# Bond Valuation. Chapter 7. Example (coupon rate = r d ) Bonds, Bond Valuation, and Interest Rates. Valuing the cash flows

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1 Bond Valuation Chapter 7 Bonds, Bond Valuation, and Interest Rates Valuing the cash flows (1) coupon payment (interest payment) = (coupon rate * principal) usually paid every 6 months (2) maturity value = principal or par value = \$1000 Example (coupon rate = r d ) Five year corp. bond pay coupons at 10% rate, market rate (discount rate) (required rate of return) is 10% r d = 10% P 0 \$100 \$100 \$100 \$100 \$100 \$1,000 Example (coupon rate = r d ) Define Terms C = coupon payment = coupon rate x \$1000 = 10% x \$1,000 = \$100 F = face amount or maturity value = \$1000 n = payments to maturity = 5 r d = required rate of return = 10% P 0 = bond value =? 1

2 P 0 Example (coupon rate = r d ) = PV of coupon annuity + PV of lump sum maturity value PV of coupon annuity = \$ PV of lump sum maturity value = \$ P 0 = \$ \$ = \$1, Solve with Calculator PMT = C = 100 FV = F = 1000 I/Y = r d = 10% N = 5 P 0 = PV = 1,000 In this case coupon = r d so P 0 = F This Bonds sells at PAR Example (coupon rate > r d ) Five year corp. bond pay coupons at 10% rate, market rate is 8% PMT = C = 100 FV = F = 1000 I/Y = r d = 10% N = 5 Example (coupon rate > r d ) P 0 = = \$1, Calculator: PMT = C = 100 FV = F = 1000 I/Y = rd = 8% N = 5 P 0 = PV = \$1,

3 Example (coupon rate > r d ) In this case coupon rate > r d so P 0 > F, we are getting more in coupon than we demand through required rate of return. Premium = \$79.85 Example (coupon rate < r d ) Five year corp. bond pay coupons at 10% rate, market rate is 12% PMT = C = 100 FV = F = 1000 I/Y = r d = 12% N = 5 Example (coupon rate > r d ) P 0 = = \$ Calculator: PMT = C = 100 FV = F = 1000 I/Y = rd = 12% N = 5 Example (coupon rate < r d ) In this case coupon rate < r d so P 0 < F, we are getting less in coupon than we demand through required rate of return. Discount = \$72.10 P 0 = PV = \$

4 A Harrah s Entertainment Inc 9 7/8 percent bond matures in ten years. Assume that the interest on these bonds is paid and compounded annually. Determine the value of a \$1,000 denomination Harrah s bond as of today if the required rate of return is 7 percent. Solution PMT = 9.875% x \$1,000 = FV = 1000 I/Y = 7% N = 10 PV = \$1, A Harrah s Entertainment Inc 9 7/8 percent bond matures in ten years. Assume that the interest on these bonds is paid and compounded annually. Determine the value of a \$1,000 denomination Harrah s bond as of today if the required rate of return is 9 percent. Solution PMT = 9.875% x \$1,000 = FV = 1000 I/Y = 9% N = 10 PV = \$1,

5 A Harrah s Entertainment Inc 9 7/8 percent bond matures in ten years. Assume that the interest on these bonds is paid and compounded annually. Determine the value of a \$1,000 denomination Harrah s bond as of today if the required rate of return is 11 percent. Solution PMT = 9.875% x \$1,000 = FV = 1000 I/Y = 11% N = 10 PV = \$ Assume you purchased a Stations Casino, Inc. bond one year ago for \$ when the market rate of interest was 10%. This bond matures in 19 years and is contracted to pay a annual coupons at the rate of 8%. If the current market rate of interest is 13%, what would be the percentage change in bond value from the time you purchased this bond until today? (cont) Assume you purchased a Stations Casino, Inc. bond one year ago for \$ when the market rate of interest was 10%. This bond matures in 19 years and is contracted to pay a annual coupons at the rate of 8%. If the current market rate of interest is 7%, what would be the percentage change in bond value from the time you purchased this bond until today? 5

