1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. Structure and Properties of the Atom"

Transcription

1 SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element. The idea of atoms was first suggested by Democritus, an ancient Greek who lived in the fourth century BC. John Dalton ( ) was an Englishman who improved on the atomic theory in order to explain chemical behaviour. This theory included the following ideas: 1. All elements are composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. 3. Atoms of different elements can combine with one another in simple (whole number) ratios to form compounds. 4. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined or rearranged. However, atoms of one element are not changed into atoms of another by a chemical reaction. Some of Dalton's atomic theory is still accepted today. One revision concerns his idea that atoms are indivisible. Using increasingly powerful atom smashers, physicists have found dozens of subatomic particles. In fact, so many particles have been found that no single theory of atomic 'structure' can account for all of them. In chemistry, we chemists concern ourselves with only three of these particles:, protons and neutrons. 1.2 Fundamental Atomic Particles: We have seen that atoms are composed of even smaller particles. The differences between atoms (and therefore elements) are caused mainly by the fact that they contain different numbers of these fundamental atomic particles. The simplest model of the atom describes it as a very small positively charged nucleus (containing most of the mass of the atom ie. protons and neutrons) surrounded by moving. The nucleus of the atom is very small compared with the size of the atom. The atom is mainly empty space. Energy levels ( orbit nucleus) Representation of an Atom. Nucleus contains protons & neutrons (nearly all of mass of atom) an electron is a particle which carries a single negative charge. It has virtually no mass compared with the neutron and proton. the proton is a particle which carries a single positive charge. It has a much larger mass than an electron. This mass can be defined as one atomic mass unit (1 a.m.u.). the neutron carries no charge (ie. it is electrically neutral). It has a mass approximately equal to that of the proton. Characteristics of the Fundamental Atomic Particles charge mass relative to an electron position electron -1 1 orbits the nucleus proton within the nucleus neutron within the nucleus 1

2 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the composition of the nucleus of the atom. 2. Compare the relative size and relative density of a nucleus to its atom. 3. Complete the following table: name of particle where found in atom relative mass charge proton +1 neutron in nucleus electron 4. Explain how atoms which have electrically charged particles still have no overall electrical charge. 5. Explain what is meant by the term subatomic particles Give two examples of a sub-atomic particle (1) (2) 2

3 SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1.3 Atomic and Mass Each type of atom contains a different number of protons in its nucleus. This means that a different number of protons in a nucleus gives rise to a different type of atom eg. hydrogen (atomic number 1) contains one proton in its nucleus. Fluorine (atomic number nine) contains nine protons in its nucleus. Therefore each of the elements in the periodic table has a different atomic number (usually represented with a Z). All the atoms of the different elements are electrically neutral ie. have no overall electric charge. Thus the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom must equal the number of around its nucleus. Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus. Thus the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is the mass number of an element (usually written as A). The full symbol for an atom X is written: A ZX The symbol identifies the element, while the atomic number and mass number allow determination of the number of protons, and neutrons in the atom. Example: A sodium atom (with atomic number of 11 and a mass number of 23) number of protons + number of neutrons mass number 23 Na 11 symbol of element atomic number number of protons Table: Details Of The First Ten Elements Of The Periodic Table. Name Symbol Atomic Composition of Nucleus Mass Electrons Protons Neutrons Hydrogen H Helium He Lithium Li Beryllium Be Boron B Carbon C Nitrogen N Oxygen O Fluorine F Neon Ne

4 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom QUESTIONS: 6. Explain why the mass of an electron is ignored when the mass of an element (in atomic mass units) is being calculated. 7. Complete the following table. Name of Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Electrons No. of Neutrons Na 19 F Magnesium H Calcium Pt Au Nitrogen State the number of, protons and neutrons in an atom of each of the following elements Cd Po Cr 9. Elements are sometimes referred to as Uranium or Uranium With the aid of a Periodic Table determine the number of, protons, and neutrons in these isotopes of uranium. Uranium- 238 Uranium

