Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 2 A particle view of matter"

Transcription

1 Q1. Dalton and Thomson each proposed a model of an atom. a What experimental evidence did Thomson have that was not available to Dalton? b As a result of this experimental evidence, how did Thomson s model of an atom differ from that of Dalton s? A1. a Thomson had evidence that atoms contained positively charged matter and negatively charged particles. b Thomson proposed an atomic model in which the negatively charged particles were embedded in a sphere of positively charged matter. In this model, the number of negatively charged particles would distinguish the atoms of one element from those of all other elements. Dalton described the atom as an indivisible particle that was the basic unit of an element. The mass of an atom distinguished one element from all others. Q2. Scientists often use models to help them to understand something that is either too small to see or too large to imagine. Give two examples of scientific models you have used, or perhaps made, in the past. A2. Solar system, water cycle, plant structure, volcanoes, plant and animal cells Q3. What does the word nucleus mean? A3. Nucleus: the central part of a system around which other parts are arranged or grouped. Q4. Describe the experimental evidence that led to Rutherford s model of a nuclear atom. A4. Rutherford fired a stream of alpha particles at a piece of gold foil. When most of the alpha particles passed through the foil in straight lines or with minor deflection, Rutherford concluded that the gold atoms were largely empty space. The observation that a small fraction of the positively charged alpha particles were deflected through large angles led him to propose that the atoms had a very small region of positive charge (i.e. the nucleus). The positive alpha particles were repelled by the positively charged nuclei. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 1

2 Q5. Define the following terms: atomic number, mass number, isotope. A5. Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Mass number equals the sum of the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number (i.e. same element) but different mass numbers (i.e. different numbers of neutrons). Q For the cadmium atom containing the nucleus 48 Cd, state: a the number of protons b the number of electrons c the number of neutrons present in the atom. A6. The number of neutrons can be calculated by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number. The number of electrons is always equal to the atomic number for a neutral atom. (An ion may have more or fewer electrons than protons.) a 48 b 48 c 64 Q7. Use the isotopic symbol convention shown in Question 6 to describe the following atoms: a a carbon atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons b a carbon atom that has 6 protons, 7 neutrons and 6 electrons c a carbon atom that has 6 protons, 8 neutrons and 6 electrons d an aluminium atom that has 13 protons, 14 neutrons and 13 electrons A7. a b c d 12 6 C 13 6 C 14 6 C Al Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2

3 Q8. Represent each of the following atoms using the isotopic symbol convention you used in Question 7. (You may need to refer to the list of elements in Appendix 4, page 389.) a an atom that has 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons b an atom that has 16 protons, 18 neutrons and 16 electrons c an atom that has 56 protons, 74 neutrons and 56 electrons d an atom that has 56 protons, 82 neutrons and 56 electrons A8. a b c d O S Ba Ba Q9. Complete the following table by filling in the missing detail about each ion. The first one has been completed as an example. Atomic number Mass number Number of electrons Formula of ion Al Ca N Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 3

4 A9. Atomic number Mass number Number of electrons Formula of ion Al Mg Mg S Ca N K + 19 Q10. Using Table 2.3 on page 26 of the student book, give the number of valence electrons in atoms of each of the following elements: a magnesium b boron c K d carbon e Be f Ar A10. a 2 b 3 c 1 d 4 e 2 f 8 Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 4

5 Q11. Using Table 2.3 on page 26 of the student book, name the element(s) that has (have): a the same number of valence electrons as chlorine b the same number of valence electrons as C c one more valence electron than P d two fewer valence electrons than nitrogen. A11. a fluorine and bromine b silicon c oxygen and sulfur d boron and aluminium Q12. Write the electronic configuration of: a Be b sulfur c Ar d magnesium e Ne A12. a 2,2 b 2,8,6 c 2,8,8 d 2,8,2 e 2,8 Q13. Write the name and symbol of the element with the electronic configuration: a 2 b 2,7 c 2,8,3 d 2,5 e 2,8,7 A13. a helium, He b fluorine, F c aluminium, Al d nitrogen, N e chlorine, Cl Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 5

6 Q14. Complete the following table by using the examples given to write the electronic configuration of each of the atoms in its electronic ground state. Element (atomic Electronic configuration number) (using the shell model) Boron (5) 2,3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Lithium (3) Chlorine (17) Sodium (11) Neon (10) Potassium (19) Scandium (21) Iron (26) Bromine (35) A14. Element (atomic number) Electronic configuration (using the shell model) Electronic configuration (using the subshell model) Electronic configuration (using the subshell model) Boron (5) 2,3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Lithium (3) 2,1 1s 2 2s 1 Chlorine (17) 2,8,7 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Sodium (11) 2,8,1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Neon (10) 2,8 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Potassium (19) 2,8,8,1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Scandium (21) 2,8,9,2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 4s 2 Iron (26) 2,8,16 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6 4s 2 Bromine (35) 2,8,18,7 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3s 2 3d 10 4s 2 4p 5 Q15. In terms of energy levels, what is the essential difference between the shell model and the subshell model of the atom? A15. The subshell is a refinement of the shell model. The shell model proposed that all electrons in the one shell were of equal energy. Evidence from emission spectra indicated that there were different electronic energy levels (called subshells) within a shell. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 6

