Chemistry Ex Study. A. 6 protons B. 6 neutrons C. 12 electrons D. 12 electrons

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1 hemistry Ex Study Name: Date: 1. The Periodic Table of the Elements classifies all of the known elements into categories based on their physical and chemical properties. Repeating patterns within the table are useful in predicting how elements combine to form every kind of matter. 1. In order to be identified as the element carbon (), an atom must have.. 6 protons. 6 neutrons. 12 electrons D. 12 electrons 2. The pictures below show the position of different elements on the periodic table. Which picture has an X in the locations of the three elements that would be most similar in the way they react? D. 3. The two beakers below contain pure water. 3. Which of the following properties is the same for both of these samples?. mass. weight. volume D. boiling point page 1

2 hemistry Ex Study 4. Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an element s place in the periodic table? 4.. Number of protons. Number of neutrons. tomic harge D. tomic Density 5. Potassium (K), atomic number 19, will most likely react with which of the following elements? 5.. Sodium (Na), because it is in the same column.. alcium (a), because it is in the same row.. hlorine (l), because it is a nonmetal. D. rgon (r), because it is a noble gas. 6. The chemical properties of an element are determined by its 6.. atomic mass.. proton number.. electron arrangement. D. atomic size. 7. The atomic number of iron is 26, and the atomic mass is What do these numbers mean in regard to protons, electrons and neutrons? 7.. There are 26 each of protons and neutrons, and the rest of the mass is the result of electrons.. There are 26 protons and 26 electrons. Some atoms of iron have 29 neutrons; the.847 shows that there is more than one isotope of iron.. There are 26 protons and 29 neutrons. Each particle has an atomic mass of 1. D. There are 26 protons and 26 neutrons. Since neutrons have slightly more mass than protons, the mass is greater than 52. page 2

3 hemistry Ex Study 8. Steel is a metal that is made from iron and carbon. During the steel making process, iron and carbon are melted, blended together, and then allowed to harden into a solid. The iron and carbon do not chemically react with each other. fter steel was made, 20 samples were taken from one piece and tested. Each sample contained 98% iron and 2% carbon. 8. Which of the following terms best describes steel?. element. compound. homogeneous mixture D. heterogeneous mixture 9. Oxygen has an atomic number of 8. Which of the following elements would you expect to be most similar to oxygen in terms of its chemical properties? 9.. Nitrogen (N). Fluorine (F). Sulfur (S) D. hlorine (l) 10. Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an element s place in the periodic table? 10.. number of protons. number of neutrons. atomic charge D. atomic density 11. toms can be considered the basic building blocks of matter. 11. tom X has 9 protons, 10 neutrons and 9 electrons tom Y has 9 protons, 9 neutrons and 9 electrons Which of the following statements best describes how tom X and tom Y are related?. X and Y are isotopes of the same element.. X is an ion and Y is a neutral atom.. X and Y are different elements. D. X is neon and Y is fluorine. page 3

4 hemistry Ex Study 12. Study the table below. 12. tom Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Number of Electrons W X Y Z Which atom has a net positive charge?. tom W. tom X. tom Y D. tom Z 13. The figure below represents the periodic table and the location of four different elements on the table. 13. certain element has a ground state electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6. Which letter in the diagram above represents the position of this element on the periodic table?. Y. W. X D. Z 14. Which of the following describes a particle that contains 36 electrons, 49 neutrons, and 38 protons? 14.. an ion with a charge of 2. an ion with a charge of 2+. an atom with a mass of 38 amu D. an atom with a mass of 49 amu page 4

5 hemistry Ex Study 15. The label below contains information about an unknown metal. 15. How many valence electrons does the unknown metal have? D Which of the following is the same for both hydrogen and potassium? 16.. atomic mass. total mass of neutrons. number of valence electrons D. number of filled energy levels 17. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 is the electron configuration for which element? 17.. aluminum (l). argon (r). potassium (K) D. sodium (Na) page 5

6 hemistry Ex Study 18. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he shot alpha particles through a thin layer of gold foil. He predicted that the alpha particles would travel straight through the gold atoms, as shown below. 18. However, Rutherford observed that although most of the alpha particles passed straight through the foil, a few alpha particles were deflected, as shown below. Which of the following statements about the atom did Rutherford s experiment support?. n atom contains protons, neutrons, and electrons.. n atom s nucleus is small and has a positive charge.. Electrons follow a predictable path around the nucleus. D. Different isotopes of an element have different masses. page 6

