COMPARATIVE CO2 EMISSIONS CONSIDERATIONS IN STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "COMPARATIVE CO2 EMISSIONS CONSIDERATIONS IN STEEL CONSTRUCTION"

Transcription

1 4 th International Conference on Steel & Composite Structures Wednesday 21- Friday 23 July 2010 Sydney, Australia COMPARATIVE CO2 EMISSIONS CONSIDERATIONS IN STEEL CONSTRUCTION M. RODDY 1, R. SERRETTE 2 1 Researcher, Pacific Energy Management, Vashon, Washington, USA 2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California, USA 1. RESEARCH GOALS There is a shortage of reliable information on CO2 emissions of homebuilding materials, for a variety of reasons. We chose to focus on an American house s structural system, and to engineer and design a single house, but with three common structural systems: cold-formed galvanized steel, timber, and concrete masonry units (CMU). This approach is not new, since the United States (US) timber industry s CORRIM report made a similar effort in However, the results from that report, which included a Life Cycle Inventory, do not appear to be consistent with currently available carbon accounting methods. Neither the engineering nor the carbon accounting methodology adopted in the CORRIM report was performed in a sufficiently thorough and scientifically sound manner. This was particularly the case for the timber house analysis where logging site CO2 emissions were apparently underreported and harvested wood products (HWP) sequestration over-reported. In the same report, emissions for steel appear to be exaggerated, since three of the four reference mills were older basic oxygen furnace (BOF) facilities, and not reflective of advancements in the industry. For lack of a detailed alternate analysis, CORRIM at times has been relied on by architects and specifiers, to the detriment of credible accounting for the different products emissions burdens. The analysis in this paper will attempt to report each industry s emissions burden in a way that is consistent with current technical knowledge, and corresponds with typical building practices. Several strategies were employed in order to achieve this goal.

2 2. HOUSE DESIGN AND ENGINEERING A modest single-story house, Figure 1, located in Texas was chosen for this comparative analysis a ranch style home containing three bedrooms, two baths, and a garage, common in the US. Living space was approximately 116 square meters, plus an attached 47 square meter garage and storage area. Figure 1: Single-story house The structural systems for all three construction materials cold-formed steel framing, timber framing, and CMU block were designed by profession engineers. General contractors then developed cut lists and block totals from engineered drawings. For the steel version of the house, two different approaches were taken: standard profiles, using mostly 0.84 mm (33 mil) material for field framing and high tensile strength 414 MPa (60 ksi) steel combined with more advanced roof truss geometries. Both approaches are common in the US. We then obtained an average total steel weight figure from the two designs. Wood sheathing for the roof was not included, since these elements would be identical for all three houses. For the wood house, two general contractors (unknown to each other) were asked to develop lumber takeoffs based on the US prescriptive code. Wind and seismic loads were minimal in this location. The lumber takeoffs generated by the contractors were averaged and the average total board footage figure was employed in this analysis. Since emissions and not cost were being calculated, we added 15% for lumber yard and site cull a figure deemed conservative. One weakness in the wood calculation is the difficulty in analyzing the relationship between finished wood products and industrial roundwood consumption, which does not allow for mill waste and other factors. By using a 25% figure for mill waste, in addition to cull, we arrived at a CO2 emissions estimate with a standard deviation of 2.5 tons of CO2 emissions for the sample house. The block house was engineered using empirical codes for the same location. We then submitted the drawings to a masonry contractor, who developed a block materials list, plus a wastage allowance. Only one block takeoff was collected, assuming variances in builders block totals for walls would be minimal.

3 A 5% breakage figure was added. The roof was framed in steel, so that total structural emissions could be calculated. Units of measurement were kilograms of steel, cubic meters for wood, and kilograms for CMU blocks plus steel trusses. This corresponds to building practices and emissions calculations in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions reports. 3. CO2 EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY In the US, industry CO2 emissions are calculated by the respective trade associations, in compliance with EPA reporting requirements. The American steel industry, whose total pollutants are monitored regularly, submits emissions reports that are practically non-controversial. The number of steel mills in the US is relatively small, and each is subject to regular inspections by EPA officials. Concrete block manufacturing is more dispersed and variable, but rough industry emissions averages are obtainable from the concrete and masonry trade associations. Timber emissions resulting from logging operations in a variety of circumstances are more difficult to calculate. Unlike other countries, the US timber industry reports only net sequestration in emissions reports, so there is no separate category for logging produced emissions. Our three emissions estimate approaches for the different material industries follow. 3.1 Cold-formed steel emissions estimates Data from the three most recent available years was collected: 2006, 2007, and Tonnage was averaged for these years, yielding a figure of 93.8 million metric tons (Mmt). About 57% of this steel is produced by electric arc furnace (EAF) mills and 43% by BOF integrated mills. Average annual CO2 emissions for the US steel industry for were Mmt per year 1. This overall industry figure, with a CO2 emissions intensity of 1.19, was used to calculate emissions for the steel elements in the Texas house. While emissions vary among the different steel technologies, and even in different mills, we decided to use the gross US industry figure. It is not possible to accurately calculate the percentage of coiled sheets for construction elements that originate from the various production sources. This is particularly true because as steel s market share increases, EAF mills will produce more of the material than they do currently, reversing existing ratios. 3.2 CMU industry emissions estimates 2006 concrete emissions, for both process and energy use, were reported at Mmt CO2 in EPA reports to the Energy Information Agency 2. The market share of CMU is not available, so we relied on recommended weight formulas in order to estimate annual emissions. The weight of CMU block for the sample house was estimated at 76 metric tons of concrete and mortar. By calculating 8% emissions by weight of CMU, a reasonable emissions figure can be determined. Steel trusses for the CMU house were added to the total emissions burden of the CMU house.