6 Bond Rules (1) coupon rate = r d, Bond sells for PAR (2) coupon rate < r d, Bond sells for a discount (3) coupon rate > r d, Bond sells for a premium (4) r d increases, Value decreases Semi-Annual Coupons Example: What is the price of a 10 year bond with a coupon rate of 10%, if it pays coupons semiannually and the market rate of interest is 8%? P 0 =?? (5) r d decreases, Value increases Answer: Semi-Annual Coupons PMT = (coupon rate*maturity Value) / m = \$50 N = years to maturity * m = 10 * 2 = 20 FV = \$1,000 I/Y = rd / m = 8% / 2 = 4% A MGM-Mirage Corporation bond pays a 14.5% coupon on a semi-annual basis. What is the value of this bond if it matures in 16 years and the market rate is 11%? P 0 = \$1,

7 Answer PMT = (14.5% x \$1,000) / 2 = \$72.50 N = 16 x 2 = 32 FV = \$1,000 I/Y = 11% / 2 = 5.5% What is the value of a Walt Disney Incorporated 30 year zero coupon bond if the required rate of return is 9% and a similar AA-rated Paychex Incorporated bond pays a 10% coupon? P 0 = \$1, Answer PMT = (0.0% x \$1,000) = \$0.00 N = 30 FV = \$1,000 I/Y = 9% Yield -to-maturity (YTM) Calculating the return on a Bond. Consider a bond with a 10% annual coupon rate, 15 years to maturity, and a par value of \$1,000. The current price is \$ What is the YTM? P 0 = \$

8 Yield -to-maturity (YTM) N = 15 PV = FV = 1, PMT = 100 YTM = i = 11% YTM = ( Coupon yield ) ± (%)P 0 ) Coupon Yield = return from the coupon = annual coupon / P 0 = \$100 / \$ = 10.77% %)P 0 = ( P 1 -P 0 ) / P 0 = ( \$ \$ ) / \$ = 0.23% YTM = 10.77% % = 11.00% A Microsoft, Incorporated bond has a coupon rate of 8.5%, matures in 12 years, and sells for \$ (assume coupons are paid on a semi-annual basis). What is the YTM for this Microsoft, Inc. Corporate Bond? Yield -to-maturity (YTM) N = 12 x 2 = 24 PV = -\$ FV = \$1, PMT = (8.5% x \$1,000) / 2 = \$42.50 YTM = i = 5.5% x 2 = 11% 8

9 A Microsoft, Incorporated bond has a coupon rate of 8.5%, matures in 12 years, and sells for \$ (assume coupons are paid on a semi-annual basis). What is the current yield for the first year on this bond? Current Yield Current or Coupon Yield is the return on a bond from the coupon only Current Yield = Annual Coupon / P 0 Current Yield = \$85 / \$ = 10.17% A Microsoft, Incorporated bond has a coupon rate of 8.5%, matures in 12 years, and sells for \$ (assume coupons are paid on a semi-annual basis). What is the expected percentage capital gain or loss for the first year on this bond? Capital Gain or Loss Expected Percentage Capital Gain or Loss = %)P 0 = ( P 1 -P 0 ) / P 0 = ( ) / %)P % 9

10 Capital Gain or Loss YTM = ( Coupon yield ) ± (%)P 0 ) 11.0% = 10.17% ± (%)P 0 ) 11.0% = 10.17% + (%)P 0 ) %)P 0 = 11.00% % Corporate Bond Quotes FINRA Investor Information Table 7-4 on page 221 %)P 0 = 0.83% Bond Ratings Investment Quality High Grade Moody s Aaa and S&P AAA capacity to pay is extremely strong Moody s Aa and S&P AA capacity to pay is very strong Medium Grade Moody s A and S&P A capacity to pay is strong, but more susceptible to changes in circumstances Moody s Baa and S&P BBB capacity to pay is adequate, adverse conditions will have more impact on the firm s ability to pay Bond Ratings Speculative (Junk) Low Grade Moody s Ba, B, Caa and Ca; S&P BB, B, CCC, CC Considered speculative with respect to capacity to pay Very Low Grade Moody s C and S&P C income bonds with no interest being paid Moody s D and S&P D in default with principal and interest in arrears 10

11 Bond Evaluation Use bond rating - yield comparisons Also, consider maturity, liquidity, call provision, convertibility feature, collateral, other provisions Major Credit Rating Companies - Moody s, Standard and Poors (S&P), Fitch 11

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