Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry. I. The Atomic Structure

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1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry I. The Atomic Structure

2 A. The Nucleus (a) Rutherford Bombardment Experiment This experiment leaded to the proposal of nucleus in atom.

3

4 RESULTS (1)Most of the particles past almost straight through the foil. (This was expected by Rutherford based on the energy and mass of α-particles) (2)A small fraction had marked deflection and even turned back on their tracks. (This was unexpected by Rutherford)

5 Rutherford s explanation The mass and positive charge must be concentrated in the tiny fraction of the atom, called nucleus.

6

7 How big is the nucleus? An atom is small, but its nucleus is much smaller. If radius of an atom is the order of m that of a nucleus is of the order of m. Ex.1

8 (b) Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in its nucleus. The mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Protons and neutrons are known collectively as nucleons.

9 Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons. Isotopic symbols a z X a mass number; z atomic number

10 B. The Mass Spectrometer (a) The Principle of the Mass Spectrometer (1)Mass spectrometer is a device used to arrange the various mass number from a particular sample in order.

11

12

13

14 A Vaporized sample B Electron source C Electric field D Connection to a vacuum pump E Magnetic field F Detector

15 Radon has two isotopes, (i) Rn + (ii) Rn Rn Rn 86Rn This is because lighter isotopes are deflected more in a given magnetic field.

16 (b) Increase the strength of the magnetic field. This increases the deflection of the ions. Decrease the strength of the electric field, by decreasing the voltage between the accelerator plates. This decreases the momentum of the ions and therefore increases their deflection in the magnetic field. (c) If Rn 2+ ions were to form in the instrument, they would be deflected more than the ions at X and Y. For a given electric and magnetic field strength, the deflection of the ions depends on their mass-to-charge ratio. The smaller the ratio, the greater is the deflection

17 (b) Interpreting Mass Spectrum Mass spectrum A set of peaks shows the masses of the isotopes and their relative abundances.

18 A Mass Spectrum for lead

19 The horizontal axis shows the mass/charge ratio of the ions entering the detector. If it is assumed that all the ions carry a single positive charge, the horizontal axis can also be labelled mass number, isotopic mass or relative atomic mass. The vertical axis shows the abundance of the ions. It can be labelled detector current, relative abundance or ion intensity.

20 (c) Calculating Relative Atomic Mass of an Element mass/charge ratio Use the mass spectrum shown to calculate: (a) % abundance of Li = % = 7.3%

21 (b) Relative atomic mass of Li = = 6.93

22 (d) Determination of Relative Molecular Masses For the determination of relative molecular mass, the compound under investigation is injected into the instrument as a vapour. High velocity electrons then bombard the molecules and produce a variety of positively-charged ions. In the mass spectrum of atoms of an element, the peaks can give information about the various isotopes of the element. Whereas in the mass spectrum of a compound, the peak with the highest m/e ratio will most likely correspond to the molecular ion, i.e. the molecule which has lost only a single electron.

23 Taking dodecane, C 12 H 26 as an example: If one electron is knocked out of the molecule by the bombardment, the C 12 H 26+ ion (i.e. the molecular ion) will be formed, and the detector will show the presence of an ion of mass number 170. This is the relative molecular mass of C 12 H 26. The electron bombardment, however, not only has the effect of knocking out electrons from the molecules; it may also break the molecules into smaller fragments, such as the C 6 H 13+, C 5 H 11+, C 4 H 9+ and other ions

24 The mass spectrum of dodecane

25 Summary The ion detected to have the highest mass, the parent ion, normally indicates the relative molecular mass of the compound.

26 Ex.5 The element chlorine has isotopes of mass number 35 and 37 in the approximate proportion 3:1. Interpret the mass spectrum of gaseous chlorine shown in the above figure, indicating the formula (including mass number) and charge of the ion responsible for each peak. AL Soln

27 Ex.5 Solutions Mass/charge ratio Species Cl + 37 Cl + ( 35 Cl 35 Cl) + ( 35 Cl 37 Cl) + ( 37 Cl 37 Cl) + Qu.

28 HKAL 2000 IIA no.1(a) (a) Consider the mass spectrum of chlorine gas: (A, B, C, D and E represent five different ionic species.) (i) Explain why there are five peaks in the mass spectrum. Solution

29 HKAL 2000 IIA no.1(a)(ii) (ii) The ratio of relative abundance of D to E is 1:3. (I) Calculate the relative atomic mass of chlorine. (II) Calculate the ratio of relative abundance of A to B to C. Solution

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