4 3.3 Timber industry emissions estimates The US timber industry does not report logging emissions to either Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the US is not a Kyoto signatory) or to EPA. Values were arrived at through several methods: assessing comparable softwood timber producers reported emissions, in this case Canada and Sweden 3, evaluating rough submittals in EPA annexes 4 and relying on the professional literature. One such study by Heath and Birdsey, US Forest Service carbon scientists, estimated the long term sequestration value of a no logging scenario in the US at billion tons of CO2 emissions annually 5. Figure 2 illustrates forest carbon flux after a clearcut harvest. Note that the site vegetation does not begin to achieve net sequestration for a number of years, since wood products, slash, and litter are decaying faster than growth occurs. It takes 200 years or more before the site sequesters the amount of carbon held previously. This and related data should provide incentives for the steel industry to move toward promoting product substitution as a way to help slow global warming- a claim that the timber industry makes in reverse, but without evidence. Figure 2: Land use effects on spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage and their flux in PNW forests (adapted with permission from a slide presentation by David Wallin, University of Western Washington, 2004) CO2 intensity for logging is roughly estimated at 0.96 Mmt of CO2 per cubic meter of industrial roundwood production, based on typical country forestry emissions reports. The US Department of Agriculture 6 reported 2005 US wood products consumption at 599,523 cubic meters, a figure which includes consumption of imported wood products. US CO2 emissions from consuming wood products are therefore estimated at Mmt annually. This figure does not include site emissions from soil, and follows Kyoto protocols in not allowing for harvested wood products (HWP) sequestration. These two data input omissions approximately balance out. HWP carbon sequestration is only 15% of site emissions according to accepted carbon science calculations (see Figure 3).

5 Figure 3: Percent of carbon stored in wood products (adapted with permission from a slide presentation by Ann Ingerson, The Wilderness Society, US Forest Carbon and Climate Change, 2007 Soil emissions tend to be higher than 15%, but since this figure cannot be easily quantified due to the many variables, the 575 Mmt of CO2 emissions attributed to US wood products consumption is a reasonable figure. Emissions caused by logging are measured on site and are not controversial among scientists, with minor exceptions regarding measurements and methodology. To the authors knowledge, this information is not released by the US timber industry in the US and may be one contributing factor to often citied smaller energy intensity of timber in terms of CO2 emissions burdens. 4. EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR SAMPLE HOUSE Slightly different methods were used to arrive at each structural material s CO2 emissions score reported in Table 1. Since wood panel roof sheathing is assumed to be identical for each house, this material was not included in the emissions calculations. Steel and masonry calculations are roughly accurate, but there are minor uncertainties in the timber calculation, which are reflected in the standard deviation. CMU Steel Framed Wall Steel Trusses Timber Framed Material 4.45 (tons) 68.9 (tons) 2.16 (tons) 24.5 m 3 ± 2.5 m 3 CO2 Intensiy 1.19 /ton 0.08 /ton 1.19 /ton 0.96 /m 3 CO2 Emissions 5.30 (Mt) 5.51 (Mt) 2.57 (Mt) 23.5 (Mt) CO2 Index Table 1: CO2 emissions for steel, CMU and timber houses

6 5. DISCUSSION The methodology discussed in this paper follows US government reports, and will vary in other countries, depending on steel, concrete, and wood technologies employed, but the rough ratios and trend would be the same. Long term, trends will favor steel, as energy intensity is on a downward trend, and less so timber, since climate disruption is increasing tree mortality worldwide. Degraded forest habitat from industrial logging is a very significant factor in this mortality, but this is not factored into the above emissions calculations. 6. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS The international housing industry has an historic opportunity to make substantial contributions toward reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere by considering a more accurate and complete assessment of emissions locally and globally. To enable this opportunity, a task force should be established to provide extensive scientific justification, and standard measurements and methods to corroborate the claims made in this paper. This will require independent studies in a number of countries, to include local forest sequestration opportunities and targeted markets. Together we can develop this exciting opportunity. Persistence, funding, and disciplined in seeking out the highest quality science are the main requirements. 7. REFERENCES [1] American Iron and Steel Institute, March 2010 private communication re EPA submittals. [2] US Energy Information Administration, 2007 Emissions and Sinks [3] UNFCC, Estimation, Reporting, and Accounting of Harvested Wood Products, GCCC/7P/2003/7, Oct 2003 [4] US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007, LULUCF & Annex 3, Table 200 [5] Heath and Birdsey, Carbon trends of productive temperate forests of the coterminous United States, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Volume 70, Oct [6] United States Department of Agriculture, Statistical Tables, 2007

BIOENERGY (FROM NORWEGIAN FORESTS) GOOD OR BAD FOR THE CLIMATE?

