Abatement Strategies for Reduction of PM in Stockholm Optimal Efficiency for Health and/or Air Quality Limit Values

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1 Abatement Strategies for Reduction of PM in Stockholm Optimal Efficiency for Health and/or Air Quality Limit Values Christer Johansson Environmental Health Administration of Stockholm & Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University

2 Outline Road tax in Stockholm Effects on particles and health Other actions Environmental zone for heavy duty traffic Use of dust binding Restricted use of studded tires Petrol tax Parking policies Different benfits of actions Best regulate ultrafine or coarse particles?

3 Message Most efficient abatement strategy to achieve PM10 EG limit value (in Stockholm) Reduce road dust (coarse particles) Vehicle exhaust is of minor importance (UFP) Most efficient abatement strategy in terms of public health Reduce mainly exhaust PM where people live/work Road dust not as important from health viewpoint (but not unimportant)

4 PM10 90-percentil HORNSGATAN SVEAVÄGEN MADRID ESSINGELEDEN PESCARA NORRLANDSG MADRID PRAHA PRAHA PRAHA PRAHA VALHALLAVÄGEN LISBOA BRATISLAVA MADRID E4 SOLLENTUNA MADRID BERLIN ROSLAGSVÄGEN MADRID MADRID BERLIN PRAHA ZÜRICH BERLIN DARMSTADT LONDON PRAHA MÏNCHEN MÏNCHEN MÏNCHEN BREMEN ZÜRICH MÏNCHEN MÏNCHEN LONDON CHARLEROI GLASGOW HELSINKI LONDON LONDON LONDON PM10: Stockholm has among the highest levels in Europe! AirBase: >700 sites 19 countries CAFE-PM, 2003 UG/M

5 2 local sources of PM 90% of PM10 due to vehicle road wear Mass concentration >90% of PNC due to vehicle exhaust Number concentration

6 Relation between PM10 and particle number concentration Normalised concentration Particle number EC OC Soot Metals Particle Mass Sulphate Nitrate Particle Mass OC Minerals Salts Metals Diameter, µm PNC PM10

7 Likely different health effects? Normalised concentration Long term mortality Cardio-vascular and Cardio-pulmonary diseases Lung cancer COPD Asthma Acute mortality Diameter, µm

8 Christer Johansson Lars Burman Tage Jonson The experience from Stockholm city road tax Bertil Forsberg Umeå university One of the goals: To reduce the emissions of CO2, NOx and PM

9 Tax for driving in the inner city area

10 Evaluation Calculations Traffic change & emissions Air quality Environment quality standards 2006 Exposure & health effects Long term exposure if the trial is permanented #* 13 Measurements Meteorology #* 14 #* 19 #* #* 7 6 #* 5 #* 2 Air quality #* 10 #* 11 #* 4 #* 3 #* 9 #* 1 #* 20 #* 8 #* 15 #* 17 #* 12 #* 16 #* 18

11 Substantial decline in traffic -22 % = passages Inner city: 15 % less total vehicle kms Goal was achieved!

12 Results Emissions Zone Skillnad i % Tidsperiod Pb Llb Tlb Buss Totalt ,1-17,4-4,5 34,8-17, ,9-12,3-8,8 17,3-16, ,8-19,3-6,9 21,3-17, ,9-13,5-10,7 7,1-10, ,5-15,0-7,8 18,4-15,5 Goal was achieved! Decrease in city centre 2006: tonnes/ year % Nitrogen oxides, NOx 45-8,5 Carbon monoxide, CO Particles, PM10 total wear particles exhaust particles 1,8-12 Hydrocarbons, VOC benzene 3,4-14 Carbon dioxide, CO

13 Limit values for PM10 and NO2 not achieved Streets marked with red exceed limit value for PM10 City centre Kilometer Kilometer

14 PM10 Comparison w EU-directive STILL EXCEEDED

15 Better air quality particles, PM10 Roof level, city centre ca 2 % decrease ca 0,5 % increase Street level, city centre 4-8 % decrease

16 Better air quality exhaust particles Roof level, city centre 5-6 % decrease ca 1 % increase Street level, city centre 5-10 % decrease

17 Small changes in population weighted mean concentrations

18 Effects on health Observed exposure- response relations: Holland, New Zeeland, France: 12%, 13%, 14 % increase per 10 µg/m 3 NO2 Norway (Oslo) 8 % increased mortality per 10 µg/m 3 NOx (Nafstad et al., 2004) Effect of Stockholm trial on 1.4 Million people: NOx decrease of 0,23 µg/m 3 (weighted conc. for population) Expected to give fewer premature deaths per year (based on Nafstad et al., 2004)

19 Cost benefit surplus Cost of trial: SEK 2.6 billion Annual surplus: SEK 760 million/year Shorter travel times Increased road safety Health & Environment 4 years payback time

20 Optimal abatement? Action Coarse PM inner city UFP inner city Possible health improvement? Congestion tax (City centre) Small reduction (-2% PM10 annual mean UB, less traffic) Reduction (-6% annual mean PNC UB, less traffic) Improved health for cardiovascular illness and mortality (Long term effect) Studded tire restrictions Large reduction (-20%-40%(?) annual mean PM10 UB, lower emissions) No effect Improved health among those with respiratory illness (Seasonal effects) Petrol tax Small reduction (0%-1% annual mean PM10 UB, less traffic) Small reduction (0-2% annual mean PNC UB, less traffic) Same as congestion tax but less efficient reduction where people live Parking policy Small reduction (-2%? annual mean PM10 UB, less traffic) Reduction (-6%? annual mean PNC UB, less traffic) Same as congestion tax Dust binding (main roads) Large reduction but only peak values (-20% - -30% peak daily PM10 values along roads) No effect Mainly peak coarse PM. Short term (?) improvement of health among those with respiratory illness Environmental zone (HDV) No effect Substantial effect (-10%? PNC UB, less emissions) UB = Urban background, UFP = Ultrafine particles (<100 nm), HDV = Heavy duty vehicles Improved health mainly for cardio- vascular illness and mortality (long term)

21 References Johansson et al., The Stockholm Trial effects on air quality and health. EHPA, SLB 4: Filleul, L., et al. Twenty five year mortality and air pollution results from the French PAARC survey. 2005, 62, Brunekreef, B., & Forsberg, B. Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health. Eur. Respir. J., 2005, Gehring, U. et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality in women. Epidemiology, 2006, 17, Hoek G et al. (2002). Association between mortality and indicators of trafficrelated air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. Lancet, 360(9341): Nafstad, P., Haheim, LL., Wislof, T, Gram, F., Oftedal, B., Holme I. Urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Norwegian men. Environ health Perspective. 2004, 112, Scoggins, A. Kjellström, T., Fisher G., Connor, J., Gimson, N. Spatial analysis of annual air pollution and mortality. Sci. Total Environ., 2004, 321,

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