SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics


 Lucy Nelson
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 SubAtomic Physics Nuclear Physics Lecture 4 Main points of Lecture 3 Strong and coulomb interaction processes conserve angular momentum and parity External properties 1) Charge number of protons (ze) 2) Mass  measured in u (1/12 of mass 12 C) 3) Size (charge radius electron scattering potential radius neutron scattering) 3 rd Year Junior Honours Course Dr Daniel Watts R = r 0 A 1/3 Important relation!! Assuming constant nuclear density Started to discuss internal properties spin and parity Will continue this in the coming lecture
2 Notes Notes
3 Internal properties continued.. Magnetic moment µ: due to (and aligned with!) the nuclear spin Familiar with the magnetic moment of the electron electron: µ e ~ 1.0 µ B For a point like nucleon expect: µ p ~ 1.0µ N µ n ~ 0 Experimental measurements: proton: µ p = 2.79 µ N neutron: µ n = µ N eh µ = B Bohr magneton 2m µ N = eh 2m p nuclear magneton (~1/2000 of µ b ) Surprise! the neutron, although uncharged has a nonzero magnetic moment & proton magnetic moment is anomalously large consequence of quark substructure (consisting of charged components) p = 2 up + 1 down u = + 2/3e n = 1 up + 2 down d =  1/3 e Aside I: Important applications of nuclear moments are magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance (see Lilley, ch. 9) Aside II: The observation that the proton has excited states (see figure) also indicates it has.internal structure e Total photon absorption cross section for the proton γ + p Anything resonant structures correspond to nucleon excited states Nuclear magnetic moments arise from the sum of the spin and orbital magnetic moments of the component nucleons Magnetic moments of nuclear ground states lie in the range 2 µ < < 6 Therefore the magnetic moments of the component nucleons must tend to cancel to a large extent in nuclei we will see the reason for this later when we introduce the shell model Aside: Recap on magnetic moments Magnetic moment due to Orbital motion: v Classically arise from eg. Motion of current in a loop Magnetic moment QM get analogous result N µ Nuclear µ N Magnetic moment due to Intrinsic spin Magnetic moment operator due to intrinsic spin of a particle: e µ s = g s S 2m g s = 2 e h µ s = g s 2m 2 For electron For proton µ = µ = + s µ B s µ N r ev µ l = ia = πr 2πr e µ l = L 2m e gl µ l = g l L 2m g 2 = = 1 = 0 epr 2m charged neutral from Dirac theory, Rel. QM for point like spin ½ particle) Bohr magneton (µ B ) =eħ/2m e Nuclear magneton (µ N ) =eħ/2m N l
4 Notes Notes
5 Excited states E,J: nuclei can exist in different excited energy states, each corresponding to a given configuration of nucleons Excitation level scheme of a real nucleus 16 O excited states have a finite LIFETIME (τ) and WIDTH (Γ) Remember τ Γ ~ h Heisenberg s uncertainty relation at low energies levels are DISCRETE at higher energies level widths Γ become increasingly larger they eventually overlap forming a CONTINUUM continuum high energy low energy nucleon (or cluster) gamma ray deexcitation through: ground state 1) γ emission (Eγ = E) with lifetime τ h /Γ 2) particle emission (if energetically allowed) each state characterized by a total angular momentum J = L + S L = total orbital angular momentum S = total spin most nucleons combine in pairs all nuclei with even N even Z have J = 0 Even N, Even Z nucleus 8 Spin and parity assignments of the nuclear excited states Collectively called a nuclear level scheme see: for more examples!
