5.4 Microcontrollers I: Introduction

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1 5.4 Microcontrollers I: Introduction Dr. Tarek A. Tutunji Mechatronics Engineering Department Philadelphia University, Jordan

2 Microcontrollers: Introduction Microprocessors were described in the last three sequences In this presentation Microcontrollers will be introduced PIC microcontroller architecture will be highlighted

3 What is a microcontroller? A microcontroller (MCU) is a computer-ona-chip IC fabricated using VLSI technology and used to control electronic devices. Microcontrollers contain the following components: Microprocessor - ranging from simple 8-bit to sophisticated 64-bit processors Input/Output interface ports Timers and Interrupts RAM for data storage ROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program storage Many include A/D converters and serial ports Therefore, mcontrollers do not require much hardware support (compared to mprocessors) and are used for specific control applications Microprocessor Timer Interrupts Memory RAM / ROM I/O Ports

4 Microcontroller as a computer Microcontroller can provide all the main elements of a computer For example, we can use 7-segment display (instead of a monitor) and keypad (instead of a keyboard) with a microcontroller to do simple word processing 4x3 Keypad * 0 # Select Control Read Keys mcontroller MPU Select Control Write character 7-segment display Clock

5 Selection of Available Intel 8051 (8-bits) 8096 (16-bits) (32-bits) Microchip PIC 16Fxxx (8-bits) Texas Instruments TMS370 Motorola 68HC11 (8-bits) 68HC16 (16-bits) MPC500 (32-bits) Microcontrollers

6 Selecting a microcontroller Different microcontrollers provide different combinations of features. The following features should be considered when choosing a microcontroller for your application: Number of I/O pins Type of Timers Interrupt sources Analog inputs Maximum clock speed Program memory size Data bit size Serial communication Simulator Emulator Programmer Price

7 Motorola 68HC11 Architecture

8 PIC microcontroller families 12Fxxx 8-pin package 6 I/O pins 1 K word program memory 20 MHz clock 8- and 16-bit timer Up to 4 analog inputs (10 bits) 16Fxxx pin packages I/O pins 1-8 K word program memory 20 MHz clock 2x8- and 2x16-bit timers Up to 8 analog inputs (10 bits) Serial communication port 1/2 PWM output & compare in 18Fxxx pin package I/O pins 2-64 K word program memory 40 MHz clock 2x8- and 3x16-bit timers Up to 16 analog inputs (10 bits) Serial communication port Up to 14 PWM out & compare in

9 Common Features of PIC Architecture Harvard architecture Separate paths for the instructions and data RISC instruction set Small number of instructions Flash program ROM Easily re-programmed Single Working register Reduces the cumber of complexity of instructions Multiple Interrupt sources Variety of interrupts are available at one address Hardware timers 8- and 16-bit timers are available Sleep mode Power saving Serial in-circuit programming Common program downloading system

10 PIC Architecture

11 Programming Steps Start Write Algorithm Edit source code Assemble program Yes Yes Syntax error Simulate code Logical error Download code Yes Emulate in H/W Functional error Stop

12 PIC Development Board After the PIC program is assembled and simulated, the hex code is downloaded on the PIC chip. This is done through serial (or parallel) connection between the computer and the development board During the download, 14 Volts are applied to MCLR, the clock to RB6 and data to RB7

13 Summary A microcontroller is a computer-on-a-chip IC fabricated using VLSI technology and used to control electronic devices Microcontrollers contain microprocessors, memory, and I/O ports When choosing which microcontroller to use, the following are to be considered: number of I/O pins, timers, interrupt sources, analog inputs, maximum clock speed, program memory size, and price PIC microcontrollers made by Arizona microchip are very popular because of their special architecture that results in effective controllers with easy-to-use programs Programming microcontrollers include assembling, simulating and emulating

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