# Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples...

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples..."

## Transcription

1 1 UNIT 5 - ATOMIC THEORY: THE NUCLEAR MODEL OF THE ATOM 2 3 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1) Each element is made up of tiny, individual particles called atoms. 2) Atoms are indivisible; they cannot be created or destroyed. 3) All atoms of each element are identical in every respect. 4 Dalton s Atomic Theory 4) Atoms of one element are different from atoms of any other element. 5) Atoms of one element may combine with atoms of another element, usually in the ratio of small whole numbers, to form chemical compounds. Dalton s theory led to the Law of Multiple Proportions. 5 The Law of Multiple Proportions 6 Elements may combine in more than one proportion to form more than one compound. Examples... 7 Subatomic Particles Dalton s theory about the atom being indivisible was challenged with the discovery of subatomic particles within an atom. Three types we ll look at: 8 1) Electrons Electrons are negatively - charged particles that were discovered in 1820 by Michael Faraday. properties: it has a charge of -1 and a mass of x grams. 9 Electrons Thompson proposed his raisin bun model of the atom - Electrons are evenly distributed inside the spherical positive part of the atom. 10 2) Protons Protons are positively - charged particles that were discovered in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford. properties: it has a charge of +1, and has a mass that is 1836 times greater than the mass of an electron (1.67 x g). 11 3) Neutrons Neutrons are electrically neutral particles discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick. A neutron s mass is approximately equal to the mass of a proton (1.67 x grams). A summary of subatomic particles is given in Table 5.1 on page Ernest Rutherford ( ) Rutherford formed the nuclear model of the atom. Overhead: Figures 5.3 & 5.4, p. 118

2 An atom consists of a very small, positively charged nucleus, in which most of the mass of the atom is concentrated, surrounded by the electrons necessary to produce an electrically neutral atom. 13 The Nuclear Model of the Atom At the time, Rutherford only knew about electrons. Electrons circled the positively charged nucleus like the planets orbit the sun - the planetary model of the atom. 14 The Nuclear Model of the Atom Problems with Rutherford s model: A) If the electron is stationary, the atom should disappear because the electron would be electrostatically drawn in to the nucleus. B) If the electron orbits the nucleus, it will have to change direction a lot. A change in direction means acceleration, which involves the use of energy. If this is so, the electron will again spiral into the nucleus. 15 Neils Bohr ( ) Bohr was a Danish physicist (\$16,000 Millionaire question!!) Bohr model All of the atom s positive charge and nearly all of its mass are contained in an extremely dense nucleus Negatively charged electrons of very small mass travel in orbits around the nucleus. 16 The Bohr model Bohr proposed that the energy of an electron in an atom cannot vary continuously, but is instead quantized - at any instant, the electron may have one of several possible energies, but at no time may it have an energy between them. 17 Where can the electrons be? The electron can orbit the nucleus at certain specified distances, but it is never found between them. example: a ladder, or steps Normally, electrons are in the Ground State - the condition when all electrons in an atom occupy the lowest possible energy levels. 18 Where can the electrons be? An electron can move between orbits by quantum jumping or quantum leaping: the electron disappears from one orbit and reappears in another. Excited State - the condition at which at least one electron in an atom is at an energy level above ground state. 19 Where can the electrons be? An electron in an excited state is unstable - will fall back to the ground state and release energy. This energy release shows up as a line in the spectrum of the element. Overhead - figure 10.3

3 20 Why was Bohr s model so good? 1) He suggested a reasonable explanation for the atomic line spectra in terms of electron energies. 2) He introduced the idea of quantized electron energy levels in the atom 21 Problems with the Bohr model 1) It only fit the hydrogen atom. 2) According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, an electron circling a nucleus should lose energy and crash into the nucleus. For the next 13 years, people worked to improve these faulty parts, leading to the Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom. 22 Isotopes It was discovered that all atoms of an element are not identical - some atoms have more mass than other atoms of the same element. Atomic number (Z) - every atom of an element has the same number of protons. 23 Isotopes Atoms are electrically neutral, therefore the same number of electrons must be present. What s left to cause the difference in masses?? Answer: Neutrons 24 Isotopes Isotopes - atoms of the same element that have different masses (different numbers of neutrons). Mass number (A) = # protons (Z) + # neutrons The name of an isotope is its elemental name followed by its mass number. Examples: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen 25 Atomic Mass We recognize that a sample of a pure element contains atoms that have different masses The masses of atoms are expressed in atomic mass units (amu) Atomic Mass Scale handout The Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer were cofounders of the periodic table in They found that certain properties repeat at regular intervals when the elements are arranged according to their atomic masses. 27 The Periodic Table However, in order for all elements to fall into the proper groups, it was necessary to switch a few of them, which interrupted the orderly increase in atomic masses. Reasons: there were errors in atomic weights as they were known in 1869 and, more importantly, it was later found that the correct ordering