6 Notes Notes
7 Excitation level scheme of a real nucleus 16 O Zoom out and it gets more complicated! Mechanism of the nuclear force  I Complicated!! e.g. one possible Feynman diagram for proton proton scattering at the quark level Quarks held together by strong interaction arising from the exchange of gluons and other quarks Calculations of nuclear force in terms of quark gluon field still in infancy Extract empirical information on nucleonnucleon force from experimental data Nucleonnucleon scattering Wealth of scattering data available from proton, neutron beam facilities particularly at energies applicable to nuclear physics Properties of deuteron, Binding energy, magnetic moment, electric quadropole moment Curve of binding energy per nucleon Mass number dependence
8 Notes Notes
9 Mechanism of the nuclear force II Important properties of the nuclear force NN force is complicated but for energies and nucleon separations applicable in nuclear physics (below ~100 MeV) the NN force can adequately be described as the exchange of virtual mesons between nucleons. Theoretical framework developed by Yukawa (1935) nucleonnucleon P.E. repulsive ω attractive Heavier meson exchange equilibrium position π distance Pion exchange Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle  borrow energy to create particle if energy ( E=mc 2 ) repaid within time ( t) where E t > ħ mc 2 m ~ h ~ ~ t h rc hc r (Assumption: Particle velocity ~ c) e.g. r=1.4fm m~140mev/c 2 Particle of mass appropriate to range of nuclear forces discovered in cosmic ray interactions pion (J π =0  ) Three types : m(π + )=m(π  )=139.6MeV/c 2 m(π 0 )=135 MeV/c 2 Short range part?  heavier mesons, multiple pion, quark? short range : Strongly attractive component over short range repulsive core repulsive component at very short distance (<0.5 fm) average separation between nucleons SATURATION of nuclear force Force is spin dependent Depends on intrinsic spins of nucleons repulsive attractive equilibrium position distance deuteron only stable if spins parallel p n p n S=1 force stronger than S=0 & no pp, or nn states (S=0 only Pauli exclusion principle) also spinorbit interaction ~ L S Depends on relative orientation of total spin and angular momentum (attractive force if parallel) nucleonnucleon P.E. also tensor force Energetically more preferable to have spins parallel to line joining nucleons Force is charge independent S=1 S=0 nuclear force is charge symmetric light nuclei (A < 40) : coulomb repulsion << binding energy stable nuclei tend to have N ~ Z (see nuclear chart)
10 Notes Notes
11 Nuclear masses and binding energies The nucleus and its structure Presently no complete theory to fully describe structure and behaviour of nuclei based solely on knowledge of force between nucleons (Although tremendous progress in past few years for A<12!) Properties M n (A,Z) < Zm p + Nm n Mc 2 = [Zm H + Nm n ]c 2  M a (A,Z)c 2 BINDING ENERGY (B) energy required to break nucleus into constituents energy released to create nucleus from constituents A useful quantity is to divide the total nuclear binding energy by the number of nucleons to give the binding energy felt per nucleon Positive for all nuclei nuclear force is attractive (on average) Peaks at A=n 4 and Z=A/2 multiple of 2n2p configuration particularly stable B/A ~ constant for A>20 Saturation of nuclear force Curve of binding energy per nucleon Slow decrease of B/A for A>60 ( 56 Fe most stable nucleus) Coulomb repulsion slowly prevails limited number of nuclei Eveneven nuclei more stable than oddodd nuclei Pairing effect between like nucleons with opposite spins use MODELS: simplifying assumptions give reasonable account of observed properties make predictions LIQUIDDROP MODEL nucleus regarded as collection of neutrons and protons forming a droplet of incompressible fluid good description of overall trend of binding energy per nucleon fails to account for magic numbers or give any prediction for J π SHELL MODEL neutrons and protons arranged in stable quantum states in common potential well accounts for groundstate properties (e.g. J π ) and magic numbers does not predict many of the observed nuclear excited states COLLECTIVE MODELS neutrons and protons show collective motions give rise to vibrational and rotational states accounts for properties of nonspherical nuclei fails to reproduce other features
12 Notes Notes
13 How to explain these properties? LIQUID DROP MODEL nucleus regarded as collection of neutrons and protons forming a droplet of incompressible fluid Bethe and von Weizsäcker (1935): Remember Warning!! Total Binding Not B/A! B(A,Z) pairing term Semi Empirical Mass Formula (SEMF) 2 2/3 = ava asa a a C + δ (A,Z) 1/3 a δ > 0 for even N even Z δ < 0 for odd N odd Z δ = 0 for odd A Contributions from various terms to binding energy per nucleon Z A 2 (A 2Z) A δ ~12/A 1/2 a C a v Z A A 2 / 3 a s A 2 1/ 3 Volume energy: Each nucleon only feels interaction of close neighbours due to short range of nuclear force Gives a positive binding energy which is roughly the same for each nucleon Surface correction: Nucleons near surface of nucleus surrounded by fewer nucleons and will therefore experience less attractive potential energy than those inside the nucleus. Compensate with a reduction in binding energy proportional to number of nucleons in nuclear surface Coulomb energy: Nucleus has total charge Ze confined to a sphere of radius R. The resultant potential 2 3 ( Ze) energy given by electrostatic theory = 5 4πε R 0 ( A 2Z) A a a 2 Symmetry term: Stable light nuclei have N~Z (i.e. A~2Z). If A deviates from 2Z then binding energy is reduced. From fits to experimental binding energies: a v = 15.6 MeV a s = 17.2 MeV a a = 23.3 MeV a C = 0.70 MeV + δ (A,Z) Pairing term: Most stable nuclei have Z even and N even and therefore A even (eveneven nuclei). Increases binding for eveneven nuclei and reduces for oddodd. δ =12/A 1/2
14 Notes Notes
Basic Nuclear Concepts
Section 7: In this section, we present a basic description of atomic nuclei, the stored energy contained within them, their occurrence and stability Basic Nuclear Concepts EARLY DISCOVERIES [see also Section
More information2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126.
