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1 Name # period due by Chapter 3.2: Atomic Number and Mass Number (p ) A. Atomic Number 1. atomic number (def.)-the number of in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the for all atoms of the same element 2. review: subatomic particles a. atoms have protons and electrons b. atoms have neutrons 3. the atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus 4. the atomic number is to each element a. example: oxygen (Fig. 11 p. 84) 1) the atomic number of oxygen is 2) EVERY oxygen atom has 8 protons 3) any atom with 8 protons HAS TO BE 5. in an atom, the number of protons the number of electrons B. Atomic Mass 1. atomic mass (def.)-the mass of an atom expressed in (atomic mass unit); also called atomic weight 2. 1 amu = 1/12 of the mass of a (carbon-12) atom 3. atomic mass is the weight of an individual atom (the weight of the protons, neutrons and electrons) a. protons and neutrons each have a mass of approximately 1 b. an electron s mass is it is considered negligible C. Mass Number 1. mass number (def.)-the of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom 2. mass number is ALWAYS a number 3. mass number is equal to the number of particles in the nucleus (p + + n 0 ) 4. it can be approximated by the atomic mass (if no specific isotope is given) 5. refer to the worksheet Atomic Numbers for more info D. Calculations involving atomic number and mass number 1. in an : atomic number = # of protons = # of electrons 2. mass # = # of protons + # of neutrons 3. mass number can be used to determine the # of in an atom a. mass number - atomic number = # of neutrons b. how do you find the mass number? 1) the particles in the nucleus 2) at the isotope notation (explained later) 3) the atomic mass (if no specific isotope is given) Page 1

2 example: Neon (see Fig. 12 p.85) atomic # = atomic mass = mass # = (hint: round the atomic mass) # of neutrons = Use Fig. 12 p. 85 to complete the periodic square. Don t forget to label the information to distinguish between the atomic number and atomic mass. (hint: mass# - atomic # = # of neutrons) Ne E. Mass Numbers are not Unique 1. the atoms of different elements have the same atomic number, but they share the same mass number a. atomic number can be used to the element b. example: copper atoms (atomic #29) are the only atoms with protons 2. mass numbers be used to identify the element a. example: copper copper atoms have 29 protons (atomic # 29) but copper atoms have 35 neutrons (29 protons + 35 neutrons = a mass number of 64) other copper atoms have 36 neutrons (29 protons + 36 neutrons = a mass number of ) zinc atoms (atomic # 30) with 35 neutrons will also have a mass number of 65 (30 protons + 35 neutrons = ) F. Symbols-Elements 1. letters a. each element has a symbol composed of 1 or 2 1) the first, or only letter is capitalized 2) the second letter, if used, is always lower case b. examples: carbon (atomic #6) cobalt (atomic # 27) carbon monoxide (no atomic # because it is a compound) 2. numbers-coefficients a. a placed the symbol (commonly used when writing formulas) b. if the number is 1 it is usually not shown c. examples: S means sulfur atom 4S means sulfur atoms Page 2

3 3. numbers-subscripts a. a number placed to the, and just the symbol b. indicates the number of atoms chemically together c. examples: 8S means sulfur atoms S means a molecule of 8 sulfur atoms bonded together G. Nuclear Notation 1. atomic # mass # can be written with an element s symbol 2. atomic # is written on the side of the symbol 3. mass number is written on the side of the symbol 4. example: the first 5 elements 5. an element can be represented by notation if atoms of the element can have different numbers of neutrons a. example: hydrogen b. of the atoms have 1 proton (atomic # = 1)--- REQUIRED to be hydrogen c. all of the atoms have DIFFERENT mass numbers because they have different numbers of d. these different of hydrogen are called isotopes H. Isotope 1. isotope (def.)-an atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element, but has a different number of neutrons a. two notation methods are used to identify isotopes: 1) -notation a) the mass number, with a hyphen is written after the name of the element b) example: hydrogen-3 2) notation a) the composition of the nucleus is shown to the left of the symbol b) examples: Page 3

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