5 SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1.4 Isotopes: The nuclei of the atoms of a given element must all contain the same number of protons, but the number of neutrons in such atoms may vary. Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes ie. they have the same atomic number but a different mass number. Despite these differences isotopes are chemically alike. This is because the chemical properties of an element are largely due to the number of in the outer shell. As an example let us consider the oxygen atom. Subatomic Particles Present In The Three Isotopes Of Oxygen O 8 O 8 O protons neutrons Since each isotope has the same number of (8) and since the around the nucleus determine the chemical properties it can be seen that each isotope of oxygen has the same chemical properties. Since each isotope has a different number of neutrons they have slightly differing masses and hence their physical properties differ slightly (for example density, m. pt and b. pt). Almost all of the elements have isotopes but the relative abundance of each varies. For example the element chlorine has two isotopes: Cl at 75.77% natural abundance, and 17 Cl 24.23% natural abundance. While tin has 10 naturally occurring isotopes, more than any other element and none of which are radioactive: Sn (32.5%); Sn (24%); Sn (14.5%); Sn (8.5%); 50 Sn (7.5%); Sn (5%); Sn (4.5%); Sn (1%); Sn (0.5%); Sn (0.5%). Uranium consists mainly of three radioactive isotopes: U (99.3%); U (0.7%); U (0.005%) Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 both undergo radioactive decay via a sequence of other elements (all radioactive), until they arrive at lead 206 and lead 207 respectively, which are stable atoms. Uranium-234 is produced as part of the decay series of uranium-235. Uranium -238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years; uranium -235 has a half-life of 700 million years; uranium -234 has a half-life of years. Half-life is defined as the time taken for the concentration of a substance to fall to half its initial value. QUESTIONS: 10. Complete the following table: Atom Name of Element Atomic Mass Protons Neutrons No. of Electrons A B C D E

6 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom 11. Explain why isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number, but differing mass number. Write the symbols representing the isotopes of carbon having mass numbers 12, 13, and 14 respectively. 12. Using the periodic table, determine the number of neutrons in these atoms. 32 S 80 Br 108 Ag (d) 207 Pb 13. If X is a general symbol representing various elements, state, with reasons, which ones of the following are isotopes of the same element X, 16 8 X, X, X, 9 X, 15 X. 14. State how isotopes of the same element are: identical to and different from one another 15. Write Z A X symbols for the following isotopes (hint; you may need to refer to a periodic table) (d) neon-22. an oxygen atom with equal numbers of protons and neutrons. platinum-195. a calcium atom with 24 neutrons. 6

7 SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1.5 Electronic Configuration: Because the chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of in its atom, it is important to understand the arrangement of the - ie. electronic configuration. One common picture of an atom is to represent it as a miniature solar system with the nucleus at the centre and the moving like planets in orbits around it. We replace the orbits with shells which are numbered n = 1, 2, 3,... 7 or given labels K, L, M,...Q. The number of that can fit in these shells is governed by the rule 2n 2, where n = the number of the shell. Shell Designation Electron capacity 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th K-shell L -shell M-shell N-shell The shells are said to represent different energy levels. This is the resultant energy due to the attraction and repulsion forces of all charged particles. If we use as a guiding principle the fact that always occupy shells of lowest energy we can build up the electronic configuration of the various atoms. Thus the first (K) shell is filled first, then the second (L) shell and so on. This is shown in the table on the following page. The outermost energy level is called the valence level, and the in this level are called valence. The valence are the that are primarily involved in chemical reactions, and similarities among the configurations of the valence (the valence shell configurations) account for similarities of the chemical properties among groups of elements. 1 K 2 L Energy level 3 M other energy levels nucleus maximum of 2 maximum of 8 stable at 8 maximum of 18 Details Of The First Three Electron Energy Levels When a shell is filled a new electron shell is started for the remaining. There is a rule, however, which does not allow the outermost shell (valence shell) of an atom of an element to hold more than 8. For example, as the third (M) shell has a capacity of 18 you would assume that potassium, containing 19, should have an electronic configuration of This, however would mean that the valence shell contains more than eight. Therefore once the M shell contains the stable number of eight, the next electron enters the N shell resulting in the configuration for potassium. In view of the inert (very stable) nature of the Group VIII (noble gases), it is clear that the optimum number of is eight - an octet of. This is the basis of the octet rule, which states that any element is most stable when it has a set of eight valence. 7