Chapter 5 Nuclear Shell Model 5.1 Magic Numbers The binding energies predicted by the Liquid Drop Model underestimate the actual binding energies of magic nuclei for which either the number of neutrons
More informationMasses in Atomic Units
Nuclear Composition  the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev)  the constituents
More informationChapter 11 The Nucleus
Chapter 11 The Nucleus Introduction Most of the physical and chemical properties of matter which we are familiar with are a result of the number and configuration of atomic electrons. That's why we have
More informationNuclear Physics and Astrophysics
Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics PHY302 Dr. E. Rizvi Lecture 7  The SemiEmpirical Mass Formula Material For This Lecture Today we will cover Liquid Drop Model Motivation Model terms and Parameters Applications:
More informationEnergy generation in stars which nuclei are stable which nuclei exist in principle SOHO, 171A Fe emission line
The mass of a nucleus Energy generation in stars which nuclei are stable which nuclei exist in principle 1 SOHO, 171A Fe emission line Nucleons Mass Spin Charge Proton 938.7 MeV/c 1/ +1e Neutron 939.565
More informationBasic Concepts in Nuclear Physics
Basic Concepts in Nuclear Physics Paolo Finelli Corso di Teoria delle Forze Nucleari 2011 Literature/Bibliography Some useful texts are available at the Library: Wong, Nuclear Physics Krane, Introductory
More informationNuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:
Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions
More informationChapter 9. Gamma Decay
Chapter 9 Gamma Decay As we have seen γdecay is often observed in conjunction with α or βdecay when the daughter nucleus is formed in an excited state and then makes one or more transitions to its ground
More informationKE A = PE MAX 1/2M v 2 = k q1 q2 /R
CHAPTER 13 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE NUCLEAR FORCE The nucleus is help firmly together by the nuclear or strong force, We can estimate the nuclear force by observing that protons residing about 1fm = 1015m apart
More informationLecture 09 Nuclear Physics Part 1
Lecture 09 Nuclear Physics Part 1 Structure and Size of the Nucleus Νuclear Masses Binding Energy The Strong Nuclear Force Structure of the Nucleus Discovered by Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden in 1909
More informationNuclear Power Plants. Dr. Ervin Rácz, Ph.D. associate professor
Nuclear Power Plants Dr. Ervin Rácz, Ph.D. associate professor Motivating factors 1) It is positive, if the graduating electric engineers (or engineers) have knowledge about wide spectrum of power plants
More information22.02 INTRODUCTION to APPLIED NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.0 INTRODUCTION to APPLIED NUCLEAR PHYSICS Spring 01 Prof. Paola Cappellaro Nuclear Science and Engineering Department [This page intentionally blank.] Contents 1 Introduction
More informationNuclear Physics and Radioactivity
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) AZ 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does
More informationMASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY
MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY The separate laws of Conservation of Mass and Conservation of Energy are not applied strictly on the nuclear level. It is possible to convert between mass and energy. Instead
More informationNUCLEAR FISSION DOEHDBK1019/193 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION
NUCLEAR FISSION DOEHDBK101/13 Atomic and Nuclear Physics NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a process in which an atom splits and releases energy, fission products, and neutrons. The neutrons released
More informationElectromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics
Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Physics Properties of Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons (The Main Constituents of Ordinary Matter) Mass Electrons have a mass of 9.11 1031 kg. The mass of a proton
More informationA given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z
Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Units of Chapter 30 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Radioactivity Alpha Decay Beta Decay Gamma Decay Conservation
More informationMain properties of atoms and nucleus
Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom
More informationSelected Topics in Physics a lecture course for 1st year students by W.B. von Schlippe Spring Semester 2007
Selected Topics in Physics a lecture course for 1st year students by W.B. von Schlippe Spring Semester 2007 Lecture 9 Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1 There are Agents in Nature able to make the Particles
More informationPhysics 107 Problem 11.1 O. A. Pringle State the number of neutrons and protons in each of the following: 3. Li 6, 10
Physics 07 Problem. O. A. Pringle State the number of neutrons and protons in each of the following: Li 6, 0 Ne 22, 40 Zr 94, 72 Hf 80. Note that I haven't figured out how to makemathcad write both a superscript
More informationPhys 234H Practice Final Exam (Note: this practice exam contains more questions than will the final, which will have 25 multiplechoice questions.