4 property is the atomic number (Z), not the atomic mass. 28 The Periodic Table Horizontal rows on the table are periods. Vertical columns on the table are groups, or chemical families. Figure Period and group numbering, etc. 29 The Periodic Table Main group elements - A groups (1,2 and 13-18) Transition elements (transition metals) - B groups (3-12) Metals and nonmetals Elemental Symbols and the Periodic Table Pg. 128: Figure 5.8a - gives the name, symbol, and atomic number of the elements whose names and symbols are to be learned. Figure 5.8b - shows where they are on the periodic table. 31 Valence Electrons Are the outermost and most reactive electrons in an element. Elements in the same column, or group, of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons, and similar chemical properties. 32 Valence Electrons Examples: Lithium, sodium, potassium Their valence shell contains only 1 electron (Group 1) All react similarly with water 33 Valence Electrons Atoms that have a full set of eight valence electrons are said to have a full octet of electrons. These atoms tend to be mostly unreactive. Example: the noble gases [Group 18 (8A)] Elements strive to attain a full octet of electrons and the same electron configuration as (become isoelectronic with) the nearest noble gas. 34 Lewis Symbols (Electron dot diagrams) The symbol of the element is surrounded by that number of dots that matches the number of valence electrons. Examples Na, C, N, Cl Note: Don t pair up electrons until there is one electron on each side of the symbol. 35 Trends in the Periodic Table ION - an atom or group of atoms that has an electrical charge because of a difference in the number of protons and electrons. eg. Na +, Cl - IONIZATION ENERGY - the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral gaseous atom. 36 Ionization Energy

5 Figure Ionization energies increase as atomic number increases within a period. Why? Larger +ve nucleus, electrons same distance away. Ionization energies decrease as atomic number increases within the group. Why? Electrons are further away. 37 Ionization Energy The amount of energy required to remove a third electron is higher than that required to remove a second electron, which is higher than the amount of energy required to remove the first electron 38 Chemical Families Elements in the same group on the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Four chemical families that we will look at: 1) the alkali metals - Group 1A (1) 2) the alkaline earths - Group 2A (2) 3) the halogens - Group 7A (17) 4) the noble gases - Group 8A (18) Figure ) The alkali metals Group 1, therefore number of valence electrons is 1. Charge on the ions? 1 +. The reactivity of the element increases as you go down the group. Why? Trends in properties of alkali metals: A) Density increases as atomic number increases. B) Boiling and melting points generally decrease as you go down the periodic table. 40 2) The alkaline earths Group 2, therefore number of valence electrons is 2. Charge on the ions? 2 +. Reactivity increases as you go down the group. 41 3) The halogens Group 17, therefore number of valence electrons is 7 (17-10). Charge on the ions? 1 -. Reactivity decreases as you go down a group. Why? The larger the atom, the less easy it is to hold onto the new electron. Density, melting point, and boiling point all increase steadily with increasing atomic number. 42 4) The noble gases

6 Group 18, therefore number of valence electrons is 8 (18-10). (Except for He - only has 2 valence electrons) Ion charges? none Are reluctant to react, because they already have a full octet of electrons, and don t want any more. Helium is fine with 2 valence electrons. Density, melting point, and boiling point all increase as you go down the group. 43 Hydrogen Valence electrons: 1. Is neither an alkali metal nor a halogen, although it shares properties with both. Can lose an electron to form H +, or gain an electron to form H Atomic Size Size of atoms increases from right to left, and from top to bottom. Figure Why? (2 reasons) 1) Distance of valence electrons from the nucleus. 2) Nuclear charge. 45 Metals and Nonmetals Figure staircase boundary Generally, an element is a metal if it can lose one or more electrons to attain a noble gas - like electron configuration Ions of metals have positive charges. Metallic character increases as you go down a group, but decreases as you go across a period from left to right. Why? Atom gets bigger, electron is further away. 46 Metals and Nonmetals As you go down a group the atom gets bigger - it s easier to lose one electron as the atom gets bigger and the electron is further away. As the period increases so does the amount of +ve charge in the nucleus - tighter hold on the valence electrons. 47 Questions: Units 5 and 10 Unit 5 - You should be able to do the target check questions and examples throughout the chapter, as well as the end - of - chapter questions that begin on pg The blue - numbered questions have answers provided at the end of the chapter. Unit 10 - questions begin on page 288 Specific questions: #3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 28, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47 (a-e, k-p), 50