8 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom Energy level 1 2 K L Energy level K L M 10P 10N Neon atom 2e - 8e - 18P 22N 2e - 8e - 8e - Argon atom Energy level K L M Energy level K L M 4 N 11P 12N 2e - 8e - 1e - 19P 22N 2e - 8e - 8e - 1e - Sodium atom Potassium atom Electronic Structure of Four Elements: Neon, Sodium, Argon & Potassium QUESTIONS: 16. State the maximum number of which each of the first four main energy shells of an atom may contain. 17. Write the electronic configuration of: (d) (e) oxygen: calcium: beryllium: fluorine: magnesium: 18. Deduce the electronic configuration of the element whose atomic number is 18. Give the name of this element. If the predominant isotope of this element contains 22 neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, state its mass number. Electronic Configuration: Name: Mass No: 8

9 SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 19. Which of the following pairs are isotopes? Explain your answers. 50 Ti and 50 V 12 C and 13 C 40 Ar and 40 K 20. Explain why the atomic number of an element is more important than the mass number in identifying an element. Electronic Configuration Of The First 20 Elements Electronic Configuration Element Symbol At. No. 1 (K) 2 (L) 3 (M) 4 (N) Hydrogen H 1 1 Helium He 2 2 Lithium Li Beryllium Be Boron B Carbon C Nitrogen N Oxygen O Fluorine F Neon Ne Sodium Na Magnesium Mg Aluminium Al Silicon Si Phosphorus P Sulfur S Chlorine Cl Argon Ar Potassium K Calcium Ca

10 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom Summary Test 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom 1. Name the three sub-atomic particles (dealt with in Chemistry), state their charge and positions in the atom. (3 marks) 2. Consider the neutral atoms listed: O, 11 Na, 17 Cl. For each atom state: atomic number mass number number of protons, electron and neutrons (d) electronic configuration Present your answer in table form. (9 marks) 3. Consider K. Hence complete the spaces. (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) name of this element. atomic number mass number number of neutrons electronic configuration mass number of another isotope containing one more neutron atomic number of another isotope of potassium name another element with similar properties to K (8 marks) 10

11 4. Explain carefully in your own words all the information conveyed by the symbol U. SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 5. Complete the following table: (3 marks) Symbol At. No. Mass No. No. of No. of neutrons Electronic configuration 12 C 6 2, S O2-2, 8 Na F- 9 (6 marks) 6. What is an isotope? State the information needed to determine whether atoms are isotopes of a particular element. (4 marks) 7. Write down the electronic configuration of the following elements. (Use a copy of the Periodic Table to look up the atomic numbers of the elements). (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) beryllium oxygen calcium magnesium fluorine sodium nitrogen chlorine (8 marks) 11

12 Chapter 1: Structure & Properties of the Atom 8. Complete the following table by classifying each of the elements as either metal/non-metal and state how many these elements lose/gain to have a full outer shell. Element Metal/Nonmetal Loses/Gains No. of transferred Formula of ion formed sodium magnesium oxygen bromine nitrogen barium aluminium sulfur (8 marks) 9. Examine the following list of atomic species A, B, C, E, G, From this list identify the species which: J, 13 K, 21 M represents an atom of the element with atomic number 15. (d) (e) (f) (g) represents a sodium atom. has more protons than neutrons. represents an atom of the most common element in the Earth s atmosphere. is an isotope of the metal magnesium. represents an atom of an element in Group VIII (the Inert gases). represents an atom of a metallic element used in saucepans and kitchen foil. (7 marks) 10. Complete the following table: Atomic Name of Isotope Chemical symbol protons neutrons Mass 4 Beryllium-9 Iodine Cr (7 marks) [Total 66 marks] 12