7 Chapter review Q16. Thomson concluded that all atoms of an element had the same mass. Given Thomson s plum pudding model, in what ways would an atom of one element have differed from atoms of other elements? A16. Thomson s plum pudding model could have accounted for atoms of different mass if one assumed the mass of the positive matter in atoms was different for each element. (The total mass of the electrons would also vary from one element to the next but electrons contribute very little to the mass of atoms.) Q17. The neutron was not discovered until more than 30 years after the discovery of the proton and the electron. Why was the neutron more difficult to detect? A17. Most of the instruments used for investigating the structure of the atom are based on the use or measurement of electric charge. Since the neutron is an uncharged particle, it was not detected by these instruments. Q g of aluminium contains approximately aluminium atoms. Calculate the number of aluminium atoms in the following masses of aluminium: a 2.70 g b 1.00 g c 0.16 g d 4.8 kg A18. a 27 g of aluminium contains atoms so 2.7 g of aluminium contains x atoms 2.7 x By ratio, = x = i.e. 2.7 g of aluminium contains aluminium atoms b Applying the same method as in part a: 1 x = so x = i.e g of aluminium contains atoms c 0.16 g of aluminium contains atoms 27 i.e atoms Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 7

8 d 4.8 kg = g g of aluminium contains aluminium atoms 27 i.e atoms Q19. How are protons, electrons and neutrons arranged in an atom? A19. The protons and neutrons form the nucleus. The electrons are grouped in shells and occupy the space around the nucleus. Q20. Compare the mass and charge of protons, electrons and neutrons. A20. The mass of a proton is approximately equal to the mass of a neutron and is about 1840 times the mass of an electron. The proton and electron have equal but opposite charges and the neutron has no charge. Q21. An atom of uranium can be represented by the symbol U. Give its atomic number and mass number. A21. atomic number is 92; mass number is 235 Q22. What is the maximum number of electrons in the second shell of an atom? A22. 8 Q23. Make a sketch representing each of the following atoms, showing electrons in their major cells. a b c d 4 2 He 19 9 F Na Ca Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 8

9 A23. Q24. Two atoms both have 20 neutrons in their nucleus. The first also has 19 protons and the other has 20 protons. Are they isotopes? Why or why not? A24. No. Isotopes have the same number of protons in their nuclei. Q25. Explain why the number of electrons in an atom equals the number of protons. A25. Atoms are electrically neutral. The positive charge on one proton balances the negative charge on one electron. Therefore, for electrical neutrality, there must be equal numbers of protons and electrons. Q26. Using the element bromine as an example, explain why elements are best identified by their atomic number and not by their mass number. A26. Most elements have more than one isotope, so they will have more than one mass number. All bromine atoms have 35 protons in their nuclei. No other type of atom has 35 protons in its nucleus (i.e. no other atom has an atomic number of 35). Isotopes of bromine, however, differ in their mass numbers, so mass number is not fixed for an element (except for those elements such as sodium, which have only one naturally occurring isotope). In addition, an isotope of one element may have the same mass number as an isotope of another element. Q27. The nucleus of an atom has a radius of the order of cm. The radius of the atom itself is of the order of 10 9 cm. If the nucleus could be scaled up to the size of an orange (radius 5 cm), what would be the radius of the atom at that same scale? A27. The radius of the nucleus and the atom are increased by the same factor. We are told the radius of the atom increases from cm to 5 cm, that is, by a factor of 5/10 13 (i.e. by ). Therefore, the radius of the atom must also be increased by a factor of This means the radius of the scaled atom is cm = cm or 500 m. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9

10 Q28. a List the chief assumptions of the Bohr theory for the behaviour of electrons in atoms. b In what respects did the theory prove inadequate? c What modifications to the theory were introduced by quantum mechanics? A28. a The main assumptions of the Bohr theory were that electrons in atoms circled the nucleus without loss of energy, electrons moved only in certain fixed orbits of particular energies, and an electron s orbit depended on its energy. b The theory was inadequate because it did not explain why electrons moved only in circular orbits. Also, calculations, based on the model, of the energy of lines in emission spectra of atoms with more than one electron agreed poorly with measured values of the energies. c According to quantum mechanics, electrons have wave-like behaviour. By applying equations that describe the behaviour of waves to the electron, many new ideas emerged, including that of the existence of subshells and orbitals. Q29. Write electronic configurations, using subshell notation, for atoms in the ground state of the following elements. The atomic number of each element is shown in brackets: a helium (2) b carbon (6) c fluorine (9) d aluminium (13) e argon (18) f nickel (28) g bromine (35) A29. a 1s 2 b 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 c 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 d 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 e 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 f 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 8 4s 2 g 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 5 Q30. a State whether atoms with the following electronic configurations are in the ground state or an excited state. i 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 ii 1s 2 2s 2 3s 2 iii 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 3p 1 iv 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 v 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 4s 2 b Identify the elements that could have the electron arrangements given in part a. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 10

11 A30. a i ground state ii excited state iii excited state iv ground state v ground state b i boron ii carbon iii magnesium iv potassium v titanium Q31. Write electronic configurations for each of the following species in their lowest energy states: a b c d 16 8 O S Cl Mg 2+ A31. a 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 b 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 c 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 d 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Q32. Using the fluorine atom as an example, explain the difference between the terms shell, subshell and orbital. A32. A fluorine atom contains nine electrons. The electrons are arranged in energy levels called shells; two electrons are in the first shell and seven electrons are in the second shell, which has higher energy. The electron arrangement in the shells can be written as 2,7. Shells are regarded as being made up of energy levels called subshells. The first shell contains an s-type subshell, which is labelled 1s. The second shell contains both s- and p-type subshells, labelled 2s and 2p, respectively. Within subshells, electrons occupy regions of space known as orbitals. An orbital can hold up to two electrons. Subshells of an s-type contain one orbital, whereas p-type subshells contain three orbitals. The electron arrangement in the subshells of a fluorine atom can be represented as 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 11

12 Q33. Today s atomic model describes an atom as consisting of rapidly moving electrons at a relatively large distance from a very small central nucleus. What is there between those electrons and the nucleus? A33. Nothing. Q34. The alchemists spent a great deal of time trying to make precious substances, such as gold, from base (cheap) metals. Explain, in terms of modern atomic theory, why they were unsuccessful. A34. Elements differ in the number of protons in their atomic nuclei. The early alchemists did not have the means to generate the amount of energy required to change atomic nuclei. Rather, their chemical reactions only involved the rearrangement of the atoms electrons. Q35. The Englishman William of Ockham (1280 c. 1349) had some interesting thoughts on the development of explanations and theories. He is quoted as saying Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate, which can be translated as Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Today, we would probably use the expression keep it simple. A more subtle interpretation of Ockham s Razor would suggest the following: If two competing theories have the very same predictions, then we adopt the simpler of the two theories. However, if we have two competing theories that give different predictions, then we need to experiment to identify the most logical theory. a i Suppose William of Ockham had been alive at the end of the 20th century; do you think he would have supported Dalton s atomic theory or that of Thomson? ii On what basis might he have made his decision? iii Since Thomson s plum pudding model, successive models of the atom have become more complex. Explain whether or not you think this is against William of Ockham s preference to keep it simple. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 12

13 b Before the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1930, scientists had predicted the existence of a neutral nuclear particle. Suppose Figure 2.25 represents three possible models of a sodium atom at this time. Which one do you think William of Ockham would have preferred and why? Figure 2.25 A35. a i Thomson s ii b Q36. Thomson s theory better explains the evidence available at the end of the 19th century of the existence of subatomic particles than does Dalton s model of an indivisible atom. iii Ockham favoured the simplest theory or model that was consistent with available information. The increasing complexity of atomic models reflects the increasing amount of experimental information about subatomic particles and their arrangement within atoms. Ockham may well have preferred the model represented by Figure 2.25c, as it more simply accounts for the presence of isotopes. New models for the atom have evolved as scientists become aware of inconsistencies between current models and experimental data. Outline the problems with the existing model of the atom that led to the modifications suggested by the following scientists: a Rutherford b Bohr c Schrödinger A36. a Until Rutherford s work, the plum pudding model of the atom was widely accepted. However, his discovery that a beam of alpha particles directed at thin gold foil causes a few particles to deflect through high angles led to the development of a new atomic model. b Although Rutherford s atomic model accounted for a number of atomic properties, it was not able to account for the characteristic emission spectra that each element produces. The model was also in conflict with the principles of classical physics, which suggested that electrons moving in circular orbits should continuously lose energy and spiral into the nucleus. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 13

14 c Q37. The Bohr model of the atom did not adequately explain why electrons adopted some energy levels but not others. In addition, calculated frequencies for lines in the emission spectra of atoms with more than one electron gave poor agreement with measured values. It is approximately 200 years since John Dalton proposed that matter was composed of indivisible particles called atoms. Most of the evidence for the existence of subatomic particles was not found until the early part of the 20th century. a Ernest Rutherford and his co-workers fired alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and measured the deflection produced in the path of the alpha particles. Briefly explain the results of this experiment and the concepts about atomic structure that came from this. b In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed that electrons circled the nucleus in fixed orbits, but this idea was modified in the 1920s in light of knowledge of quantum mechanics. Outline the current model of electron behaviour by using the terms shell, subshell and orbital. c After learning about the work of chemists such as Marie Curie in isolating new elements, a student asked the teacher, Do you think there are elements lighter than uranium that have not been discovered yet? Describe how you think the teacher would respond. A37. a Most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil as if there was nothing there, showing that the atom is mainly empty space. Occasionally alpha particles were deflected. From the frequency and angles of deflection, Rutherford was able to deduce that most of the matter (mass) of the atom was concentrated in a very small nucleus at the centre of the atom. b Electrons possess particular amounts of energy. The energies of the electrons of an atom are grouped into energy levels called shells. Within each shell, the energy levels subdivide into subshells. When an electron has the energy of a particular subshell it is most likely to be found in a region of space around the nucleus called an orbital. c Work begun by Henry Moseley allowed atomic numbers to be assigned to the elements, beginning with hydrogen as 1. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. Since there are no atomic numbers between 1 and 92 (uranium) for which elements have not been discovered, there are no elements lighter than uranium still to be discovered. Copyright Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 14

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model. John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

More information

Chapter 2: Atomic Concepts

Chapter 2: Atomic Concepts Chapter 2: Atomic Concepts SECTION A TO THE STUDENT: Study and know the book. Review the bold words. ATOMIC MODELS (Note: Names of the scientists do not have to be memorized.) John Dalton stated that elements

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.

More information

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory

Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET. Unit 2: Atomic Theory *STUDENT* *STUDENT* Mr. Dolgos Regents Chemistry NOTE PACKET Unit 2: Atomic Theory 1 *STUDENT* UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY *STUDENT* VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic

More information

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 2 - ATOMIC THEORY VOCABULARY: Allotrope Anion Atom Atomic Mass Atomic Mass unit (a.m.u.) Atomic number Bohr model Cation Compound Electron Electron Configuration Element Excited state Ground state

More information

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom

1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element. The idea of atoms was first suggested

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

Review Sessions. Atomic Structure

Review Sessions. Atomic Structure Review Sessions Atomic Structure Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them. Major Understandings: The modern model of the atom has evolved

More information

NCERT SOLUTIONS STRUCTURE OF ATOM. If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will it carry any charge or not?

NCERT SOLUTIONS STRUCTURE OF ATOM. If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will it carry any charge or not? NCERT SOLUTIONS STRUCTURE OF ATOM Question 1: What are canal rays? Canal rays are positively charged radiations. These rays consist of positively charged particles known as protons. They were discovered

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SECTION 5.1 ATOMS (pages 107 108) This section describes early atomic theories of matter and provides ways to understand the tiny size of individual atoms. Early

More information

Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date:

Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date: Name Atomic Structure Practice Exam Date: 1. In the late 1800s, experiments using cathode ray tubes led to the discovery of the 1) electron 2) neutron 3) positron 4) proton 2. Which subatomic particles

More information

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them):

Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure. 5.1 Early Thoughts. In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Chapter 5: Early Atomic Theory and Structure Name: 5.1 Early Thoughts In the year 440 B.C., believed that all matter was made of 4 elements (list them): Around 370 B.C., proposed that all matter was composed

More information

Name Date Class ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Name Date Class ATOMIC STRUCTURE Name Date Class 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE SECTION 4.1 DEFINING THE ATOM (pages 101 103) This section describes early atomic theories of matter and provides ways to understand the tiny size of individual atoms.

More information

Question 3 Of the elements argon, chlorine, silver and sodium, which one was discovered first? A. Argon B. Sodium C. Silver D.

Question 3 Of the elements argon, chlorine, silver and sodium, which one was discovered first? A. Argon B. Sodium C. Silver D. Chapter 1 The Periodic Table Multiple Choice Items (1) The Periodic Table Historical Development Question 1 Around 1800 a number of scientists observed that a pure compound always contains the same proportion

More information

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Name Class Date ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Atomic Structure ELECTRONS AND THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 4.1 Defining the Atom Essential Understanding Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. Lesson Summary Early Models of the Atom The scientific

More information

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Physical Science 2nd Semester NAME: CLASS PERIOD: TEACHER: ASSIGNMENT/PAGE NUMBERS DUE DATE POINTS EARNED Periodic Table of Elements pg. 1 Atomic Structure Learning Targets

More information

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY

UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY UNIT 4 ATOMIC THEORY 1. Atomic theory: Dalton s model Thomson s model Rutherford s model Bohr s model Electron cloud model 2. Particles inside the atom Atomic number Mass number 3. Ions Cations Anions

More information

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more

1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 1. According to the modern model of the atom, the nucleus of an atom is surrounded by one or more 8. The diagram below represents the nucleus of an atom. A) electrons B) neutrons C) positrons D) protons

More information

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN

GOYAL BROTHERS PRAKASHAN Assignments in Science Class IX (Term II) 4 Structure of The Atom IMPORTANT NOTES 1. Experiments on static electricity have proved that seemingly electrically neutral matter consists of electrically charged

More information

Science Class 9 th STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to

Science Class 9 th STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to Science Class 9 th STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM Charged Particles in Matter Thomson s Model of an Atom Rutherford s Model of an Atom Bohr s Model of Atom Neutrons Electrons Valency Atomic Number Mass Number The

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 5 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core

More information

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Section 4.1 Defining the Atom OBJECTIVES: Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom OBJECTIVES: Explain Dalton s atomic theory. Section 4.1 Defining

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ ID: A Chapter 4 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. One of the first people to state that matter is made

More information

3 M. 4 N s s.p s.p.d s.p.d.f s.p.d.f s.p.d s Incomp lete

3 M. 4 N s s.p s.p.d s.p.d.f s.p.d.f s.p.d s Incomp lete If each orbital contains two electrons, the second energy level can have four orbitals: one s orbital and three individual p orbitals. These three p orbitals are energetically equivalent to each other

More information

1. Four statements about the development of the atomic model are shown below.

1. Four statements about the development of the atomic model are shown below. 1. Four statements about the development of the atomic model are shown below. A: Electrons have wavelike properties. B: Atoms have small, negatively charged particles. C: The center of an atom is a small,

More information

Matter. Chapter 2: The Components of Matter (Sections and 2.9) & Chapter 3 Page 92 (The Mole)

Matter. Chapter 2: The Components of Matter (Sections and 2.9) & Chapter 3 Page 92 (The Mole) Chapter 2: The Components of Matter (Sections 2.1-2.6 and 2.9) & Chapter 3 Page 92 (The Mole) Most of the material in these sections should be review from a previous course. It is expected that you are

More information

Unit 2 The Atom. Notes. 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely.

Unit 2 The Atom. Notes. 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely. Unit 2 The Atom Name: Key Block DEMOCRITUS 1. Was Democritus a scientist? NO Notes 2. In what time of history did he live? 400 BC 3. Describe Democritus thoughts about gold. 400 B.C. - Democritus thought

More information

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan

Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure. Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Preliminary Course: Atomic Structure Daniel Hillebrand O' Donovan Why Learn Atomic Structure? The material universe is made of matter. What is matter? What is its structure? How is knowing this structure

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain)

1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) I. Law vs. Theory 1) Scientific law = a generalization of scientific observations that describes what happens (does not explain) 2) Theory (model) = a set of assumptions used to explain observations and

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Introduction. Modern concept of an atom. Fundamental particles of an atom. 1.electron (e - ) 2.proton

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Introduction. Modern concept of an atom. Fundamental particles of an atom. 1.electron (e - ) 2.proton Introduction ATOMIC STRUCTURE The concept of an atom is originated from Greek philosophers like Democritus and John Dalton. Democritus studied the nature of matter and the constituents of all the substances.

More information

6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228

6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228 6.6: Theories of the Atom pg. 228 Key Concepts: 4. Atomic models evolve as a result of experimental evidence. 5. Atoms contain protons and neutrons in a central core surrounded by electrons. Theories Evolve

More information

History of the Atom 9/8/ B.C. Democritus and Leucippus. 400 B.C. Aristotle John Dalton J. J. Thomson

History of the Atom 9/8/ B.C. Democritus and Leucippus. 400 B.C. Aristotle John Dalton J. J. Thomson History of the Atom 400 B.C. Democritus and Leucippus Greek philosophers matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles called os (means uncuttable) 400 B.C. Aristotle Greek philosopher matter is made

More information

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013

5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Chapter Outline. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom. Dalton s Model of the Atom 10/2/2013 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter Outline 5.1 5.2 Electric Charge A. Discovery of Ions 5.3 Subatomic Parts of the Atom Lightning occurs when electrons move to neutralize charge difference between

More information

Chemistry Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Name: Period: Date:

Chemistry Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Name: Period: Date: Standards Addressed: SC 1.0 Conduct Scientific Investigations; SC 2.2 Describe the arrangements of electrons in atoms using various

More information

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Chapter 4 Atomic Structure The Atom You cannot see the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. Yet, all matter is composed of such particles, called atoms Atom the smallest particles of an element

More information

Electron Proton Neutron

Electron Proton Neutron () Exercises Question 1: Compare the properties of electrons, protons and neutrons. Answer 1: Electron Proton Neutron (i) Electron are present outside the nucleus of an atom. (ii) Electron are negatively

More information

Surviving Chemistry. One Concept at a Time. Engaging and Easy-to-learn Guided Study of High School Chemistry

Surviving Chemistry. One Concept at a Time. Engaging and Easy-to-learn Guided Study of High School Chemistry Surviving Chemistry One Concept at a Time Atomic Structure Engaging and Easy-to-learn Guided Study of High School Chemistry Guided Study Book. One Concept at a Time A Guided Study and Workbook for High

More information

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet

Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet Unit 2: Atomic Theory Practice Packet 1 Name History of Atomic Theory Period Fill in the missing information in the chart below: Name of Researcher Equipment Sketch of Model Major Idea/Discovery N/A All

More information

Sindh Text Book Board, Jamshoro. ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Sindh Text Book Board, Jamshoro. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Chapter # ATOMIC STRUCTURE You will learn in this chapter about: Dalton's atomic theory. Modern atomic theory. Fundamental particles of atoms. Discovery of Cathode particles i.e. electrons. Discovery of

More information

Page 1. Atomic Theory

Page 1. Atomic Theory About 440 B.C. Empedocles stated that all matter was composed of four "elements" earth, air, water, and fire. Democritus (460-370 BC) Theorized that all matter is composed of small indivisible particles

More information

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review

Test 2: Atomic Structure Review Name: Monday, October 15, 2007 Test 2: Atomic Structure Review 1. Figure 1 The diagram shows the characteristic spectral line patterns of four elements. Also shown are spectral lines produced by an unknown

More information

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure

Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Unit 2a: Atomic Structure Defining the Atom Atomic Theory 1. All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of the same element are chemically alike. 3. Individual atoms of an element

More information

Topic 02 Atomic Structure 2.1: The atom. IB Chemistry T02D01

Topic 02 Atomic Structure 2.1: The atom. IB Chemistry T02D01 Topic 02 Atomic Structure 2.1: The atom IB Chemistry T02D01 2.1 The atom - 1 hour 2.1.1 State the position of protons, neutrons and electrons in the atom. (1) 2.1.2 State the relative masses and relative

More information

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES: Section 4.1 Defining the Atom. Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom

Chapter 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES: Section 4.1 Defining the Atom. Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Section 4.1 Defining the Atom Chapter 4 Atomic Structure Section 4. Defining the Atom Describe Democritus s ideas about atoms. Pre-AP Chemistry Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton Section 4. Defining the Atom Explain Dalton

More information

Chapter 4: Structure of The Atom

Chapter 4: Structure of The Atom Chapter 4: Structure of The Atom Introduction Matters are made of tiny particles called atom. Atom is made of three particles; electron, proton and neutron. These particles are called fundamental particles

More information

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory

Chapter 2. Atomic Theory Chapter 2 Atomic Theory 400 B.C.E. atomists 1804 C.E. Dalton 1903 Thompson A History of Atomic Models 1932 Chadwick 1913 Bohr 1911 Rutherford Early Philosophy of Matter Some early philosophers believed

More information

Wednesday September 12 th,

Wednesday September 12 th, Wednesday September 12 th, Today: Small Review Quiz Chapter 3.1-3.4 2012 Frequency: CD Classification of Matter Matter is organized by its components: elements, compounds, and mixtures. A Comparison of

More information

Unit 4 Atomic Structure

Unit 4 Atomic Structure Unit 4 Atomic Structure Defining the Atom The Greek philosopher Democritus (460 B.C. 370 B.C.) was among the first to suggest the existence of atoms (from the Greek word atomos ) He believed that atoms

More information

Knockout Review Questions

Knockout Review Questions Name: ate:. ll of the atoms of argon have the same 6. The nucleus is the part of the atom that. mass number. atomic number. number of neutrons. number of nucleons. consist mostly of empty space. has a

More information

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells:

Lithium Atomic number: 3 Atomic weight: 7 State of matter: solid Protons: 3 Neutrons (usually): 4 Electrons: 3 Number of electron shells: Hydrogen Atomic number: 1 Atomic weight: 1 Protons: 1 Neutrons (usually): 0 Electrons: 1 H Helium Atomic number: 2 Atomic weight: 4 Protons: 2 Neutrons (usually): 2 Electrons: 2 He Lithium Atomic number:

More information

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM

CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM CHAPTER 5: MODELS OF THE ATOM Problems: 1, 5, 7,11,13,15,17,19,21,25, 37,39,41,61,67,69,71,73, 77ab,79ab,81,83,87,89 1981 - STM (scanning tunneling microscope) used to "see" atoms STM Images - Web sites:

More information

CHM1 Exam 4 Review. Topics. 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2.

CHM1 Exam 4 Review. Topics. 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2. Topics 1. Structure of the atom a. Proton nucleus + 1 amu b. Neutron nucleus 0 1 amu c. Electron orbits - 0 amu 2. Atomic symbols Mass number (protons + neutrons) 4+ charge 126C atomic number (# protons)

More information

History of the atomic theory Atomic structure Isotopes Ions Average atomic mass % abundance

History of the atomic theory Atomic structure Isotopes Ions Average atomic mass % abundance Honors Chemistry Unit 2 Bunsen, I must tell you how excellent your study of chemical spectroscopy is, as is your pioneer work in photochemistry but what really impresses me is that cute little burner you

More information

2015 Name: Test 1 Atomic Structure

2015 Name: Test 1 Atomic Structure 2015 Name: Test 1 Atomic Structure 1. During a flame test, a lithium salt produces a characteristic red flame. This red color is produced when electrons in excited lithium atoms A) return to lower energy

More information

Chemistry: Atomic Structure

Chemistry: Atomic Structure Chemistry: Atomic Structure Organization of the Modern Periodic Table The periodic table is organized by properties. The Atom Today atom = All atoms of the same element are essentially (but not exactly)

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Atoms and Elements 2 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 2.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 2.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 2.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d. mercury

More information

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Notes. Regents Review 1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Notes. Regents Review 1 Regents Review 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. Which of these phrases best describes an atom? (1) a positive nucleus surrounded by a hard negative shell (2) a positive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative charges

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Electrons in Atoms. Quantum Theory or Wave Theory. It s Unreal!! Check your intuition at the door. description of the electronic structure in atoms

Electrons in Atoms. Quantum Theory or Wave Theory. It s Unreal!! Check your intuition at the door. description of the electronic structure in atoms Electrons in Atoms It s Unreal!! Check your intuition at the door. Quantum Theory or Wave Theory description of the electronic structure in atoms 1 Quantum Theory Unlike anything in our macroscopic world.

More information

pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes. the building blocks of matter.

pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes. the building blocks of matter. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Classification of Matter Matter Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. Pure Substances A pure substance is classified as matter with a specific composition. an element

More information

3. An orbital is a region of space where there is a high probability of finding a. a proton b. a neutron c. a positron d.

3. An orbital is a region of space where there is a high probability of finding a. a proton b. a neutron c. a positron d. Name Bell Atom Unit Exam Multiple Choice 1. Which statement best describes electrons? a. They are positive subatomic particles and are found in the nucleus. b. They are positive subatomic particles and

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1 Self study: The history of the development of atomic theory. 9 th Ed: pp. 36-41 or 10 th Ed: pp. 38-42. 2 The Atomic Theory of Matter John Dalton (1766-1844), began

More information

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B.

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of A. neutrons in the nucleus B. protons in the nucleus 2. All of the atoms of argon have the same A. mass number B. atomic number C.

More information

Chemistry 65 Chapter 4 THE ATOMIC THEORY

Chemistry 65 Chapter 4 THE ATOMIC THEORY THE ATOMIC THEORY The smallest particle of matter that still retains its properties is called an atom. In the fifth century B.C., the Greek philosopher Democritus proposed that matter is composed of a

More information

Notes: Unit 3: Atomic Concepts

Notes: Unit 3: Atomic Concepts Name: Regents Chemistry: Mr. Palermo Notes: Unit 3: Atomic Concepts Unit Vocabulary: For each word, provide a short but specific definition from YOUR OWN BRAIN! No boring textbook definitions. Write something

More information

History of Atomic Theory

History of Atomic Theory History of Atomic Theory Alchemy ~ Before 400 B.C. Experiment: Pseudoscience concerned with: Changing metal to gold Finding an eternal life elixir Aristotle Beliefs: All matter was made up of a combination

More information

Atoms and Elements. Chapter 3

Atoms and Elements. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Chapter 3 Elements are pure substances from which everything else is built. An element is a fundamental substance that can not be broken down, BY CHEMICAL MEANS, into a simpler substance.

More information

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

More information

UNIT 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

UNIT 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY UNIT 4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE Arantza Rubio Mier 3º ESO INDEX 1. DALTON S ATOMIC THEORY...3 2. ATOMIC MODELS...4 2.1. Thomson s atomic model...4 2.2. Rutherford s atomic model...4 2.3.

More information

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

More information

Air. Moist Water. Fire Dry Earth. The Early Greeks. In the 4 th century, Aristotle stated that matter had four possible properties:

Air. Moist Water. Fire Dry Earth. The Early Greeks. In the 4 th century, Aristotle stated that matter had four possible properties: The Early Greeks In the 4 th century, Aristotle stated that matter had four possible properties: Moist Hot Dry Cold The four properties were contained in various proportions by four major elements which

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Atomic Structure Timeline. History of Atomic Theory

Atomic Structure Timeline. History of Atomic Theory Atomic Structure Timeline History of Atomic Theory Essential Questions What does it mean when my science teacher says stuff cannot be created or destroyed? What is matter made up of? And who figured it

More information

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5.