BIOENERGY (FROM NORWEGIAN FORESTS) GOOD OR BAD FOR THE CLIMATE? Presentation at NordGen Skog conference Odense, September 13-14, 2011 BIOENERGY (FROM NORWEGIAN FORESTS) GOOD OR BAD FOR THE CLIMATE? Per Kristian Rørstad Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management

More information

Six greenhouse gases covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol are:

Six greenhouse gases covered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol are: Fact sheet: The need for mitigation United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Along with adaptation, mitigation is one of the two central approaches in the international climate change process.

More information

Forests, the International Climate Policy Framework and the 2050 Low Carbon Roadmap

Forests, the International Climate Policy Framework and the 2050 Low Carbon Roadmap Forests, the International Climate Policy Framework and the 2050 Low Carbon Roadmap David Ellison Hans Petersson Mattias Lundblad (Prepared for the Workshop on Climate Change and Forestry in Northern Europe,

More information

Forest carbon sequestration and climate change. Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin

Forest carbon sequestration and climate change. Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin Forest carbon sequestration and climate change Dr Brian Tobin University College Dublin Overview Sequestration what is it & why important? Role of forests in climate change CARBiFOR research project Forest

More information

5.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL

5.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL 0 0 0. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL.. Introduction The IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management (GPG000, IPCC, 000), Chapter, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, defines quality

More information

Green From The Start

Green From The Start PACKING EXPOSURE 75 sq. ft. (7.0 m 2) R Our Blue Label... 1963,1998, 2002 007 CERTI-SPLIT Handsplit Red Cedar Shakes CEDAR SHAKE & SHINGLE BUREAU THE RECOGNIZED AUTHORITY SINCE 1915 SUMAS, WASHINGTON (604)

More information

Metric Tons of Carbon per billion BTU (1994 value)

Metric Tons of Carbon per billion BTU (1994 value) Table 3. Carbon Content of Fuels. (Source: Energy Information Administration 1994) Fuel type Metric Tons of Carbon per billion BTU (1994 value) Coal 25.61 Coal (electricity generation) 25.71 Natural gas

More information

Environmental Benefits of Wood Products. Prepared by the Oregon Forest Resources Institute

Environmental Benefits of Wood Products. Prepared by the Oregon Forest Resources Institute Environmental Benefits of Wood Products Prepared by the Oregon Forest Resources Institute Summary To moderate society s environmental impact, including human-produced greenhouse gases, we must make informed

More information

Global Forest-Products Markets and Canadian Wood Supply

Global Forest-Products Markets and Canadian Wood Supply Global Forest-Products Markets and Canadian Wood Supply Vic Adamowicz, Ann Boyda and Paul McFarlane Report #2 in the Series on Drivers of Change in Canada s Forests and Forest Sector, prepared for the

More information

Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt

Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt Background for marketing carbon from forest growth in the US. B.S. Folegatti and M.F. Smidt Global Warming The global climate is believed to be changing in response to the release of large amounts of heat-trapping

More information

Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners. Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service

Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners. Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service Carbon Credits: An Opportunity for Forest Landowners Hughes Simpson Texas Forest Service Carbon and Greenhouse Gases How can we mitigate Carbon / GHGs? Reduce emissions Stop burning fossil fuels Improve

More information

Comparison of Logging Residue from Lump Sum and Log Scale Timber Sales James O. Howard and Donald J. DeMars

Comparison of Logging Residue from Lump Sum and Log Scale Timber Sales James O. Howard and Donald J. DeMars United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Research Paper PNW-337 May 1985 Comparison of Logging Residue from Lump Sum and Log Scale Timber

More information

Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada

Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada Establishing ecologically sustainable forest biomass supply chains: A case study in the boreal forest of Canada Evelyne Thiffault Canadian Forest Service David Paré Canadian Forest Service Sylvain Volpé

More information

Forest-Climate Working Group:

Forest-Climate Working Group: Forest-Climate Working Group: Policy Platform 1 Forest-Climate Working Group: Policy Platform Endorsing Organizations American Bird Conservancy American Forest & Paper Association American Forest Foundation

More information

THE NATURE OF THE WOOD PELLET SUPPLY TO THE UK

THE NATURE OF THE WOOD PELLET SUPPLY TO THE UK THE NATURE OF THE WOOD PELLET SUPPLY TO THE UK Carly Whittaker Rothamsted Research Torrefaction workshop 2 nd April 2014 University of Leeds Rothamsted Research MSc Forest Protection and conservation at

More information

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Unit 8: Global Problems Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management 1. Forests Types & Importance 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical Deforestation clearing & degrading

More information

Appendix B Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Forecast Methodology

Appendix B Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Forecast Methodology Appendix B Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Forecast Methodology GHG Inventory Methodology This appendix contains an explanation of the methodology used to calculate GHG emissions for Monterey County

More information

Q1. What are some of the advantages of biomass energy production?

