For the following atoms/ions determine the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, mass number, and nuclear charge. ATOM or ION? PROTONS NEUTRONS ELECTRONS MASS NUMBER NUCLEAR CHARGE 15 N Cu +2 8 B O F Pb 208 Pb Ag +1 Zn +2 Mg S -2 Question: Which of the above atoms are isotopes of one another? Explain how you know this. 10

11 Calculate the atomic mass of each of the following isotopes. SHOW ALL WORK. Element Mass Percent Abundance 1) copper amu 69.17% copper amu 30.83% 2) uranium amu 0.72% uranium amu 99.28% 3) hydrogen amu % hydrogen amu 0.015% 4) element Q-8 8 amu 10.0% element Q-9 9 amu 20.0% element Q amu 70.0% 11

12 Weighted Averages HW (SHOW ALL WORK!) Name *You can round the masses given to you or use them as given just be consistent! 1) Element X exists in three isotopic forms. The isotopic mixture consists of 10.0% 10 X, 20.0% 11 X, and 70.0% 12 X. What is the average atomic mass of this element? 2) Element Y exists in three isotopic forms. The Isotopic mixture consists of 15.0% 21 X, 65.0% 22 X, and 20.0% 23 X. That is the average atomic mass of this element? 3) A mystery element occurs in nature as two isotopes. Isotope A has a mass of amu and its abundance is 19.9%; Isotope B has a mass of amu and its abundance is 80.1%. From this data, calculate the atomic mass of the element and show all work. Lastly, identify the element. 4) A mystery element occurs in nature as two isotopes. Isotope A has a mass of amu and its abundance is 69.17%; Isotope B has a mass of amu and its abundance is 30.83%. From this data, calculate the atomic mass of the element and show all work. Lastly, identify the element. 12

13 5) A mystery element occurs in nature as three isotopes. Isotope A has a mass of amu and its abundance is %; Isotope B has a mass of amu and its abundance is %; Isotope C has a mass of amu and its abundance is %. From this data, calculate the atomic mass of the element and show all work. Lastly, identify the element. Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass Example: A sample of cesium is 75% 133 Cs, 20% 132 Cs, and 5% 134 Cs. What is the average atomic mass? Determine the average atomic mass of the following mixtures of isotopes % 127 I, 17% 126 I, 3% 128 I 2. 50% 197 Au, 50% 198 Au 13

14 3. 15% 55 Fe, 85% 56 Fe 4. 99% 1 H, 0.8% 2 H, 0.2% 3 H 5. 95% 14 N, 3% 15 N, 2% 16 N 6. 98% 12 C, 2% 14 C 14

15 Regents Chemistry Name Principal Energy Level Worksheet Carbon Helium Neon Oxygen Sulfur 3s 3p 3d Aluminum 3s 3p 3d Sodium 3s 3p 3d Lithium 15

16 Calcium 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f Fluorine Chlorine 3s 3p 3d Hydrogen Magnesium 3s 3p 3d Tin 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f Potassium 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 16

17 Construct Bohr diagrams for the following: Na electron configuration F electron configuration O electron configuration Li + electron configuration Cl - electron configuration Ne electron configuration 17

18 Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams for the following: Charge # Valence e - N Charge # Valence e - C # unpaired valence e - # of bonds # unpaired valence e - # of bonds Charge # Valence e - Li + Charge # Valence e - He # unpaired valence e - # of bonds # unpaired valence e - # of bonds Charge # Valence e - O Charge # Valence e - B # unpaired valence e - # of bonds # unpaired valence e - # of bonds Charge # Valence e - S Charge # Valence e - Kr # unpaired valence e - # of bonds # unpaired valence e - # of bonds Charge # Valence e - Se 2- Charge # Valence e - Ca +2 # unpaired valence e - # of bonds # unpaired valence e - # of bonds 18

19 Bohr and Lewis Dot Diagrams Name Element Carbon Electron Configuration Bohr Diagram # Valence e - Lewis Dot # Kernel e - Diagram Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = Oxygen Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = Sodium p = n = e = Valence e - = Kernel e - = Neon Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = 19

20 Element Fluorine Electron Configuration Bohr Diagram # Valence e - Lewis Dot # Kernel e - Diagram Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = Argon Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = Nitrogen p = n = e = Valence e - = Kernel e - = Lead Valence e - = p = n = e = Kernel e - = 20

21 Regents Chemistry Electron Configuration Worksheet Name Period For the questions 1-10, assume all atoms are neutral. Use the electron configurations to determine the identity of the element and whether it is in the ground or excited state. Electron Configuration Identity Ground/Excited Give an electron configuration for the following: 11. Sulfur in its ground state. 12. Helium in an excited state. 13. Give the ground state electron configuration for calcium. 14. Give the correct electron configuration for the Ca +2 ion. 15. How many valence electrons are there in atom of bromine? 16. How many valence electrons are there in a Cl - ion? 17. How many kernel electrons are there in a phosphorus atom? 18. How many valence electrons are there in a neon atom? 19. How many principal energy levels are there in a iron atom? 21

22 20. When atoms of an element are emitting a certain wavelength (or color) of light, it means that a) the atoms have gained energy and electrons have jumped to an excited state. b) the atoms have gained energy and electrons have fallen back to the ground state. c) the atoms have lost energy and electrons have fallen back to the ground state. d) the atoms have lost energy and electrons have jumped to an excited state. Use the emissions spectra results below to answer questions 14 and 15: Gas A Gas B Gas C Gas D Unknown Gas 21. According to these experimental spectra results, the unknown gas is a mixture of which gases? 22. Each line on the visible light spectrum for the gases above represents a) electrons jumping to the same excited state or energy level. b) electrons falling back down to their ground state from the same energy level. c) electrons jumping to multiple excited states or energy levels. d) electrons falling back down to their ground state from multiple energy levels. 23. How do the energy and the most probable location of an electron in the third shell of an atom compare to the energy and the most probable location of an electron in the first shell of the same atom? a) In the third shell, an electron has more energy and is closer to the nucleus. b) In the third shell, an electron has more energy and is farther from the nucleus. c) In the third shell, an electron has less energy and is closer to the nucleus. d) In the third shell, an electron has less energy and is farther from the nucleus. 22

23 24. An atom of oxygen is in an excited state. When an electron in this atom moves from the third shell to the second shell, energy is a) emitted by the nucleus b) absorbed by the nucleus c) emitted by the electron d) absorbed by the electron 25. Which electron configuration could represent a strontium atom in an excited state? a) b) c) d) Imagine an emission spectrum produced by a container of hydrogen gas. Changing the amount of hydrogen in the container will change the colors of the lines in the spectrum. a) True b) False 27. In the previous question, changing the gas in the container from hydrogen to helium will change the colors of the lines occurring in the spectrum. a) True b) False 28. An absorption spectrum appears as a continuous spectrum interrupted by a series of dark lines. a) True b) False 29. Emission spectra are characterized by narrow bright lines of different colors. a) True b) False 23

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