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element. The idea of atoms was first suggested

More information

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells:

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells: Hydrogen Atomic number: 1 Atomic weight: 1 Protons: 1 Neutrons (usually): 0 Electrons: 1 H Helium Atomic number: 2 Atomic weight: 4 Protons: 2 Neutrons (usually): 2 Electrons: 2 He Lithium Atomic number:

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury

More information

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom

Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Chapter 5 Atomic Theory: The Nuclear Model of the Atom Section 5.1 Dalton s Atomic Theory Goal 1 Precursors to John Dalton s atomic theory Law of Definite Composition The percentage by mass of the elements

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

So protons are about 2000 times more massive than electrons. 2) (Burdge, 2.13) Explain the meaning of each term in the symbol A ZX.

So protons are about 2000 times more massive than electrons. 2) (Burdge, 2.13) Explain the meaning of each term in the symbol A ZX. SOLUTIONS - CHAPTER 2 Problems 1) Protons are far more massive than electrons. Using the information in the textbook, find mp/me, the ratio of the mass of a proton to that of an electron. mp/me = 1.672623

More information

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number

SAI. Protons Electrons Neutrons Isotope Name. Isotope Symbol 131i S3 1. Atomic Number. Mass Number ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 4 WORKSHEET PART A Given the following isotopes, determine the atomic number, the mass number, the number of protons, electrons and neutrons. Isotope Symbol

More information

Question Bank Atomic Structure

Question Bank Atomic Structure Atomic Structure 1. An atom is made of charged particles called protons and electrons. Why is an atom uncharged? Ans. In an atom (i) the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. (ii) the

More information

Elements Atoms. The ultimate building blocks of all physical substances that we encounter whether naturally occurring or man-made are the elements.

Elements Atoms. The ultimate building blocks of all physical substances that we encounter whether naturally occurring or man-made are the elements. Elements Atoms INTRODUCTION The ultimate building blocks of all physical substances that we encounter whether naturally occurring or man-made are the elements. There are as of this counting 116 distinct

More information

Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date:

Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date: Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date: 1. In the late 1800s, experiments using cathode ray tubes led to the discovery of the 1) electron 2) neutron 3) positron 4) proton 2. Which subatomic particles

More information

2.1 Atomic Theory Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 Atomic Theory Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 Atomic Theory Chemistry is founded on four assumptions which together make up Atomic Theory. 1. All matter is composed of atoms. 2. The atoms of a given element differ from the atoms of all other elements.

More information

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons)

Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atom nucleus (protons and neutrons) electron cloud (electrons) Atomic Number equal to the number of protons Mass Number protons + neutrons Charge when # of electrons # of protons Negatively Charged Ion

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

More information

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN Assignments in Science Class IX (Term II) 4 Structure of The Atom IMPORTANT NOTES 1. Experiments on static electricity have proved that seemingly electrically neutral matter consists of electrically charged

More information

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things.

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Matter 3.1 Classification of Matter Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. 1 2 Pure Substances Elements A pure substance is classified as matter with a specific composition.

