4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion

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1 4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion I. Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimatize and consolidate their power II. Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres III. Competition over trade routes, state rivalries, and local resistance all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion

2 I. Rulers and Their Power A. Rulers used the arts to display political power and to legitimatize their rule. Examples of the arts to display political power: Monumental architecture Urban design Courtly literature The visual arts B. Rulers continued to use religious ideas to legitimize their rule. Examples of religious ideas: European notions of divine right Safavid use of Shiism Mexica or Aztec practice of human sacrifice Songhay promotion of Islam Chinese emperors public performance of Confucian rituals

3 I. Rulers and Their Power C. States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state. Examples of differential treatment of ethnic and religious groups: Ottoman treatment of non-muslim subjects Manchu policies toward Chinese Spanish creation of a separate República de Indios D. Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources. Examples of bureaucratic elites or military professionals: Ottoman devshirme Chinese examination system Salaried samurai E. Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial.

4 II. Imperial Expansion A. Euros established new trading-post empires in Af and As, which proved profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in new global trade networks, but these empires also affected the power of the states in interior W and C Af. B. Land empires expanded dramatically in size. Examples of land empires: Manchus Mughals Ottomans Russians C. European states established new maritime empires in the Americas. Examples of maritime empires: Portuguese Spanish Dutch French British

5 III. Competition and Challenges A. Examples of competition over trade routes: Omani-European rivalry in the IO Piracy in the Caribbean B. Examples of state rivalries: Thirty Years War Ottoman-Safavid conflict C. Examples of local resistance: Food riots Samurai revolts Peasant uprisings

6

7 The Scientific Revolution in the early modern era a. was largely conducted by men who had already rejected basic beliefs of the Christian faith. b. confirmed the teaching and the authority of the Church and therefore was sponsored by it. c. fundamentally altered ideas about the place of humankind within the cosmos. d. drew nearly all its leading figures from England.

8 C Answer

9 The spread of Christianity beyond Europe in the early modern era a. occurred only where European powers dominated politically. b. had its greatest long-term success in areas where large-scale social disruption had weakened older belief systems. c. had its greatest long-term successes in China and Japan. d. was accomplished by the elimination of traditional religious beliefs.

10 B Answer

11 Which of the following is a true statement concerning Christianity and Islam during the early modern era? a. Islam spread to few new regions during the period, while Christianity spread to many new regions. b. Declining numbers of people continued to practice Christianity, while growing numbers adopted Islam. c. Both Islam and Christianity became more exclusive religions that shunned converts. d. The spread of Islam during the early modern era relied less on conquest and colonization than the spread of Christianity.

12 D Answer

13

14 Which do you feel had the greatest impact on world history during the early modern era? a. The spread of Islam to new regions b. The spread of Christianity to new regions c. The spread of modern science d. The continued practice of established religious traditions in areas where they had long been followed

15 From the perspective of an eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinker, which of the following nineteenth-century ideas do you believe would be most unsettling? a. Freud s idea that at their core human beings are not driven by a rational mind but rather by primal impulses. b. The view of Marx that change in human history was achieved through struggle not reason. c. Darwin s idea that evolution through the competition of natural selection led to success of one species over another. d. The view of both Marx and Darwin that conflict and struggle rather than reason and education were the motors of progress.

16 Taken as a whole, was the Scientific Revolution beneficial or not for humankind? a. The Scientific Revolution was beneficial for humankind b. The Scientific Revolution was harmful for humankind.

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