Phys 234H Practice Final Exam (Note: this practice exam contains more questions than will the final, which will have 25 multiplechoice questions. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best
More informationCHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom
CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom 4.1 The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford 4.2 Rutherford Scattering 4.3 The Classic Atomic Model 4.4 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 4.5 Successes and Failures
More informationDiamagnetism and Paramagnetism. Magnetization M(H) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field H at T=0 is defined as:
Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism Definitions: Magnetization M(H) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field H at T=0 is defined as: where is the ground state energy. Note that H is the magnetic field felt
More informationThe Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission
The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Nuclear Fission 1 Introduction! We saw previously from the Binding energy vs A curve that heavy nuclei (above A~120)
More informationFundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions. Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College
Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Questions Elizabeth H. Simmons Dean and Professor, Lyman Briggs College The smallest pieces of matter Nuclear physics and particle physics study the smallest known building
More informationCHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers
1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of
More informationAtomic Structure: Chapter Problems
Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand
More informationQuantum Mechanics I Physics 325. Importance of Hydrogen Atom
Quantum Mechanics I Physics 35 Atomic spectra and Atom Models Importance of Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is the simplest atom The quantum numbers used to characterize the allowed states of hydrogen can also
More informationTheory of electrons and positrons
P AUL A. M. DIRAC Theory of electrons and positrons Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933 Matter has been found by experimental physicists to be made up of small particles of various kinds, the particles of
More information0.33 d down 1 1. 0.33 c charm + 2 3. 0 0 1.5 s strange 1 3. 0 0 0.5 t top + 2 3. 0 0 172 b bottom 1 3
Chapter 16 Constituent Quark Model Quarks are fundamental spin 1 particles from which all hadrons are made up. Baryons consist of three quarks, whereas mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark. There
More informationIntroduction to Nuclear Physics
Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the BohrRutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus
More informationBasic Concepts in Nuclear Physics. Paolo Finelli
Basic Concepts in Nuclear Physics Paolo Finelli Literature/Bibliography Some useful texts are available at the Library: Wong, Nuclear Physics Krane, Introductory Nuclear Physics Basdevant, Rich and Spiro,
More informationPearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions
Pearson Physics Level 30 Unit VIII Atomic Physics: Chapter 17 Solutions Student Book page 831 Concept Check Since neutrons have no charge, they do not create ions when passing through the liquid in a bubble
More informationChapter 18: The Structure of the Atom
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
More informationIntroduction to quantum mechanics
Introduction to quantum mechanics Lecture 3 MTX9100 Nanomaterjalid OUTLINE What is electron particle or wave?  How large is a potential well? What happens at nanoscale? What is inside? Matter Molecule
More informationThe Standard Model or Particle Physics 101. Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003
The Standard Model or Particle Physics 101 Nick Hadley Quarknet, July 7, 2003 Thanks Thanks to Don Lincoln of Fermilab who provided some of the pictures and slides used in this talk. Any errors are mine
More informationDO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
More informationChapter 38C  Atomic Physics. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University
Chapter 38C  Atomic Physics A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to:
More informationSubatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture 4. Quantum ElectroDynamics & Feynman Diagrams. Antimatter. Virtual Particles. Yukawa Potential for QED
Ψ e (r, t) exp i/ (E)(t) (p) (r) Subatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture Quantum ElectroDynamics & Feynman Diagrams Antimatter Feynman Diagram and Feynman Rules Quantum description of electromagnetism
More informationRules for this test. Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson
Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson Rules for this test 1. This test is open book and open notes, including our class notes page online, and your homework solutions.