More information

Electrons/Periodic Table Review Packet

Electrons/Periodic Table Review Packet http://www.carolina.com/teacher-resources/interactive/online-game-cell-structure-cellcraftbiology/tr11062.tr T. Trimpe 2007 http://sciencespot.net/ Part C: Electron Configuration 12. How many electrons

More information

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Physical Science 2nd Semester NAME: CLASS PERIOD: TEACHER: ASSIGNMENT/PAGE NUMBERS DUE DATE POINTS EARNED Periodic Table of Elements pg. 1 Atomic Structure Learning Targets

More information

CP/Honors Chemistry Unit 2: Atomic Theory Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.3

CP/Honors Chemistry Unit 2: Atomic Theory Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 CP/Honors Chemistry Unit 2: Atomic Theory Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Subatomic Particles Warm-Up Quiz 1. What are the three subatomic particles? 2. Where are the particles located in the atom? 3. What are

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1 Self study: The history of the development of atomic theory. 9 th Ed: pp. 36-41 or 10 th Ed: pp. 38-42. 2 The Atomic Theory of Matter John Dalton (1766-1844), began

More information

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Why Learn Atomic Structure? The material universe is made of matter. What is matter? What is its structure? How is knowing this structure

More information

Question 3 Of the elements argon, chlorine, silver and sodium, which one was discovered first? A. Argon B. Sodium C. Silver D.

Question 3 Of the elements argon, chlorine, silver and sodium, which one was discovered first? A. Argon B. Sodium C. Silver D. Chapter 1 The Periodic Table Multiple Choice Items (1) The Periodic Table Historical Development Question 1 Around 1800 a number of scientists observed that a pure compound always contains the same proportion

More information

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet 1 Name History of Atomic Theory Period Fill in the missing information in the chart below: Name of Researcher Equipment Sketch of Model Major Idea/Discovery N/A All

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter Q1. Dalton and Thomson each proposed a model of an atom. a What experimental evidence did Thomson have that was not available to Dalton? b As a result of this experimental evidence, how did Thomson s model

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Introduction. Modern concept of an atom. Fundamental particles of an atom. 1.electron (e - ) 2.proton

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Introduction. Modern concept of an atom. Fundamental particles of an atom. 1.electron (e - ) 2.proton Introduction ATOMIC STRUCTURE The concept of an atom is originated from Greek philosophers like Democritus and John Dalton. Democritus studied the nature of matter and the constituents of all the substances.

More information

Science and technology 404

Science and technology 404 Name Date STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 1) DESCRIBE THE RUTHERFORD-BOHR ATOMIC MODEL All matter is made of small particles called atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the

More information

Danyal Education. The Particulate Nature of Matter: Atomic Structure. Candidates should be able to:

Danyal Education. The Particulate Nature of Matter: Atomic Structure. Candidates should be able to: (Contact: 9855 9224) The Particulate Nature of Matter: Atomic Structure Candidates should be able to: a) state the relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron

More information

Nuclear Chemistry. small dense center called the, where the subatomic particles, & are located. The nucleus is surrounded by mostly

Nuclear Chemistry. small dense center called the, where the subatomic particles, & are located. The nucleus is surrounded by mostly Nuclear Chemistry 1. Atomic Structure.The atom is the smallest unit of an element. It is composed of a small dense center called the, where the subatomic particles, & are located. The nucleus is surrounded

More information

The Structure of an Atom

The Structure of an Atom CP Biology 2016 Name KEY UNIT 2A: Basic Chemistry Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life 2.1 The Nature of Matter The Structure of an Atom Living things share a major fundamental similarity with nonliving matter.

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 5.1 ATOMS (pages 107 108) This section describes early atomic theories of matter and provides ways to understand the tiny size of individual atoms. Early

More information

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B.

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of A. neutrons in the nucleus B. protons in the nucleus 2. All of the atoms of argon have the same A. mass number B. atomic number C.