Atomic Structure. 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. Atomic Structure 1. What is the total number of electrons in the 2p sublevel of a chlorine atom in the ground state? (1) 6; (2) 2; (3) 3; (4) 5. 2. Which is the electron configuration of an atom in the

More information

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of

More information

To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry

To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry To Understand The Atom Is To Understand Chemistry Learning Objectives Describe the three particles in the atom Define atomic number and mass number Describe isotopes Write symbols for elements Determine

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

The Material World: An Introduction to Chemistry. The Nucleus of an Atom

The Material World: An Introduction to Chemistry. The Nucleus of an Atom 1. MODERN MODEL OF THE ATOM A. A Closer Look at the Nucleus Since Bohr, the model of the atom has become even more sophisticated. Scientists had to explain why even the thin lines in an emission spectrum

More information

Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry PRACTICE Test Name:

Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry PRACTICE Test Name: Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry PRACTICE Test Name: Chemistry, Mr. Williamson Due Monday Jan 30 th I. Defining Terms Use your notes and your understanding of the atom to determine the term for each

More information

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms

Atomic Theory. Chapter 3. History of the Atom. Structure & Models of Atoms Chapter 3 Atoms Atomic Theory As early as 400 BC scientists have believed in an atomic theory thanks to Democritus. Atoms were the building blocks of matter. 2000 years later we can see the atom! History

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Theories of Matter Composition

Theories of Matter Composition Chapter 2 Theories of Matter Composition Democritus (5 th 4 th century BC) ATOMISM Aristotle (4 th 5 th century BC) CONTINUOUS MATTER FOUR ELEMENTS Earth, Air, Fire, Water Boyle (17 th century) Reintroduced

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

More information

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION ELECTRON CONFIGURATION Agenda Electron Configuration (O/S) HW: Complete Questions on the Handouts Bohr s model Electrons orbit the nucleus in energy levels and are held there by electrostatic force of

More information

THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE

THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE THE ATOM HISTORY AND STRUCTURE Atom- The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. Originated from the Greek word Atomos - meaning indivisible particle. Ancient views of

More information

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST! If you need scratch paper, use the back side of your scantron

DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST! If you need scratch paper, use the back side of your scantron DO NOT WRITE ON THIS TEST! If you need scratch paper, use the back side of your scantron ID: A Chemistry (H): Unit 3 The Atom Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement

More information

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements

Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements 1 Elements Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes the building blocks of matter listed on the inside

More information

Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus

Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus Honors Chemistry Unit 2: The Atom & Its Nucleus (2016-2017) Bunsen, I must tell you how excellent your study of chemical spectroscopy is, as is your pioneer work in photochemistry but what really impresses

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

Review - Atomic Structure

Review - Atomic Structure Name: Tuesday, June 03, 2008 Review - Atomic Structure 1. The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by 1. adding the atomic number to the mass number 3. adding the mass number

More information

CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise)

CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE. Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise) CHAPTER 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE Intro Video! (nothing about Bohr, I promise) I. HISTORY OF ATOMIC THEORY A. Highlights: 1. Democritus: suggested matter was made of tiny indivisible particles 2. Aristotle:

More information

2 The Structure of Atoms

2 The Structure of Atoms CHAPTER 4 2 The Structure of Atoms SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What do atoms of the same element have in common? What are isotopes? How is an element

More information

are particles in the nucleus of an atom that have no charge.

are particles in the nucleus of an atom that have no charge. CHAPTER 11 2 The Atom SECTION Introduction to Atoms BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of an atom? How do atoms of different elements

More information

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things.

Matter. Elements. Pure Substances. Elements in a Compound. Compounds. 3.1 Classification of Matter. Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. Chapter 3 Atoms and Elements Matter 3.1 Classification of Matter Matter is the stuff that makes up all things. 1 2 Pure Substances Elements A pure substance is classified as matter with a specific composition.

More information

Chapter 0 A Very Brief History of Chemistry

Chapter 0 A Very Brief History of Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 0 A Very Brief History of Chemistry 1. Which of the following is the logical progression of elements formed in a star? a. Hydrogen Helium Argon Carbon b. Hydrogen Helium

More information

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5

Early Atomic Theory and Structure. Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) Beginning Days 8/14/2011. Chapter 5 Early Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter 5 Beginning Days (Theory of an Atom) 5 th century B.C., Greek philosophers Empedocles and Democritus proposed their own theories about an atom. Empedocles stated

More information