### 4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms.

4.1 Studying Atom Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. Democritus said that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could NOT be divided called these particles atoms from the

### P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

### Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Chapter 2 1 Chapter Outline 2.1 The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure 2.2 Nuclides and Their Symbols 2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table 2.4 The

### For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

Contents Getting the most from this book...4 About this book....5 Content Guidance Topic 1 Atomic structure and the periodic table...8 Topic 2 Bonding and structure...14 Topic 2A Bonding....14 Topic 2B

### Elements from Another Universe: Understanding the Beauty of the Periodic Table

Elements from Another Universe: Understanding the Beauty of the Periodic Table Learning Objectives: The students will examine the properties of make believe elements, arrange these elements so as to create

### Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell,

Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H1P1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how

### Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

### EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

### Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus Atomic Number: We differentiate all elements by their number

### (1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

### DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS

DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.

### Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

### Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

### Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole

Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole The Mole SHOW ALL WORK ON YOUR OWN PAPER FOR CREDIT!! 1 2 (NH42SO2 %N 24.1 %H 6.9 %S 27.6 %O 41.3 % Al %C 35.3 %H 4.4 %O 47.1 Al(C2H3O23 13.2 3 How many moles are

### Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

### SCHAUM S Easy OUTLINES BEGINNING CHEMISTRY

SCHAUM S Easy OUTLINES BEGINNING CHEMISTRY Other Books in Schaum s Easy Outlines Series Include: Schaum s Easy Outline: Calculus Schaum s Easy Outline: College Algebra Schaum s Easy Outline: College Mathematics

### Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

### ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

### The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

### ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION ONE: MODELS OF THE ATOM (2011;1) At different times scientists have proposed various descriptions or models of the atom to match experimental evidence

Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

### PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

### Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

### Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

### Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

### Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

### Physical Science 1 Progression

Physical Science 1 Progression This progression is the about the structure and properties of matter. Matter is composed of material that is too small to be seen, but is understood in terms of the types

### Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted

### Mass Spectrometry. Overview

Mass Spectrometry Overview Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique that utilizes the degree of deflection of charged particles by a magnetic field to find the relative masses of molecular ions and fragments.2

### AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms, Molecules, and Mass Relationships Name

AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms, Molecules, and Mass Relationships Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 1, 2, & 3: Atoms & Molecules,

### Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

### Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7]

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Predicting ion charges from electron configurations. CHEM 100 F07 1 Organization of Electrons

### Garfield Public Schools Science Curriculum Physical Science

Garfield Public Schools Science Curriculum Physical Science Revision Committee: Mrs. Suvarna Shah Ms. Jennifer Botten Final Revision Date: Garfield Board of Education Dr. Kenneth Conte- President Mr. Tony

### PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR)

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) WHAT IS H-NMR SPECTROSCOPY? References: Bruice 14.1, 14.2 Introduction NMR or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique used to determine

### 5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

### Introduction to Geiger Counters

Introduction to Geiger Counters A Geiger counter (Geiger-Muller tube) is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Basically it consists

### = 16.00 amu. = 39.10 amu

Using Chemical Formulas Objective 1: Calculate the formula mass or molar mass of any given compound. The Formula Mass of any molecule, formula unit, or ion is the sum of the average atomic masses of all

### Matter. Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole

Matter Atomic weight, Molecular weight and Mole Atomic Mass Unit Chemists of the nineteenth century realized that, in order to measure the mass of an atomic particle, it was useless to use the standard

### Name Class Date. true

Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

### 18 electron rule : How to count electrons

18 electron rule : How to count electrons The rule states that thermodynamically stable transition metal organometallic compounds are formed when the sum of the metal d electrons and the electrons conventionally

### North Carolina Essential Standards Assessment Examples Physical Science

This document is designed to assist North Carolina educators in effective instruction of the new Common Core State and/or North Carolina Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study) in order to increase

### Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

### Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

### Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

### ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

### CHEMISTRY. Course and Exam Description. Revised edition Effective Fall 2014

AP CHEMISTRY Course and Exam Description Revised edition Effective Fall 2014 AP CHEMISTRY Course and Exam Description Revised Edition Effective Fall 2014 The College Board New York, NY About the College

### INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

### Study Guide For Chapter 7

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

### Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

### Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

### CH3 Stoichiometry. The violent chemical reaction of bromine and phosphorus. P.76

CH3 Stoichiometry The violent chemical reaction of bromine and phosphorus. P.76 Contents 3.1 Counting by Weighing 3.2 Atomic Masses 3.3 The Mole 3.4 Molar Mass 3.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.6

### AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

### Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

### AERO SCIENCE K-8 and High School STANDARDS with Progression/Performance Indicators DOCUMENT VERSION 8-2012

AERO SCIENCE K-8 and High School STANDARDS with Progression/Performance Indicators DOCUMENT VERSION 8-2012 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS AERO K-12 SCIENCE EDUCATION FRAMEWORK Vision: Science Education 3 Goals of

### Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT

THE MOLE CONCEPT Chemists find it more convenient to use mass relationships in the laboratory, while chemical reactions depend on the number of atoms present. In order to relate the mass and number of

### STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

### F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

### Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

### Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

### CHEM 110 A Chemistry I

Columbia College Online Campus P a g e 1 CHEM 110 A Chemistry I Early Fall Session (15-51) Monday, August 17 Saturday, October 10, 2015 Course Description Fundamental course in the principles of chemistry.

### MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

### Curriculum and Instruction Office of Science Physical Science

Introduction In 2014, the Shelby County Schools Board of Education adopted a set of ambitious, yet attainable goals for school and student performance. The District is committed to these goals, as further

### Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond

Section 4 4 bjectives After this lesson, students will be able to L.1.4.1 State what holds covalently bonded s together. L.1.4.2 Identify the properties of molecular compounds. L.1.4.3 Explain how unequal

### a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

Chemical Bonds 1. Which of the following is NOT a true compound? a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

### Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

Pesticide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to introduce concepts of mass spectrometry (MS) as they pertain to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organochlorine

### CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

### Just want the standards alone? You can find the standards alone at http://dpi.state.nc.us/acre/standards/new-standards/#science.

This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers.

### Credits Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2015.

Credits Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2015. Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license. Detailed

### The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

### The Free High School Science Texts: A Textbook for High School Students Studying Chemistry.

The Free High School Science Texts: A Textbook for High School Students Studying Chemistry. FHSST Authors 1 June 12, 2005 1 See http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/fhsst Copyright c 2003 Free High School

### 1 A Solar System Is Born

CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

### The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies. Introduction

THE COSMIC ENGINE CHAPTER 18 The Universe begins The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies Introduction Cosmology, the study of the Universe

### Astronomy Notes for Educators

Our Solar System Astronomy Notes for Educators Our Solar System 5-1 5-2 Specific Outcomes: Learning Outcome 1: Knowledge / Content and it place in the Milky Way Different types of bodies make up the Solar

### From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

### Unit 12 Practice Test

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

### It takes four quantum numbers to describe an electron. Additionally, every electron has a unique set of quantum numbers.

So, quantum mechanics does not define the path that the electron follows; rather, quantum mechanics works by determining the energy of the electron. Once the energy of an electron is known, the probability

### Chemistry Final Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

### Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

### Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

### Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

### CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 1. To determine the formula mass of a compound you should A) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms present. B) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms

### Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

### Ch. 6 Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry

Ch. 6 Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry The Mole Concept [6.2, 6.3] Conversions between g mol atoms [6.3, 6.4, 6.5] Mass Percent [6.6, 6.7] Empirical and Molecular Formula [6.8, 6.9] Bring your calculators!

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

### Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

1 British Physics Olympiad Paper 3. 2005 Monday 28 February 2005. Time allowed 3hrs plus 15 minutes reading time. All questions should be attempted. Question 1 carries 40 marks, the other questions 20

### Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7

Table of Contents Letter to the Student..................................... 5 Test-Taking Checklist.................................... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart...

### The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems

Chapter 2 The Mole Note to teacher: You will notice that there are two different formats for the Sample Problems in the student textbook. Where appropriate, the Sample Problem contains the full set of

### Middle School Physical Science FGCU STEM Competition March 2014

Choose the one alternative that BEST completes the statement or answers the question. Please note that choice E) is NOTA "None of the above answers is correct". 1) If a bottle of mineral water contains

### Type: Single Date: Kinetic Theory of Gases. Homework: Read (14.1), Do CONCEPT Q. # (1), Do PROBLEMS # (2, 3, 5) Ch. 14

Type: Single Date: Objective: Kinetic Theory of Gases Homework: Read (14.1), Do CONCEPT Q. # (1), Do PROBLEMS # (2, 3, 5) Ch. 14 AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Theory of Gases Date Unlike the condensed phases

### Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Example Exercise 9.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro s Number Refer to the atomic masses in the periodic table inside the front cover of this textbook. State the mass of Avogadro s number of atoms for each of

### Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible