2 Objectives 1. To know that a substance is identified according to its characteristic properties like: density and melting or boiling points. 2. To know the concepts of pure substance, heterogenous mixtures and dissolutions at experimental and theoretical level. 3. To know that in the dissolution, the dissolved substances are disintegrated at molecular level. 4. To know the differences between dissolution, dissolvent and solute. 5. To differentiate between simple substance and compound. 6. To know how to differentiate between dissolutions and heterogenous mixtures observing its properties. 7. To know that the properties of the substances at macrocospic level cannot be applied to their molecules. 8. To know how to draw molecular diagrams that they represent mixtures and pure substances. 9. To distinguish between the most suitable methods to separate components of homogenous mixtures and those of heterogenous mixtures. 10. To know how to use techniques of separation like the decantation, the filtration, the distillation, the crystallization or the heating to dryness to separate substances of a mixture. 11. To know the parts of a distillation, crystallisation and heating equipment. 12. To know the parts of a decantation and filtration equipment. 13. To know the composition alloys of common use. 14. To know the main substances that compose the air, as well as the proportion of nitrogen and oxygen. 15. To know the physical properties most important of water. 16. To know the approximated composition Susana Morales of seabernal water.
3 Characteristic properties A characteristic property is a physical or chemical property that we can use to identify a substance. Characteristic properties Density Melting point Boiling point The density is the relationship between the mass of an object and its volume The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas Mass and volume are not characteristic properties. A small piece of gold has less mass and less volume than a large piece of gold. Susana TheyMorales depend Bernal on the amount of substance.
4 Classification of matter We can classify matter, in two categories: pure substances and mixtures Pure substance: only one substance, its characteristic properties do not change, in the same conditions of temperature and pressure The following systems are pure substances rock salt pyrite gold copper sulphate mercury sugar sulphur
5 Types of pure substances There are two types of pure substances: simple substances and compounds We can differentiate them, watching their behavior when exposed to heat or electricity. Simple substances are those which do not decompose into simpler pure substances by means of heating or electrolysis. Thus oxygen is a simple substance because it does not decompose by means of heating or electrolysis. Gold, mercury and sulphur are simple substances too. Compounds are those substances that decompose into simpler pure substances by means of heating or electrolysis. Thus water is a compound because it is decomposed by electricity into two elements, hydrogen and oxygen. Rock salt, pyrite, sugar and copper sulphate are compounds too.
6 Structure of pure substances From the point of view of their structure, the pure substances have only one type of molecules. Simple substances have equal molecules with only one type of atoms Solid monoatomic Liquid monoatomic Gas monoatomic Solid diatomic Liquid diatomic Gas diatomic Compounds have equal molecules with two or more types of atoms Solid diatomic Liquid diatomic Gas diatomic
7 ELEMENTS Element is the representation of each type of atom, it is not the same as simple substance. An element has not properties, a simple substance has them. Although only 92 elements occur naturally on earth, they can combine to produce an unlimited number of compounds.
8 Mixture: two or more substances, its characteristic properties change, depending on the type of substances is formed by and on the amount of each substance The following systems are mixtures granite copper sulphate and water plumb iodide and water oil and water copper sulphate and dissolutions water
9 Types of mixtures There are two types of mixtures: homogeneous and heterogeneous. Homogeneous: mixtures which have the same properties throughout the mixture. We can call this type of mixture, dissolution. For example: Sugar dissolved in water Salt dissolved in water Copper sulphate dissolved in water Some type of metal alloy like the cromium-molybdenum used in many bike frames Heterogeneous: mixtures which have different properties throughout the mixture. For example: Sand mixed with water Oil mixed with water Granite Plumb iodide and water
10 Structure of mixtures From the point of view of their structure, the mixtures have two or more types of molecules. Homogeneous mixture: it has different molecules distributed uniformly Solid dissolution Liquid dissolution Gaseous dissolution Heterogeneous mixture: it has different molecules that are not distributed uniformly Heterogeneous mixture of one solid and one gas Heterogeneous mixture of Susana two liquids Morales Bernal Heterogeneous mixture of one solid and one liquid
11 Homogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixture: is that has the same properties at all its points A dissolution (solution) is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. When we mix two substances and we obtain a solution, we say that these substances are soluble. A solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. Solute is the substance that is in smaller proportion, unless it is water in which case we consider it the dissolvent. When we mix two substances and we do not obtain a solution, we say that these substances are insoluble. EXAMPLES OF SOLUTIONS SOLVENT GAS Air (oxygen and other gases) LIQUID SOLID SOLUTE GAS LIQUID SOLID Water in air Naphthalene in air (it sublimes) Carbon dioxide in water Ethanol in water Sodium chloride in water, sucrose in water, gold in mercury Hydrogen dissolved in Mercury in gold metals Steel (metal alloys)
12 Process of solution When a dissolution of a solid in a liquid takes place, the molecules of the liquid bang to the solid, pulling molecules away and separating them. Finally, the molecules of the solid remain surrounded by molecules of the liquid and distributed uniformly. Before dissolving After dissolving
13 Methods of separation of substances in mixtures The main techniques of separation of the substances that integrate the heterogeneous mixtures are: decantation, filtration and magnetic separation The main techniques of separation of the substances that integrate the homogeneous mixtures are: heating to dryness, crystallisation and distillation
14 DECANTATION We use this methode to separate two or more inmiscible liquids with different densities. We put the mixture into a separating funnel and we allow it to stand for some time. This separates the liquids into layers. The liquid with the lowest density floats on the top and the one with higher density lies below it. After this, we open the funnel tap and the liquid at the bottom of the funnel is transferred into a container. We do not collect the part of liquid that can contain a small part of the other liquid. After this, we collect the next layer in another container, obtaining two separate liquids.