7 hemistry Ex Study 19. Which of the following pieces of evidence best supports ohr s idea that electrons occupy specific energy levels within an atom? 19.. Sodium atoms become positive ions when they lose electrons.. Each element emits a unique bright-line spectrum when it falls from an excited state to a ground state.. eryllium atoms bombarded with alpha particles produce beams that are not influenced by magnetic fields. D. Each element has physical and chemical properties that are unique to that element and different from those of other elements. 20. Which of the following comparisons correctly describes subatomic particles? 20.. n electron has a negative charge and a mass larger than the mass of a proton.. neutron has a negative charge and a mass smaller than the mass of a proton.. neutron has a neutral charge and a mass larger than the mass of an electron. D. proton has a positive charge and a mass smaller than the mass of an electron. 21. Which of the following statements best explains why potassium (K) reacts easily with bromine (r)? 21.. Potassium and bromine both have valence electrons in the fourth energy level.. Potassium and bromine have the same number of electrons in their highest energy levels.. Potassium has one electron in its highest energy level, and bromine needs one electron to complete its highest energy level. D. Potassium needs one electron to complete its highest energy level, and bromine has an extra electron in its highest energy level. page 7

8 hemistry Ex Study 22. When a sample of potassium chloride dissolves in water, it separates into potassium ions and chloride ions. Which of the following best accounts for the positive charge of the potassium ions? 22.. They have extra mass.. They have a large volume.. They have fewer electrons than protons. D. They have a high density of neutrons and protons. 23. Ernest Rutherford performed a famous experiment in which he used a radioactive alpha particle source and aimed the particles at a thin sheet of gold foil. y studying photographic plates placed around the foil, he found that most particles passed straight through, some were deflected, and some reflected straight back. This discovery led him to make several important conclusions. 23. Using the experimental setup, what conclusions about atoms were made by Rutherford?. n atom is mostly empty space, with a small, dense, positively-charged center.. toms are solid, dense, neutrally-charged particles.. toms are empty space except for randomly scattered negative particles. D. n atom is mostly composed of a large, positively-charged energy cloud. page 8

9 hemistry Ex Study 24. n atom with which atomic diagram has chemical properties most similar to calcium? D. 25. Which distinguishes an atom of one element from an atom of a different element? 25.. the number of protons. the number of neutrons. the number of electrons D. the number of neutrons and protons 26. How many protons are in an atom of bromine? D What is the atomic number of carbon-14? D tomic masses are usually expressed as averages due to the existence of what phenomenon? 28.. isotopes. radioactive decay. electrons D. man-made elements page 9

10 hemistry Ex Study 29. How do the atoms of carbon-12 and carbon-14 differ? 29.. atomic number. number of electrons. number of protons D. number of neutrons 30. hlorine has two naturally occurring isotopes, chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. The atomic mass of naturally occurring chlorine is Which statement is correct? 30.. hlorine-35 is more abundant.. hlorine-37 is more abundant.. hlorine-36 is more abundant. D. hlorine-35 and chlorine-37 are equally abundant. 31. How many protons and neutrons are there in an atom of 11 5? protons and 6 neutrons. 5 protons and 11 neutrons. 11 protons and 5 neutrons D. 11 protons and 6 neutrons 32. Which best represents how electrons are arranged in the energy levels of a carbon atom? 32.. first energy level = 1 electrons second energy level = 5 electrons. first energy level = 2 electrons second energy level = 4 electrons. first energy level = 3 electrons second energy level = 3 electrons D. first energy level = 4 electrons second energy level = 2 electrons 33. Which electron configuration represents a transition element? s 2 2s 2 2p 3. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 7 D. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 4 page 10

11 hemistry Ex Study 34. Which best explains why cations are smaller than the atoms from which they are formed? 34.. The metallic atom gains electrons, causing a larger effective nuclear pull.. The metallic atom loses electrons, resulting in loss of an entire energy level.. The nonmetallic atom gains electrons, causing a larger effective nuclear pull. D. The nonmetallic atom loses electrons, resulting in loss of an entire energy level. 35. Which orbital notation represents an s-block element in the third period? D. 36. What do the ions K +, a 2+, and l have in common? 36.. They have the same number of protons.. They will form covalent bonds with oxygen.. They have the same electron configuration as argon. D. They are larger than their corresponding atoms. 37. Which orbital notation shows the lowest energy arrangement of valence electrons for 1s 2 2s 2 p 3? D. page 11

12 hemistry Ex Study 38. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove electrons from atoms. Fluorine (F), chlorine (l), bromine (r), and iodine (I) are found in the halogen family in the periodic table. 38. Which graph shows the correct trend for the first ionization energy of these four elements?... D. page 12

13 hemistry Ex Study 39. Metals and nonmetals generally form ionic bonds with each other. Which of the following sets of elements will most likely for an ionic bond? 39.. Na, F. l, F. Na, K D. He, O 40. onsumers use many products made of plastic. Plastics are carbon-based polymers made from smaller carbon compounds, called monomers. 40. In organic molecules, the carbon atoms and the hydrogen atoms are held together by.. hydrogen bonds. covalent bonds. ionic bonds D. nuclear bonds page 13

14 hemistry Ex Study 41. Which of the following models correctly represents the compound phosphorus trichloride (Pl 3 )? D. 42. elow are four ball-and-stick models representing compounds. Which of these models best represents ammonia (NH 3 )? D. 43. What is the smallest unit of an element that still has the properties of that element? 43.. an atom. a compound. an electron D. a molecule page 14