Q1. What are some of the advantages of biomass energy production? WFPA Biomass Q&A Q1. What are some of the advantages of biomass energy production? A. Biomass is a renewable energy source, because the planting and growth of new plants and trees replenishes the supply,

More information

Emission Facts. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle

Emission Facts. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle Office of Transportation and Air Quality EPA420-F-05-004 February 2005 Emission Facts Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Typical Passenger Vehicle The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed

More information

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET

Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon. fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon Coastal Blue Carbon - An Important Wetland Ecosystem Service Coastal Blue Carbon refers to the

More information

NZ WOOD Our Endlessly Renewable Environmentally Friendly Resource

NZ WOOD Our Endlessly Renewable Environmentally Friendly Resource NZ WOOD Our Endlessly Renewable Environmentally Friendly Resource Cross curricular activities and investigations brought to you by www.woodcareers.co.nz www.nzwood.co.nz Session Index Curriculum Areas...1

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE UNITED NATIONS 1998 KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Protocol,

More information

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE

Residential & Commercial Sectors Overview CLIMATE CLIMATE TECHBOOK Residential and Commercial Emissions in the United States Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data can be reported either by economic sector, which includes electric power generation as a separate

More information

Where does carbon come from?

Where does carbon come from? Where does carbon come from? What are Carbon Sinks? Presentation by Jutta Kill SinksWatch jutta@fern.org www.sinkswatch.org Carbon dioxide is a gas that is created when carbon (C) comes in contact with

More information

Carbon Sequestration Tool Background and User Guide

Carbon Sequestration Tool Background and User Guide Carbon Sequestration Tool Background and User Guide Table of Contents Quick Start Methodology Content of Worksheets Frequently Asked Questions Quick Start 1. Determine which of the two carbon tools you

More information

A Comparative study of housing life-cycle carbon emissions for the characteristics of structural materials

A Comparative study of housing life-cycle carbon emissions for the characteristics of structural materials A Comparative study of housing life-cycle carbon emissions for the characteristics of structural Ji-yeon Park 1, Chang-u Chae 2, Sung-hee Kim 3 1 Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology,

More information

PROJECT NAME: RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTE TO MANUFACTURE BUILDING MATERIALS (PLASTIC LUMBER)

PROJECT NAME: RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTE TO MANUFACTURE BUILDING MATERIALS (PLASTIC LUMBER) PROJECT NAME: RECYCLING PLASTIC WASTE TO MANUFACTURE BUILDING MATERIALS (PLASTIC LUMBER) a) INTRODUCTION EcoAct is a registered social enterprise established to address the challenges of plastic pollution,

More information

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL ACCOUNTING FOR S NATURAL CAPITAL DRIVING THE TRANSITION TO A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT GREEN ECONOMY Asia s rapid economic growth during recent decades has been accompanied by serious depletion of the region

More information

Impact of Katrina on U.S. Housing Markets: Building Codes Change in Response to Catastrophic Risk

Impact of Katrina on U.S. Housing Markets: Building Codes Change in Response to Catastrophic Risk Impact of Katrina on U.S. Housing Markets: Building Codes Change in Response to Catastrophic Risk 49 th Annual Convention Society of Wood Science and Technology Delton Alderman USDA Forest Service Al Schuler

More information

Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project. Frequently Asked Questions

Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project. Frequently Asked Questions Western Nevada County Biomass Utilization Feasibility Project Frequently Asked Questions Q: What is woody biomass and where does it come from? A: Woody biomass for the Nevada County project will primarily

More information

AVON PRODUCTS, INC. THE AVON PAPER PROMISE

AVON PRODUCTS, INC. THE AVON PAPER PROMISE AVON PRODUCTS, INC. THE AVON PAPER PROMISE I. VISION & PREAMBLE Avon Products, Inc. recognizes that business leadership carries a responsibility to the environment and the world's forests. The global pulp

More information

David Cohen, Associate Professor, and Ilan Vertinsky, Professor University of British Columbia, Canada

David Cohen, Associate Professor, and Ilan Vertinsky, Professor University of British Columbia, Canada Policy Issues in Sustainable Commercial Forestry and Trade in China: The Logging Ban and Entry to the WTO David Cohen, Associate Professor, and Ilan Vertinsky, Professor University of British Columbia,

More information

CCX Forestry Carbon Offset Programs

CCX Forestry Carbon Offset Programs CCX Forestry Carbon Offset Programs Status of the U.S. Carbon Market A developing, voluntary market No national, regulatory greenhouse gas reduction scheme YET! Many local, state, and regional systems

More information

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management tutorial by Paul Rich 1. Forests Types & Importance Outline 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical

More information

Comparison of emission sources and emission trends among OECD countries

Comparison of emission sources and emission trends among OECD countries THE AUSTRALIA INSTITUTE Comparison of emission sources and emission trends among OECD countries A report prepared for the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering by Clive Hamilton

More information

FOREST MANAGEMENT REFERENCE LEVEL

FOREST MANAGEMENT REFERENCE LEVEL SUBMISSION BY THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA I. Introduction FOREST MANAGEMENT REFERENCE LEVEL MARCH 2011 1. There is a general recognition among Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

More information

Wood: Sustainable Building Solutions APA THE ENGINEERED WOOD ASSOCIATION

Wood: Sustainable Building Solutions APA THE ENGINEERED WOOD ASSOCIATION Wood: Sustainable Building Solutions APA THE ENGINEERED WOOD ASSOCIATION Sustainability. On the surface, it s a fairly basic concept: maximizing resources so as not to waste, damage, or deplete them. But

More information

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT Forging an effective response to climate change is one of the international community s highest priorities.

More information

Establishing Polygon Accuracy

Establishing Polygon Accuracy Establishing Polygon Accuracy by sampling for "Within-Polygon Variability (WPV)" in the Vegetation Inventory of British Columbia by: Kim Iles, Biometrician Kim Iles & Associates January, 1998 General Discussion

More information

Why are developing countries exempt from the emissions targets?

Why are developing countries exempt from the emissions targets? Kyoto Protocol Overview The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding, international agreement that sets targets for industrialized countries to limit or reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by the

More information

GLOBAL WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS FLOW

GLOBAL WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS FLOW ITEM 5 GLOBAL WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS FLOW TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES Table of Contents GLOBAL WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS FLOW - TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES... 1 SUMMARY... 2 INTRODUCTION... 3 INTERNATIONAL TRADE...

More information

The Forest Industry: harvest, demand and foreign trade

The Forest Industry: harvest, demand and foreign trade The Forest Industry: harvest, demand and foreign trade Timber Measurements Society Central Meeting April 10, 2014 Coeur d Alene, Idaho 2013 Forest2Market, Inc. 2 Forest2Market Data Experience Expertise

More information

Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (2): Protocols, Project Examples and Opportunities Andrea Tuttle*

Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (2): Protocols, Project Examples and Opportunities Andrea Tuttle* Forest Carbon for the Private Landowner (2): Protocols, Project Examples and Opportunities Andrea Tuttle* Go to presentation Slide 1. Carbon Assessments and Markets Hello, I'm Andrea Tuttle. I'm a former

More information

Using the Carbon Market to Provide Financial Support for Coastal Restoration and Protection. fact SHEET

Using the Carbon Market to Provide Financial Support for Coastal Restoration and Protection. fact SHEET Using the Carbon Market to Provide Financial Support for Coastal Restoration and Protection fact SHEET Using the Carbon Market to Provide Financial Support for Coastal Restoration and Protection Coastal

More information

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES Recent wildfire and Mountain pine beetle Devastation HAS led to NEW B.C. FOREST CARBON OFFSET INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON 1,000,000 hectares OF BC S forests REQUIRING NEW AND innovative reforestation solutions.

More information

Jeongho SEO, Kyeonghak LEE, Raehyun KIM Korea Forest Research Institute. 6~8. Sept. 2007 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Jeongho SEO, Kyeonghak LEE, Raehyun KIM Korea Forest Research Institute. 6~8. Sept. 2007 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5 th Workshop on GHG Inventory in Asia Jeongho SEO, Kyeonghak LEE, Raehyun KIM Korea Forest Research Institute 6~8. Sept. 2007 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Contents 1/ 32 Background 2/ 32 Land Use and Forestry

More information

A Streamlined Approach to the Component Ratio Method for RGGI U.S. Forest Projects Outside of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Hawaii

A Streamlined Approach to the Component Ratio Method for RGGI U.S. Forest Projects Outside of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Hawaii for RGGI U.S. Forest Projects Outside of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Hawaii May 13, 2015 Background on the Component Ratio Method... 2 Streamlined Approach to the Component Ratio Method...