More informationThe Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission
The Physics of Energy sources Nuclear Fission B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Nuclear Fission 1 Introduction! We saw previously from the Binding energy vs A curve that heavy nuclei (above A~120)
More informationIntroduction: Measurements in Particle Physics
Subatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture 2 Introduction to Measurements in Particle Physics Measuring properties of particles and interactions Particle quantum numbers and conservation laws Review of
More informationThe Early History of Quantum Mechanics
Chapter 2 The Early History of Quantum Mechanics In the early years of the twentieth century, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born,
More informationChapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus
Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity Nuclear structure, nuclear size The strong nuclear force, nuclear stability, binding energy Radioactive decay, activity The neutrino Radioactive age measurement
More informationStrong Interactions and Nuclear Forces
Meson Interactions and Nuclear Forces Advanced Subatomic Physics (FUF025) Christian Forssén Fundamental Physics, Chalmers, Sweden email: christian.forssen@chalmers.se March 2, 2009 Outline Meson 1 2 the
More informationPractice questions for Ch. 7
Name: Class: Date: ID: A Practice questions for Ch. 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When ignited, a uranium compound burns with a green
More informationBasics of Nuclear Physics and Fission
Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s online glossary.
More informationTutorial 1: SubAtomicPhysics: Nuclear Physics
Tutorial 1: SubAtomicPhysics: Nuclear Physics Key questions 1) In the experiment of Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden a particles of energy 7.7 MeV were incident on a gold nucleus 197 Au (Z=79). Estimate
More informationAP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1
AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0,  1/ for the three
More informationNMR  Basic principles
NMR  Basic principles Subatomic particles like electrons, protons and neutrons are associated with spin  a fundamental property like charge or mass. In the case of nuclei with even number of protons
More informationChapter 2 25 CHAPTER 2 INTERACTIONS I. 2.A Four Fundamental Interactions
Chapter 2 25 CHAPTER 2 INTERACTIONS I 2.A Four Fundamental Interactions Our discussion of the fundamental forces in Nature begins with gravity, the most familiar force in everyday life. The inverse square
More information13 Addition of angular momenta
TFY450/FY045 Tillegg 13  Addition of angular momenta 1 TILLEGG 13 13 Addition of angular momenta (8.4 in Hemmer, 6.10 in B&J, 4.4 in Griffiths) Addition of angular momenta enters the picture when we consider
More informationKeep in mind that less stable means more radioactive and more stable means less radioactive.
Nuclear Stability What is the nuclear stability? Nuclear stability means that nucleus is stable meaning that it does not spontaneously emit any kind of radioactivity (radiation). On the other hand, if
More informationExam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes)
Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 3 marks (46 minutes). Which of the following causes the greatest number of ionizations as it passes through cm of air? (The total energy of the
More informationConcepts in Theoretical Physics
Concepts in Theoretical Physics Lecture 6: Particle Physics David Tong e 2 The Structure of Things 4πc 1 137 e d ν u Four fundamental particles Repeated twice! va, 9608085, 9902033 Four fundamental forces
More informationPrecession of spin and Precession of a top
6. Classical Precession of the Angular Momentum Vector A classical bar magnet (Figure 11) may lie motionless at a certain orientation in a magnetic field. However, if the bar magnet possesses angular momentum,
More informationChap. 2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Chap. 2 Interaction of Radiation with Matter Classes of Radiation to consider Electromagnetic Gamma rays Neutrons Nuclear Coulombic Electrons +/ Nuclear Charged Particles Neutrons are special, only interact
More informationLecture 12 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
Lecture 12 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals Bohr and Einstein demonstrated the particle nature of light.e = hν. De Broglie demonstrated the wavelike properties of particles. λ = h/mv. However, these
More informationTopic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang
Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question
More informationChapter 29: Atomic Structure. What will we learn in this chapter?