15 FILTRATION We use this method to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. We take a filter paper and fix it to a funnel. Then, we pour the mixture slowly into a container; through the funnel. We can see the particles of solid on the filter paper. We call residue to the solid particles and we call filtrate to the clear liquid obtained.
16 MAGNETIC SEPARATION We use this methode to separate solids. magnetic solids from non magnetic Magnet Sulfur and iron filings Clock glass Iron filings are very small pieces of iron that look like a light powder.
17 HEATING TO DRYNESS We use this method to separate soluble solids from solutions. We heat the solution in an evaporating dish until the solvent vaporizes. When we heat: We waste energy Crystals are smaller The process is faster In this process we only obtain the solute, not the solvent.
18 CRYSTALLISATION We use this method to separate soluble solids from solutions. In this process we must wait for the liquid to evaporate at room temperature without heating it and the solid crystallizes. In the crystallisation: We do not waste energy Crystals are greater The process is slower In this process we only obtain the solute, not the solvent.
19 DISTILLATION We use this method to obtain both the solute and the solvent from a solution. The solute can be a soluble solid or a liquid. We take the solution in a distillation flask and we heat it so that the solvent slowly starts to vaporize. We connect the distillation flask to a condenser tube which has a lower tube for the inlet of cool water and an upper tube for the outlet of water. The circulation of cold water in the condenser helps to cool the gases from the solution and they form the distillate. We collect the distillate (the solvent) in a separate container. The remaining residue, in the distillation flask, is the solute. In this process we obtain the solute and the solvent.
20 MATTER is classified in Pure substance They originate by means of physical procedures Mixture Its characteristic properties do not change, in the same conditions of temperature and pressure can be These processes give rise Its characteristic properties change, depending on the type of subtances is formed by and on the amount of each substance can be Simple substances Equal molecules with only one type of atoms Compounds Equal molecules with two or more type of atoms They originate by means of chemical procedures Homogeneous Has the same properties at all its points To heat To crystallize Distillation Heterogeneous Has not the same properties at all its points Decantation Filtration
21 EXERCISE 1 Indicate which of the following properties are characteristic and which are extensive or intensive. MASS VOLUME DENSITY COLOUR PROPERTIES CHARACTERISTIC INTENSIVE OR EXTENSIVE BOILING POINT LENGTH HARDNESS MELTING POINT SMELL TEMPERATURE DUCTILITY BRIGHTNESS
22 EXERCISE 2 Connect the terms of the two columns A. Granite B. Water C. Gold D.Salt with water E. Mercury 1. Pure substance 2. Heterogeneous rock 3. Solution 4. Liquid metal to room temperature 5. Solid metal to room temperature
23 EXERCISE 3 Is the water that we drink an absolutely pure substance? A. No, because it is a heterogenous substance B. It is not pure, it has mineral salts dissolved C. Otherwise, we cannot drink it D. Of course, it is distilled water
24 EXERCISE 4 What do you remember? Separating components of a homogeneous mixtures. Join with arrows. A. By distillation B. By crystallisation C. By heating 1. Salt and sea water in the salt mines 2. Alcohol and water 3. Copper sulphate and water
25 EXERCISE 5 What do you remember? Separating components of a heterogeneous mixtures. Join with arrows. A. By magnetism B. By filtration C. By decanting 1. Sand and water 2. Oil and water 3. Sand and iron particles
26 EXERCISE 6 Can we decompose a pure substance in others by means of physical procedures? A. No, we cannot B. Yes, filtering it C. Yes, by means of distillation D. Clear that yes
27 EXERCISE 7 Separating mixtures Complete the sentences. Use the words in the box. FILTRATION, HEATING, DECANTATION, DISTILLATION A.. is good for separating a liquid from a solution. B.... is good for separating a soluble solid from a liquid. C.... is good for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. D... is good for separating two inmiscible liquids.