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Copyright 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 All rights reserved. 1 4.1 Elements Over 112 known, of which 88 are found in nature others are man-made Man-made elements are

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

Electronic Structure of Atoms and the Periodic table. Electron Spin Quantum # m s. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

Electronic Structure of Atoms and the Periodic table. Electron Spin Quantum # m s. The Pauli Exclusion Principle Electronic Structure of Atoms and the Periodic table Chapter 6 & 7, Part 3 October 26 th, 2004 Homework session Wednesday 3:00 5:00 Electron Spin Quantum # m s Each electron is assigned a spinning motion

More information

ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPES - VOCABULARY

ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPES - VOCABULARY ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPES - VOCABULARY element A species of atom; each atom of a particular element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus which is the same for all atoms of the element. isotope A

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

Basic Chemistry and the Periodic Table (1) -

Basic Chemistry and the Periodic Table (1) - Basic Chemistry and the Periodic Table (1) - Elements Periodic Table Atomic Number Mass number SUMMARY: Chemistry deals with the properties of substances as well as the process of chemical substances making

More information

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 8. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. A) electrons B) neutrons C) positrons D) protons

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels You will use the Periodic Table image on this page throughout this Explore activity, so make sure that you are very neat with your work as you go. Start by

More information

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table Name: Teacher s Name: Class: Block: Date: Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table 1. For each of the following elements, state whether the element is radioactive, synthetic or both.

More information

CHEMISTRY PERIODIC TABLE WORKSHEET

CHEMISTRY PERIODIC TABLE WORKSHEET Periodic Table Questions [Place your answer in the blank to the left of the question number.] 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (A) far left; (B) bottom;

More information

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review Name: Monday, October 15, 2007 Test 2: Atomic Structure Review 1. Figure 1 The diagram shows the characteristic spectral line patterns of four elements. Also shown are spectral lines produced by an unknown

More information

Trends in Periodic Table

Trends in Periodic Table Name: Date: 1. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing A. atomic number B. mass number C. oxidation number D. valence number 6. As the elements in Group IA are considered

More information

pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes. the building blocks of matter.

pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes. the building blocks of matter. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Classification of Matter Matter Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. Pure Substances A pure substance is classified as matter with a specific composition. an element

More information

To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry

To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry Learning Objectives Describe the three particles in the atom Define atomic number and mass number Describe isotopes Write symbols for elements Determine

More information

Topic 2 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Atomic Structure

Topic 2 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Atomic Structure Topic 2 National Chemistry Summary Notes Atomic Structure LI 1 Classifying Elements Chemists have classified elements, i.e. put elements into different sets, by arranging them in The Periodic Table. Some

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table.

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS, a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. Periods tell us how many are in the atoms of each element. Groups help us to know how many electrons are in

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements 1 Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes the building blocks of matter listed on the inside

More information

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5.

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. Atomic Structure 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. 2. Which is the electron configuration of an atom in the

More information

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure

Periodic Table & Atomic Structure St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Periodic Table & Atomic Structure N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1

Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 Unit 6 Particles with Internal Structure 3-1 The Elements Remember, elements are combined to form molecules the way letters are combined to form words. Presently there are about 115 known elements. Only

More information

History of the Atom 9/8/ B.C. Democritus and Leucippus. 400 B.C. Aristotle John Dalton J. J. Thomson

History of the Atom 9/8/ B.C. Democritus and Leucippus. 400 B.C. Aristotle John Dalton J. J. Thomson History of the Atom 400 B.C. Democritus and Leucippus Greek philosophers matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles called os (means uncuttable) 400 B.C. Aristotle Greek philosopher matter is made

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

14A Atomic Structure. What is inside an atom? Modeling an atom. Thinking about the atom. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A.

14A Atomic Structure. What is inside an atom? Modeling an atom. Thinking about the atom. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A 14A Atomic Structure What is inside an atom? We once believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter. Then it was discovered that there are even smaller particles

More information

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Atoms and Molecules Preparation Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Describe how atoms are the building blocks of matter

More information

Part I: Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons

Part I: Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons Part I: Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons 1. Neutral Atom of Hydrogen 1p + Atomic Number = 1 Atomic Mass = 1 (rounded) Number of protons = 1 Number of neutrons = 0 Number of electrons = 1 Number of Energy

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

Question Bank Periodic Table and Periodic Properties

Question Bank Periodic Table and Periodic Properties Question Bank Periodic Table and Periodic Properties 1. Name the following with reference to the elements of Modern Periodic Table. (1 26) (a) An alkali metal in period 2. Ans. Lithium (b) A halogen in