Chapter 29: Atomic Structure What will we learn in this chapter? Contents: Electrons in atoms Wave functions Electron spin Pauli exclusion principle Atomic structure Periodic table W. Pauli & N. Bohr Both
More informationCOLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS
COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantization: Planck s Hypothesis An ideal blackbody absorbs all incoming radiation and reemits it in a spectrum that depends only on temperature.
More informationNuclear fission. Fission: what is it? The main steps toward nuclear energy How does fission work? Chain reactions
Nuclear fission Fission: what is it? The main steps toward nuclear energy How does fission work? Chain reactions What is nuclear fission? Nuclear fission is when a nucleus break into two or more nuclei.
More informationRadiation Interactions with Matter: Energy Deposition
Radiation Interactions with Matter: Energy Deposition Biological effects are the end product of a long series of phenomena, set in motion by the passage of radiation through the medium. Image removed due
More informationTopic 1. Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties
Topic 1 11 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties Atomic Structure 12 History Rutherford s experiments Bohr model > Interpretation of hydrogen atom spectra Wave  particle duality Wave mechanics Heisenberg
More informationRelativity II. Selected Problems
Chapter Relativity II. Selected Problems.1 Problem.5 (In the text book) Recall that the magnetic force on a charge q moving with velocity v in a magnetic field B is equal to qv B. If a charged particle
More informationFree Electron Fermi Gas (Kittel Ch. 6)
Free Electron Fermi Gas (Kittel Ch. 6) Role of Electrons in Solids Electrons are responsible for binding of crystals  they are the glue that hold the nuclei together Types of binding (see next slide)
More informationChapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms
Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 1. Electromagnetic radiation travels through vacuum at a speed of m/s. (a). 6.626 x 26 (b). 4186 (c). 3.00 x 8 (d). It depends on wavelength Explanation: The speed
More informationThe rate of change of velocity with respect to time. The average rate of change of distance/displacement with respect to time.
H2 PHYSICS DEFINITIONS LIST Scalar Vector Term Displacement, s Speed Velocity, v Acceleration, a Average speed/velocity Instantaneous Velocity Newton s First Law Newton s Second Law Newton s Third Law
More informationBEYOND THE RELATIVISTIC MEANFIELD
BEYOND THE RELATIVISTIC MEANFIELD APPROXIMATION: CONFIGURATION MIXING CALCULATIONS Tamara Nikšić University of Zagreb Arctic FIDIPROEFES Workshop Saariselkä, Finland April 2024, 2009 Tamara Nikšić (University
More informationPHY4604 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Fall 2004 Practice Test 3 November 22, 2004
PHY464 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Fall 4 Practice Test 3 November, 4 These problems are similar but not identical to the actual test. One or two parts will actually show up.. Short answer. (a) Recall
More informationChapter NP5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS
Chapter NP5 Nuclear Physics Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS 2.1 ELASTIC SCATTERING 2.2 INELASTIC SCATTERING 2.3 RADIATIVE CAPTURE 2.4 PARTICLE
More informationNuclear Reactions chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!
Nuclear Reactions chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle  that is, either
More informationObjectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory
PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Basic Atomic Theory Objectives Introduce and Molecules The periodic Table Electronic Energy Levels Atomic excitation & deexcitation Ionisation Molecules Constituents
More informationPSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework. Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass
PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1 MC Homework Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass 1. Dalton's atomic theory explained the observation that the percentage by mass of the elements
More informationChemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure
Chemistry I Study Guideline Unit Three Atomic Structure By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe the nature and significance of scientific modeling in general and several of the atoms
More informationObjectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION
Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory
More informationAP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes  Atomic Structure and Periodicity
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes  Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 101 1010 108 4 to 7x107 104 101 10 10 4 gamma
More informationNuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
April 28, 2016 Exam #3: Graded exams on Tuesday! Final Exam Tuesday, May 10 th, 10:30 a.m. Room: Votey 207 (tentative) Review Session: Sunday, May 8 th, 4 pm, Kalkin 325 (tentative) Office Hours Next week:
More informationLecture 3: Optical Properties of Bulk and Nano. 5 nm
Lecture 3: Optical Properties of Bulk and Nano 5 nm The Previous Lecture Origin frequency dependence of χ in real materials Lorentz model (harmonic oscillator model) 0 e  n( ) n' n '' n ' = 1 + Nucleus
More information13 What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2
Assignment 06 A 1 What is the energy in joules of an electron undergoing a transition from n = 3 to n = 5 in a Bohr hydrogen atom? a) 3.48 x 1017 J b) 2.18 x 1019 J c) 1.55 x 1019 J d) 2.56 x 1019
More informationMagnetic Dipoles. Magnetic Field of Current Loop. B r. PHY2061 Enriched Physics 2 Lecture Notes
Disclaimer: These lecture notes are not meant to replace the course textbook. The content may be incomplete. Some topics may be unclear. These notes are only meant to be a study aid and a supplement to
More informationChapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom
C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,
More informationIntroduction: what is quantum field theory?