28 EXERCISE 8 Each verb in the table represents a separation process. Write down the corresponding noun. VERB Evaporate Distil Filter Crystallise NOUN
29 EXERCISE 9 What is the rock called granite? 1. A pure substance and heterogeneous 2. A homogeneous rock 3. A pure substance 4. A heterogeneous solid mixture
30 EXERCISE 10 Classify the following products as: simple substance, compound, dissolution or mix heterogeneous Wine Vinegar Soft drink Gasoline Alcohol 96 % Marmalade Milk Bleach Bread Blood Oil Iron PRODUCTS Drinkable water Granite SIMPLE SUBSTANCE, COMPOUND, DISSOLUTION OR MIX HETEROGENEOUS
31 EXERCISE 11 Distillation is the separation of a liquid from a solution by boiling and condensing. Use words from the box to label the diagram: Thermometer, Cold water out, Vapour, Distillate, Solution, Heat, Cold water in, Condenser
32 EXERCISE 12 We can heat to separate soluble solids from solutions and we filter to separate insoluble solids from liquids. Use words from the box to label the diagram: Salt solution, Filter funnel, Filter paper, Sand, Conical flask, Mixture of sand and water, Beaker, Evaporating dish, Gauze, Tripod, Bunsen burner, Water
33 EXERCISE 13 Connect the terms of the two columns A. How can you separate oil from water? B. How can you separate a mixture of alcohol and water? C. How can you obtain salt from sea water? D. How can you separate a mixture of sand and stones? E. How can you separate a mixture of sulfur and iron filings? 1. With a magnet 2. With a separating funnel 3. With a sieve 4. Heating until water vaporizes 5. Distilling
34 EXERCISE 14 Classify the following systems as: simple substance, compound substance, homogeneous mixtures or heterogeneous mixtures SYSTEM A SYSTEM B SYSTEM C SYSTEM D
35 EXERCISE 15 Choose the correct letters in the boxes on the right. A C E F B D Mixture of two simple substances A simple substance with diatomic molecules Mixture of three simple substances One compound substance One simple substance Mixture of two compounds A simple substance with monoatomic molecules G H
36 EXERCISE 16 Classify the following diagrams as: simple substance, compound, mixture of simple substances, mixture of compounds, mixture of simple substances and compounds.
37 EXERCISE 17 Which of the following diagrams represent: 1. The compound CO (gas) 2. The simple substance O 3 (gas) 3. The compound H 2 O (liquid) 4. The compound NaCl (solid)
38 EXERCISE 18 Is the air a pure substance? A. No, the air is a gas mixture. B. Yes, because it is a gas. C. No, because a simple gas form it. D. Yes, for that reason we can breathe it.
39 EXERCISE 19 We add a small amount of a solid substance to a glass with water. After a while, the solid substance disappears and the water is of pink colour. A. What is this process called? What tests can you do to verify it? B. Indicate which is the solute and which is the solvent. C. Make a drawing of how you imagine the molecules of the solid substance and water are, before and later. D. What changes occur in the molecules of the solid substance when it disappears in the water? E. Why does all the water change colour, although you do not shake with a teaspoon, and not only the part nearest where you put the solid? F. A classmate says that the water colours because the molecules of the solid are of pink colour and they mix with those of water that do not have colour. Do you agree? Justify your answer. G. A classmate says that if you want to return the water to its original transparent state, you can filter the mixture. Do you agree? Explain your answer. H. A classmate says that the pink solid is not the one that you think but another that has the same colour. How can you prove it?
40 EXERCISE 20 Revise your vocabulary. Choose a word and fill the blanks below compounds, simple, heterogeneous, atoms, pure substances, decantation, homogeneous, identify, mixtures, distillation, mixtures, physical, pure, crystallisation, change, depending, types, decompose, heating, electrolysis, filtration, dryness, substances, atoms, molecules, compounds, molecules A. A characteristic property is a.. or chemical property that we can use to.. a substance. B. We can classify matter, in two categories:.. and.. C... substances are those which characteristic properties do not.., in the same conditions of temperature and pressure. D. In the.., the characteristic properties change,.. on the type of subtances form it and on the amount of each substance. E. There are two.. of pure substances: simple substances and.. F... substances are those which do not.. into simpler pure substances by means of. or. G. Simple... have equal.. with only one type of... H... have equal.. with two or more types of... I. There are two types of mixtures:. and... J. The main techniques of separation of heterogeneous mixtures are: the.., the.. and the magnetic separation. K. The main techniques of separation of homogeneous mixtures are: the heating until.., the.. and the...
41 Alloy Filter paper Test tube Atom Heterogeneous mixture To bang Bunsen burner Homogeneous mixture To collect Clock glass Insoluble To decompose Condenser Layer To dissolve Container Magnet To distribute Compound Magnetic separation To filter Crystallisation Mixture To float Decantation Pressure To give rise to Dissolution Pure substance To heat Distillation Residue To identify Distillation flask Separating funnel To pull away Electrolysis Simple substance To remain Element Soluble To shake Evaporating dish Solute To surround Filtration Solution To transfer Frame Solvent Tripod Funnel Structure Wire gauze
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