More information

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change "Nuclear for Climate" is an initiative undertaken by the members of the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), the American Nuclear Society

More information

1. Quantifiable information on the reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year):

1. Quantifiable information on the reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year): Switzerland S w i t z e r l a n d s i n t e n d e d n a t i o n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d c o n t r i b u t i o n ( I N D C ) a n d c l a r i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n Switzerland is pleased to

More information

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint Marcelo E. Dias de Oliveira Dr: Burton Vaughan -adjunct professor Biological Sciences - WSU Dr: Edward Rykiel Jr - associate professor

More information

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions 12 12 Greenhouse gases (GHG) are naturally occurring gases in the earth s atmosphere that absorb and radiate infrared radiation (heat) reflected from the earth s surface. The most

More information

Building Division 209 Pearl Street Council Bluffs, IA Office: (712) Fax: (712) Website:

Building Division 209 Pearl Street Council Bluffs, IA Office: (712) Fax: (712) Website: Building Division 209 Pearl Street Council Bluffs, IA 51503 Office: (712) 328-4625 Fax: (712) 328-7007 Website: http://www.councilbluffs-ia.gov Residential One Story Detached Accessory Structure Please

More information

Scope 1 describes direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned by or under the direct control of the reporting entity;

Scope 1 describes direct greenhouse gas emissions from sources that are owned by or under the direct control of the reporting entity; 9 Greenhouse Gas Assessment 9.1 Introduction This chapter presents an assessment of the potential greenhouse gas emissions associated with the Simandou Railway and evaluates the significance of these in

More information

Carbon Cycling in Forests: Simple Simulation Models

Carbon Cycling in Forests: Simple Simulation Models Carbon Cycling in Forests: Simple Simulation Models 2001 Mark E. Harmon Richardson Professor in Forest Science Oregon State University Introduction This web document describes a series of simple models

More information

Economic Development and the Risk of Global Climate Change

Economic Development and the Risk of Global Climate Change 14 Economic Development and the Risk of Global Climate Change Who is primarily responsible for creating the risk of global climate change? 78 Since the industrial revolution, economic development has been

More information

Development of Chinese Light Steel Construction Residential Buildings

Development of Chinese Light Steel Construction Residential Buildings Development of Chinese Light Steel Construction Residential Buildings Sanyuan Shi & Juan Yu Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China E-mail: yujuanhbgcdx83@163.com Abstract Building systems

More information

OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD ROOF SYSTEMS CHINA

OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD ROOF SYSTEMS CHINA OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD ROOF SYSTEMS CHINA People s Republic of China Edited by: David Cartwright Marketing Consultant December 2003 Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary 5 2. Introduction 8 3. Current

More information

Residential Building Permits

Residential Building Permits LANE COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS Residential Building Permits LAND MANAGEMENT DIVISION 3050 N. DELTA HWY, EUGENE OR 97408 i CONTACT PHONE NUMBERS: Building Program: (541) 682-4651 Inspection Requests: (888) 299-2821

More information

NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION PACKET

NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION PACKET NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION PACKET For questions regarding the information in this packet please contact the Clinton City Community Development Department at (801) 614-0740. CLINTON CITY RESIDENTIAL

More information

Timber Piling Life Expectancy Guide

Timber Piling Life Expectancy Guide Timber Piling Life Expectancy Guide Revision 1 26 July 2010 Preface This document is intended to bring together a combination of piling history, Koppers experiences, technical information and standards

More information

3.2 FOREST LAND Forest Land Remaining Forest Land. Forest Land

3.2 FOREST LAND Forest Land Remaining Forest Land. Forest Land Forest Land 3.2 FOREST LAND This section of the Guidance provides methods for estimating carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with changes in biomass and soil organic

More information

Deforestation Survey 2014

Deforestation Survey 2014 Deforestation Survey 2014 MPI Technical Paper 2015/05 Prepared for the Ministry for Primary Industries by Professor Bruce Manley NZ School of Forestry University of Canterbury ISBN No.: 978-0-477-10571-2

More information

Estimating the net emission of CO2 from 1831 harvested wood products

Estimating the net emission of CO2 from 1831 harvested wood products ISBN 82-7655-429-6 Price NOK 75,- Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) was established in 1974 as a directorate under the Norwegian Ministry of Environment. Our goal is to promote sustainable development.we

More information

Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing

Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing Gazi University Journal of Science GU J Sci 24(3):585-591 (2011) www.gujs.org Assessment of Environmental Impact of Thai Housing Nachawit TIKUL 1 and Panya SRICHANDR 2 1 Industrial Management and Technology,

More information

Science Rationale. Status of Deforestation Measurement. Main points for carbon. Measurement needs. Some Comments Dave Skole

Science Rationale. Status of Deforestation Measurement. Main points for carbon. Measurement needs. Some Comments Dave Skole Science Rationale Status of Deforestation Measurement Some Comments Dave Skole Tropical deforestation is related to: Carbon cycle and biotic emissions/sequestration Ecosystems and biodiversity Water and

More information

Unit 6: Homework Questions

Unit 6: Homework Questions 1. The most sustainable type of development is: A) dispersed development B) compact development C) satellite development D) corridor development E) strip development 2. Urban sprawl is synonymous with

More information

Submission by Norway to the ADP

Submission by Norway to the ADP Submission by Norway to the ADP Norway s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution 1. Introduction Norway is fully committed to the UNFCCC negotiation process towards adopting at COP21 a protocol, another