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Practice Review (the questions on the test are NOT the same as the review questions)

Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Practice Review (the questions on the test are NOT the same as the review questions) Name: Period: Date: Unit 3 Review: things you will need to know 1. Atomic Theories: Know all the scientists in order. What did they discover? What experiment did they use? 2. Development of the periodic

More information

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES. Using the periodic table, fill in the missing information for all the elements below: Name. _ Al _

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES. Using the periodic table, fill in the missing information for all the elements below: Name. _ Al _ Name Date SUBATOMIC PARTICLES Using the periodic table, fill in the missing information for all the elements below: 1 H 1 17 Cl 35 Name: Hydrogen Number: 1 mass number: 1 Number of protons (p + ): 1 p

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Unit 02 Review: Atomic Theory and Periodic Table Review. 1. The number of neutrons in an atom of radioactive C 14 is: a) 6 c) 8 b) 12 d) 14

Unit 02 Review: Atomic Theory and Periodic Table Review. 1. The number of neutrons in an atom of radioactive C 14 is: a) 6 c) 8 b) 12 d) 14 Practice Multiple Choice Questions Unit 02 Review: Atomic Theory and Periodic Table Review 1. The number of neutrons in an atom of radioactive C 14 is: a) 6 c) 8 b) 12 d) 14 2. When a radioactive nucleus

More information

Atomic Structure & the Periodic Table CHAPTERS 4 & 5

Atomic Structure & the Periodic Table CHAPTERS 4 & 5 Atomic Structure & the Periodic Table CHAPTERS 4 & 5 Objectives Understandings: Chemical structure determines the properties of matter The identity and properties of individual elements is determined by

More information

Wednesday September 12 th,

Wednesday September 12 th, Wednesday September 12 th, Today: Small Review Quiz Chapter 3.1-3.4 2012 Frequency: CD Classification of Matter Matter is organized by its components: elements, compounds, and mixtures. A Comparison of

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. 2. Write the

More information

Electron Proton Neutron

Electron Proton Neutron () Exercises Question 1: Compare the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons. Answer 1: Electron Proton Neutron (i) Electron are present outside the nucleus of an atom. (ii) Electron are negatively

More information

ZAHID IQBAL WARRAICH

ZAHID IQBAL WARRAICH Section A Q1 The first six ionisation energies of four elements, A to D, are given. Which element is most likely to be in Group IV of the Periodic Table? Q2 In which species are the numbers of electrons

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

3 M. 4 N s s.p s.p.d s.p.d.f s.p.d.f s.p.d s Incomp lete

3 M. 4 N s s.p s.p.d s.p.d.f s.p.d.f s.p.d s Incomp lete If each orbital contains two electrons, the second energy level can have four orbitals: one s orbital and three individual p orbitals. These three p orbitals are energetically equivalent to each other

More information

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with

More information

Chapter 5 Electronic Structure and Periodic Trends

Chapter 5 Electronic Structure and Periodic Trends Chapter 5 Electronic Structure and Periodic Trends 5.3 Sublevels and Orbitals A p sublevel consists of three p orbitals. 1 Basic Chemistry Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy Levels Energy levels

More information

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Defining the Atom Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike. 3. Individual atoms of an element

More information

Chapter 02 Test Bank: Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 02 Test Bank: Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 02 Test Bank: Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Student: 1. Which of the following were defined as the elements by the early Greeks? A. earth, wind, and fire B. earth, air, fire, and water C.

More information

Review - Atomic Structure

Review - Atomic Structure Name: Tuesday, June 03, 2008 Review - Atomic Structure 1. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by 1. adding the atomic number to the mass number 3. adding the mass number

More information

Chemistry Ch. 7 Ionic & Metallic Bonding Test TEST IS DUE 1/3/12. LATE PENALTY 20%/DAY.