Introduction: what is quantum field theory? Asaf Pe er 1 January 13, 2015 This part of the course is based on Ref. [1] 1. Relativistic quantum mechanics By the mid 1920 s, the basics of quantum mechanics
More informationPhysics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics
Physics 11 (Fall 2012) Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics You've got a lot of choices. If getting out of bed in the morning is a chore and you're not smiling on a regular basis, try another choice. Steven D.
More information2. Atomic Structure. 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory. Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 )
2. Atomic Structure 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 ) 1 2.1.1 The Periodic Table of the Elements 2.1.2 Discovery of Subatomic Particles
More informationReview of the isotope effect in the hydrogen spectrum
Review of the isotope effect in the hydrogen spectrum 1 Balmer and Rydberg Formulas By the middle of the 19th century it was well established that atoms emitted light at discrete wavelengths. This is in
More informationChapter 8 Molecules. Some molecular bonds involve sharing of electrons between atoms. These are covalent bonds.
Chapter 8 Molecules (We have only three days for chapter 8!) 8.1 The Molecular Bond A molecule is an electrically neutral group of atoms held together strongly enough to behave as a single particle. A
More informationParticle Physics. Michaelmas Term 2011 Prof Mark Thomson. Handout 7 : Symmetries and the Quark Model. Introduction/Aims
Particle Physics Michaelmas Term 2011 Prof Mark Thomson Handout 7 : Symmetries and the Quark Model Prof. M.A. Thomson Michaelmas 2011 206 Introduction/Aims Symmetries play a central role in particle physics;
More informationAP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE You should be familiar with the wavelike properties of light: frequency ( ), wavelength ( ), and energy (E) as well as
More information2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In this chapter the principles and systematics of atomic and nuclear physics are summarised briefly, in order to introduce the existence and characteristics of
More informationDetermination of Molecular Structure by MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY
Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLEULAR SPETROSOPY hemistry 3 B.Z. Shakhashiri Fall 29 Much of what we know about molecular structure has been learned by observing and analyzing how electromagnetic
More informationWe consider a hydrogen atom in the ground state in the uniform electric field
Lecture 13 Page 1 Lectures 1314 Hydrogen atom in electric field. Quadratic Stark effect. Atomic polarizability. Emission and Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation by Atoms Transition probabilities and
More informationhypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties
Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles
More informationLooking for consistency in the construction and use of Feynman diagrams
SPECIAL FEATURE: NUCLEAR PHYSICS www.iop.org/journals/physed Looking for consistency in the construction and use of Feynman diagrams Peter Dunne Preston College, Fulwood Campus, Preston PR2 8UR, UK Abstract
More informationWave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum
Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability
More informationHistory of the Atom & Atomic Theory
Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations
More informationCHAPTER 12 ATOMS ONE MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWER. Ans: Electrons were discovered by J.J Thomason in the year 1897.
CHAPTER 12 ATOMS ONE MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWER 1. Who discovered electrons? Ans: Electrons were discovered by J.J Thomason in the year 1897. 2. What is the electric charge on an atom? Ans: At atom of
More informationMagnetism and Magnetic Materials K. Inomata
Magnetism and Magnetic Materials K. Inomata 1. Origin of magnetism 1.1 Magnetism of free atoms and ions 1.2 Magnetism for localized electrons 1.3 Itinerant electron magnetism 2. Magnetic properties of
More informationWAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):
More information