More information

This document is a preview generated by EVS

This document is a preview generated by EVS INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14404-2 First edition 2013-03-15 Calculation method of carbon dioxide emission intensity from iron and steel production Part 2: Steel plant with electric arc furnace (EAF) Méthode

More information

SOLAR POWER SET PURE GREEN PERFORMANCE

SOLAR POWER SET PURE GREEN PERFORMANCE SOLAR POWER SET PURE GREEN PERFORMANCE Highlights InnoVentum s Solar Power Set is a stand-alone 2 kwp module for generation of electricity with solar panels, suitable for residential as well as industrial

More information

REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER 1997. Addendum

REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER 1997. Addendum UNITED NATIONS Distr. GENERAL FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1 25 March 1998 Original: ENGLISH CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES ON ITS THIRD SESSION, HELD AT KYOTO FROM 1 TO 11 DECEMBER

More information

A Diversified Forest Plantation Investment Opportunity in Western Australia s Great Southern

A Diversified Forest Plantation Investment Opportunity in Western Australia s Great Southern A Diversified Forest Plantation Investment Opportunity in Western Australia s Great Southern Tom Gaman Forest Data Corp Inverness, California 94937 tgaman@forestdata.com High grade paper chips Lignor Sandalwood

More information

Accounting rules: the International Debate and National Practices

Accounting rules: the International Debate and National Practices Accounting rules: the International Debate and National Practices 16.4.2015 Global Workshop on Intended Nationally Determined Contributions Anke Herold, Öko-Institut, a.herold@oeko.de 1 Background 2 Kapitelüberschrift

More information

iomass Sustainability Analysis Summary Report Contents Biomass Sustainability Analysis April Why use biomass to produce electricity?

iomass Sustainability Analysis Summary Report Contents Biomass Sustainability Analysis April Why use biomass to produce electricity? Biomass Sustainability Analysis 1 iomass Sustainability Analysis Summary Report April 2011 Contents 2. Why use biomass to produce electricity? 4. Biomass: A renewable resource 6. Sustainability criteria

More information

Review Timber as a Building Material - An environmental comparison against synthetic building materials

Review Timber as a Building Material - An environmental comparison against synthetic building materials NAFI N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s L t d Review Timber as a Building Material - An environmental comparison against synthetic building materials By Phil Townsend

More information

Copyright Materials. What is a Panelized Roof? Pre-fabricated roof sections lifted into place Safety, cost, speed

Copyright Materials. What is a Panelized Roof? Pre-fabricated roof sections lifted into place Safety, cost, speed All-Wood and Hybrid Panelized Roof Structure Systems Cost Effective Roof Solutions The Wood Products Council is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems

More information

CITY OF BERKELEY BUILDING PERMIT DETAILED CHECKLIST

CITY OF BERKELEY BUILDING PERMIT DETAILED CHECKLIST CITY OF BERKELEY DETAILED CHECKLIST This checklist will assist you in preparing plans for submittal with a building permit application. Alterations, additions and remodeling projects may not require all

More information

Australian forest and wood products statistics March and June quarters 2013

Australian forest and wood products statistics March and June quarters 2013 Australian forest and wood products statistics March and June quarters 2013 Research by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences NOVEMBER 2013 Commonwealth of Australia

More information

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products?

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? Science S Theory Lesson Lesson information Level: Junior secondary school Year 10 Duration: Summary: Approximately 3 lessons Sustainably managed forests

More information

North American Climate Leadership

North American Climate Leadership North American Climate Leadership A road map for global action on methane Failing to take action on methane would be a major missed opportunity to tackle near-term warming as the necessary longerterm reductions

More information

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY The first step in developing a plan to reduce greenhouse gases was to identify sources and quantities of greenhouse gases emitted in Fort Collins. An emissions inventory

More information

To approve Intended Nationally Determined Contributions of the Republic of Armenia under the UNFCCC according to the following Annex.

To approve Intended Nationally Determined Contributions of the Republic of Armenia under the UNFCCC according to the following Annex. Protocol Decision No 41, 10 September, 2015 Government of the Republic of Armenia On approving the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions of the Republic of Armenia under the UN Framework Convention

More information

Table 1: Construction methods used in the LCA and volumes of wood used in each

Table 1: Construction methods used in the LCA and volumes of wood used in each An investigation by RMIT into the environmental impact of various building materials for a standard house design using life cycle assessment has demonstrated that the use of wood products rather than alternative

More information

Carbon Accounting Protocols for Forestry:

Carbon Accounting Protocols for Forestry: Carbon Accounting Protocols for Forestry: A Review and Comparison Steve Mader, CH2M HILL, Inc. Focus of the Protocol Study Review existing forest sector protocols for measuring carbon stocks and flows