Chemistry Ch. 7 Ionic & Metallic Bonding Test TEST IS DUE 1/3/12. LATE PENALTY 20%/DAY. Chemistry Ch. 7 Ionic & Metallic Bonding Test TEST IS DUE 1/3/12. LATE PENALTY 20%/DAY. Matching ( 1 point each) Match each item with the correct statement below. a. halide ion e. valence electron b. octet

More information

A) fewer valence electrons D) tin A) metal A) atomic number D) Sn C) lithium A) low first ionization energy and low electronegativity

A) fewer valence electrons D) tin A) metal A) atomic number D) Sn C) lithium A) low first ionization energy and low electronegativity 1. Compared to the atoms of nonmetals in Period 3, the atoms of metals in Period 3 have A) fewer valence electrons B) more valence electrons C) fewer electron shells D) more electron shells 2. The elements

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core

More information

Chapter 6: Elements and the Periodic Table. 6.1: Atoms and Elements pg. 210

Chapter 6: Elements and the Periodic Table. 6.1: Atoms and Elements pg. 210 Unit C: Exploring Matter Chapter 6: Elements and the Periodic Table 6.1: Atoms and Elements pg. 210 Key Concepts: 1. Elements cannot be broken into simpler substances. 2. Elements of the same column (group)

More information

Part I: Principle Energy Levels and Sublevels

Part I: Principle Energy Levels and Sublevels Part I: Principle Energy Levels and Sublevels You will use this Periodic Table throughout this Explore activity. Make sure that you are very neat with your work as you go. Start by following the instructions

More information

NAME DATE CLASS TEST DATE:

NAME DATE CLASS TEST DATE: NAME DATE CLASS 1 TEST DATE: NAME DATE CLASS 2 Vocabulary Chapter 10 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table Atomic number Average atomic mass Chemical symbol Dot diagram Electron cloud Electrons Groups

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

CHEMISTRY Test 3: Atomic Structure

CHEMISTRY Test 3: Atomic Structure Test ALPHANUMERIC IDENTIFIER: A - DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST COPY- you are to write your answers on the accompanying Answer Sheet. Follow all directions including the extra credit problem on the answer

More information

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory *STUDENT* *STUDENT* Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 2: Atomic Theory 1 *STUDENT* UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY *STUDENT* VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic

More information

Unit 2 Atomic Structure

Unit 2 Atomic Structure Unit 2 Atomic Structure Progress Tracker Test Date: Learning Objectives 2.1 Atomic Structure 2.2 Periodic Table 2.3 Electron Configuration Webassign Due Score 2.1 Atomic Structure and Ion Structure Packet

More information

Atomic Concepts Review

Atomic Concepts Review 1. Which phrase describes an atom? A) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged protons B) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged electrons C) a positively charged

More information

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic number Bohr model Cation Compound Electron Electron Configuration Element Excited state Ground state

More information

Elements, Atoms, and Ions

Elements, Atoms, and Ions Elements, Atoms, and Ions The Language of Chemistry! CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Sodium Bromine The Language of Chemistry

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels As you already know, all atoms are made of subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Positive protons and neutral neutrons are found

More information

ANSWER KEY : BUILD AN ATOM PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom )

ANSWER KEY : BUILD AN ATOM PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom ) ANSWER KEY : PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom ) 1. Explore the Build an Atom simulation with your group. As you explore, talk about what

More information

Chp 14: Chemical Bonding Complete the oxidation numbers for this chart. Name: Pd Parent s signature of completion. pg 16.

Chp 14: Chemical Bonding Complete the oxidation numbers for this chart. Name: Pd Parent s signature of completion. pg 16. Teach a parent : Chapter review: Explain what a valence electron is AND how they are involved with the bonding process. Use the periodic table to show your folks how many electrons are available for bonding.

More information

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur? PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

More information

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements

EXPERIMENT 4: Electron Configuration of elements Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building

More information