15 hemistry Ex Study 44. Which of the following is formed when two elements combine chemically? 44.. an atom. a compound. an electron D. a mixture 45. Sugar is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugar is an example of which of the following? 45.. an atom. a compound. an electron D. a mixture 46. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH 3. Which of the following is the correct Lewis electron dot structure for ammonia? D. 47. In potassium fluoride, the potassium atom donates an electron and the fluorine atom takes an electron. When the compound potassium fluoride is formed, which of the following are formed? 47.. covalent bonds. ionic bonds. magnetic forces D. nuclear forces 48. When elements from group 1 (1) combine with elements from group 17 (7), they produce compounds. Which of the following is the correct combining ratio between group 1 (1) elements and group 17 (7) elements? : 1. 1 : 2. 2 : 1 D. 3 : 2 page 15

16 hemistry Ex Study 49. The illustration below shows two atoms of a fictitious element (M) forming a diatomic molecule. 49. What type of bonding occurs between these two atoms?. covalent. ionic. nuclear D. polar 50. The diagram below represents particles of different elements in a crystal. 50. What type of bond holds these particles together?. covalent. hydrogen. ionic D. polar 51. How many atoms are in a 12.0 g sample of lithium? atoms atoms atoms D atoms 52. What is the percent mass oxygen in acetone ( 3 H 6 O)? %. 10.3%. 27.6% D. 62.0% kg sample of water (H 2 O) contains 0.11 kg of hydrogen (H) and 0.89 kg of oxygen (O). ccording to the law of constant composition, how much hydrogen and oxygen would a 1.5 kg sample of water contain? kg H and 0.89 kg O kg H and 1.34 kg O kg H and 1.78 kg O D kg H and 0.17 kg O page 16

17 hemistry Ex Study 54. The Lewis dot structure shown below represents an atom of an unknown metallic element M. 54. When atoms of this unknown metal react with oxygen, a compound is formed. Which of the following is the most likely chemical formula of the resulting metal oxide?. MO. MO 2. M 2 O D. M 2 O The chemical structure of formaldehyde is shown below. 55. What is the geometry around the carbon atom?. bent. linear. tetrahedral D. trigonal planar 56. Which compound is most likely formed using covalent bonds? 56.. SiO 2. K 2 O. Kr D. ar Laughing gas is a compound containing a ratio of two atoms of nitrogen to one atom of oxygen. What is the formula? 57.. NO 2. N 2 O. N 2 O 2 D. NO 58. Which statement best describes the atoms of elements that form compounds by covalent bonding? 58.. They share electrons between them.. They have a large difference in atomic mass.. They are in the same period in the periodic table. D. They have a large difference in valence electron number. page 17

18 hemistry Ex Study 59. What type of bonding is associated with compounds that have the following characteristics: 59. high melting points conduct electricity in the molten state solutions conduct electricity normally crystalline solids at room temperature.. covalent. ionic. hydrogen D. metallic 60. Which pair of elements would most likely bond to form a covalently bonded compound? 60.. sodium and fluorine. barium and chlorine. phosphorus and oxygen D. magnesium and sulfur 61. ased on the VSEPR theory, what is the molecular geometry of a molecule of PI 3? 61.. linear. tetrahedral. trigonal planar D. trigonal pyramidal 62. substance dissolves well in water but not in benzene. Which of the following can be concluded about the substance? 62.. The substance may be either polar or nonpolar.. The substance is nonpolar.. The substance is polar. D. The substance is neither polar nor nonpolar. 63. What is the name of the compound with the chemical formula rl 3? 63.. chromium tetrachloride. chromium trichloride. chromium(ii) chloride D. chromium(iii) chloride page 18

19 hemistry Ex Study 64. What is the percent by mass of N in a(n) 2? % % % D % 65. ased on the VSEPR theory, what is the molecular geometry of O 2? 65.. linear. tetrahedral. trigonal planar D. trigonal pyramidal 66. Which substance would most neutralize an acidic food? 66.. dairy (ph 5 7). water (ph 6 7). citrus fruit (ph 2 3) D. baking soda (ph 8 9) 67. The ph of Some ommon Household Items 67. glass of cola was spilled on the carpet. Most colas are acidic with a ph usually between 2 and 4. ased on the ph shown above, which of the following substances could best be used to neutralize the spilled cola?. Lemon juice. ow s milk. Pure water D. aking soda page 19

20 hemistry Ex Study 68. The ph of four different solutions of common materials is measured. Which of the following lists the solutions in order from most acidic to most basic? 68.. battery acid, lemon juice, blood, laundry detergent. lemon juice, battery acid, blood, laundry detergent. laundry detergent, blood, lemon juice, battery acid D. battery acid, blood, laundry detergent, lemon juice page 20

21 cces format version c Educide Software Licensed for use by Problem-ttic hemistry Ex Study 01/09/ D D D D D

22 Teacher s Key Page D D D D 67. D 68.

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