More information

Iron and Steel Manufacturing

Iron and Steel Manufacturing Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook WORLD BANK GROUP Effective July 1998 Iron and Steel Manufacturing Industry Description and Practices Steel is manufactured by the chemical reduction of iron

More information

Comprehensive emissions per capita for industrialised countries

Comprehensive emissions per capita for industrialised countries THE AUSTRALIA INSTITUTE Comprehensive emissions per capita for industrialised countries Hal Turton and Clive Hamilton The Australia Institute September 2001 the Parties included in Annex I shall implement

More information

Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Efficiency Metrics for Projects, Specific Plans, General Plans, and Climate Action Plans

Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Efficiency Metrics for Projects, Specific Plans, General Plans, and Climate Action Plans Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Efficiency Metrics for Projects, Specific Plans, General Plans, and Climate Action Plans Extended Abstract # 15 Whitney R. Leeman, J. Matthew Gerken, and Jeffrey A. Henderson

More information

Why this study? Canada s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Developments, Prospects and Reductions. PBO mandate to examine trends in Canadian economy

Why this study? Canada s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Developments, Prospects and Reductions. PBO mandate to examine trends in Canadian economy Canada s Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Developments, Prospects and Reductions Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer April 21, 216 Why this study? PBO mandate to examine trends in Canadian economy Index

More information

Need for up-to-date data to support inventory compilers in implementing IPCC methodologies to estimate emissions and removals for AFOLU Sector

Need for up-to-date data to support inventory compilers in implementing IPCC methodologies to estimate emissions and removals for AFOLU Sector Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Need for up-to-date data to support inventory compilers in implementing IPCC methodologies to estimate emissions and removals for AFOLU Sector Joint FAO-IPCC-IFAD

More information

WORKING PAPER. Institute for Economics

WORKING PAPER. Institute for Economics WORKING PAPER Institute for Economics Integration of harvested wood products into accounting approaches of the carbon dioxide cycle in the forestry sector by Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

More information

Best Practices for Including Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Inventories

Best Practices for Including Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Inventories Best Practices for Including Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Inventories Amelia Ravin, AICP, LEED AP CDM, 50 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 ravinal@cdm.com Teresa Raine CDM, 18581 Teller Avenue,

More information

Norwegian Forests. Policy and Resources

Norwegian Forests. Policy and Resources Norwegian Forests Policy and Resources 21 Forestry in Norway Norway has long traditions in forestry and forest management, and for using wood in construction and as a source of energy. Sawn wood and round

More information

The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2009 Sustainable Sites Initiative

The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2009 Sustainable Sites Initiative The Sustainable Sites Initiative: Future Business Opportunities? 2 Sustainable Sites Initiative Business Opportunities!! professionals become registered, then consult! collaboration with other firms! public

More information

SIP (STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL)

SIP (STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL) SIP (STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL) KINGSPAN TEK ACORN SIP ABSTRACT BUILDING SERVICES Ltd Kingspan TEK is the manufacturer and supplier of the panels and components. Acorn SIP are the Architects who individually

More information

11 th Workshop on GHG Inventories in Asia (WGIA11)

11 th Workshop on GHG Inventories in Asia (WGIA11) 11 th Workshop on GHG Inventories in Asia (WGIA11) 1994 Malaysia Ratified UNFCCC 2000 Initial National Communication 2009 National Green Technology & Climate Change Council 2012 to date Preparation of

More information

Fact sheet: STEPPING UP INTERNATIONAL ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Road to Copenhagen

Fact sheet: STEPPING UP INTERNATIONAL ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Road to Copenhagen Fact sheet: STEPPING UP INTERNATIONAL ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Road to Copenhagen Introduction Climate change is today widely recognized as one of mankind s greatest challenges in the 21st century.

More information

Commercial Building Valuation Report

Commercial Building Valuation Report INSURED University of Houston - Victoria Effective Date: Expiration Date: Cost as of: 09/2010 BUILDING 1 217 - University Center 77901 Location Adjustments Climatic Region: High Wind Region: Seismic Zone:

More information

Module 3.8. Window U-value

Module 3.8. Window U-value Module 3.8 Window U-value Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the concept of U-values and alternative energy rating system for windows. 2 Calculation

More information

Ensuring Competitiveness. under a US Carbon Tax

Ensuring Competitiveness. under a US Carbon Tax Ensuring Competitiveness under a US Carbon Tax As policymakers express renewed interest in a carbon tax, Carolyn Fischer, Richard Morgenstern, and Nathan Richardson weigh three options for preventing business

More information

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Chris Arnold, Building Systems Development, USA

TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Chris Arnold, Building Systems Development, USA TIMBER CONSTRUCTION Chris Arnold, Building Systems Development, USA BACKGROUND Wood construction is common for many single-family houses throughout the world. In areas where timber and wood materials are

More information

Population Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Population Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Population Growth and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sources, trends and projections in Australia Hal Turton Clive Hamilton Discussion Paper Number 26 December 1999 ISSN 1322-5421 2 Table of Contents Acknowledgements

More information