Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides"

Transcription

1 Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips during an earthquake (also called the hypocenter). Epicenter: The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus of an earthquake. Fault trace: The intersection between a fault and the ground surface. Footwall: The rock mass that lies below the fault plane. Hanging wall: The rock or sediment above an inclined fault plane. (b) and (c) are showing 2 epicenters and foci.

2 View of fault trace after 1906 SF earthquake. Note that the fracture is discontinuous.

3 Normal fault: hanging-wall block moves down the slope of the fault. Due to extension. Reverse fault: A steeply dipping fault on which the hanging-wall block slides up. Thrust fault: A gently dipping reverse fault; the hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault. Strike-slip or transform fault: one block slides horizontally past another, so there is no relative vertical motion. Can be left lateral or right lateral.

4 10_07.jpg Blind fault: fault that does not come to the surface.

5 Normal fault in South-central Texas

6 Reverse fault

7 Thrust fault north of Knoxville, TN

8 Strike-sip faults can have motion that is left lateral, or right lateral. This means that if you were standing on one side of a fault, and the other side moves to the left, than the fault is left lateral. Reversely, if the other side of the fault moves to the right, then the fault is right lateral. It does not matter which side of the fault you stand on. The motion will still be the same.

9 Offset of this fence was caused by the 1906 SF earthquake. Note that the fence suggest that the fault was right lateral in movement.

10 Road is offset by 20 feet during the 1906 SF earthquake. Again note that it is a right lateral sense of movement.

11 This shows the location of earthquakes on the surface of the earth. Note that there is a difference between deep and shallow earthquakes. This is due to the tectonic setting of the earthquakes.

12 Note that, with some exceptions, the locations of earthquakes coincide with the location of plate boundaries.

13 Deep focus earthquakes occur along Wadati-Benioff zone at convergent plate boundaries (A boundary at which two plates move toward each other so that one plate sinks (subducts) beneath the other; only oceanic lithosphere can subduct). Wadati-Benioff zone: A sloping band of seismicity defined by intermediate- and deepfocus earthquakes that occur in the downgoing slab of a convergent plate boundary. These types of earthquakes occur in the Pacific Northwest.

14 Oceanic transforms and mid-ocean ridges are common locations for shallow focus earthquakes. mid-ocean ridges: A submarine mountain belt that forms along a divergent oceanic plate boundary. transform plate boundary: A boundary at which one lithosphere plate slips laterally past another. divergent plate boundary: A boundary at which two lithosphere plates move apart from each other.

15 And as we discussed, volcanic activity, here shown as a result of one plate subducting under another, has shallow focus earthquakes associated with it.

16 Earthquakes that occur within plates occur along transform plate boundaries (such as the San Andreas fault), in areas of active extension (such as the western US basin and range an rift zones such as the east African rift) and in collisional zones (such as the Himalayan mountains).

17 Why do earthquakes occur? They occur as stress built up on opposite sides of a fault become greater than the friction between the two fault surfaces. The stress, in most cases, is due to the relative motion of tectonic plates past one another. We tend to think that constant motion occurs across plate boundaries; however, this is not the case. Usually faults are inactive, causing the stress to builds up due to the lack of motion. Faults that move all of the time are said to creep. Earthquakes that occur along these creeping faults are small, and cause little damage.

18 We tend to think of faults as sharp, well defined lines. But in reality they tend to be broad zones or systems of faults, that splay off of a central fault. The San Andreas is a good example of this idea.

19 P-waves: primary waves. Compressional waves.

20 S-waves: Secondary waves. Shear waves.

21 R-waves (Rayleigh waves) or surface waves: cause ground to ripple up and down.

22 L-waves (Love waves): cause ground to snake from side to side.

23 R- and L-waves die out at depth. This, however, is not the case for P- and S- waves.

24 P- and S-waves will travel throughout the entire earth. There is a P-wave shadow zone in the earth. This is caused by the refraction of P-waves through the earth s core.

25 The S-waves shadow zone differs from the P-wave zone because the physical properties of S-waves do not let them travel through liquids. Therefore, they cannot penetrate the liquid outer core of the earth. The inner core is solid.

26 The different physical properties of waves produced by earthquakes, cause them to travel at different rates. P = fastest, S = moderate, surface = slowest.

27 The different speed, or arrival times of earthquake waves, allows for the creation of seismographs (an instrument that can record the ground motion from an earthquake). Seismographs record the duration and intensity of earthquakes.

28 Seismographs are usually fixed to bed rock. They can record both vertical (a) and horizontal (b) ground motion.

29 10_16e.jpg After an earth quake occurs, seismographs can be used to tell how far away the epicenter is located (use the velocity of the waves, and the duration of the quake, and this gives a distance). However, it is impossible to tell what direction the earthquake came from. Epicenters are found using the intersection of three (or more) distances measured from seismographs

30 Richter scale, named after Charles Richter, is commonly used to determined earthquake magnitude. This scale gives the largest ground motion 100 km away from the epicenter of an earthquake.

31 Richter magnitude is determined by first calculating the interval between the S- and P-waves, and then determine the amplitude of the largest wave produced by the earthquake. A line is drawn on special graph paper between these two points, and where this line intersects the magnitude scale, can be read off. Thus giving us the magnitude of an earthquake.

32 The insert graph displays that as the magnitude of the graph increases, the number of quakes decrease. This means that there are more magnitude 1 earthquakes, than magnitude 8. the larger graph shows that the energy released by earthquakes increases greatly with increasing magnitude.

33 A second scale for earthquakes is the Mercalli intensity scale. This scale measures the amount of damage that an earthquake causes. I causes little damage, while XII = s total destruction. This scale is easier to use when dealing with historical earthquakes.

34 Location of some historically significant earthquakes within the lower 48 states.

35 Ground shaking can cause sand to become mobilized, and rise up in a row of sand volcanoes. It the sand layers are between mud layers, can become disrupted and broken.

36 Sand volcano, 1979, El Centro, California

37 The sand becomes mobilized due to water in the pore space. Just as we discussed before, the pore space opens up during shaking caused by the quake, and the sand grains no longer touch each other. Liquefaction: the process that occurs when the motion of an earthquake causes clay-rich sediment to become a slurry of clay and water. The sediment is clay-rich, meaning it contains clay, but is not only made up of clay.

38 Liquefaction caused the collapse of Union St after 1906 quake in SF

39 Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake October 17, Watsonville area. Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand.

40 Secondary cracks on filled land on Bluxom Street after the 1906 SF earthquake. Note the devastation in the background. This area had been developed on fill that was placed in the bay. When the quake occurred, the sediment lost all of its cohesion.

41 Landslide was triggered by 1906 earthquake.

42 Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake October 17, San Francisco and San Mateo County Coast. Large slide at Daly City. This is the largest slide encountered in San Mateo County. The base is about 152 meters (500 feet) across at its widest point, and it displaced approximately 36,700 cubic meters (48,000 cubic yards) of material.

43 Here are some geological signs that indicate earthquake activity. 1) disrupted bedding, 2) off set soil horizons, 3) sand volcanoes, 4) tilted trees, with asymmetric tree rings, also buried and more recent faults.

44 Truncated ridges, with triangular escarpments are good indicators of normal faults.

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? Earth shaking caused by a rapid release of energy. tectonic stress build up rock break. energy moves outward as an expanding sphere of waves. waveform

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes What are earthquakes? Imagine bending a stick until it breaks. When the stick snaps, it vibrates, releasing energy. Earthquakes release energy in a similar way. Earthquakes

More information

Earthquakes. Terminology of Earthquakes. Elastic Rebound Theory. Geol 104: Earthquakes. What are they? What causes them?

Earthquakes. Terminology of Earthquakes. Elastic Rebound Theory. Geol 104: Earthquakes. What are they? What causes them? Earthquakes What are they? An earthquake is a trembling or shaking of the ground. What causes them? Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of stored [elastic] strain energy by brittle fracture. Terminology

More information

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L05 1. Plate Tectonics. This lecture will help you understand: Chapter 21 Lecture

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L05 1. Plate Tectonics. This lecture will help you understand: Chapter 21 Lecture Chapter 21 Lecture Plate Tectonics This lecture will help you understand: : Folds and Faults L05 1 Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the dramatic, changing surface features of the Earth.

More information

Section 1 What Are Earthquakes?

Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Section 1 What Are Earthquakes? Key Concept Sudden motions along breaks in Earth s crust can release energy in the form of seismic waves. What You Will Learn Earthquakes are ground motions that result

More information

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

What are Earthquakes?

What are Earthquakes? What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks What

More information

EARTHQUAKES. A. An earthquake is the trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy from the rocks in Earth s subsurface.

EARTHQUAKES. A. An earthquake is the trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy from the rocks in Earth s subsurface. EARTHQUAKES I. What is an Earthquake? A. An earthquake is the trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy from the rocks in Earth s subsurface. B. Large releases of energy

More information

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

More information

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12 Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Test sp 12 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Earthquakes generally occur at plate boundaries,

More information

1 What Are Earthquakes?

1 What Are Earthquakes? CHAPTER 5 SECTION Earthquakes 1 What Are Earthquakes? BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Where do most earthquakes happen? What makes an earthquake

More information

Earthquakes. Copyright 2008 LessonSnips

Earthquakes. Copyright 2008 LessonSnips Earthquakes Have you ever watched raindrops fall onto a lake? Each droplet forms ripples after it hits the water. The ripples move out from the center in all directions. Earthquake waves move in the same

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

What are Earthquakes?

What are Earthquakes? What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks What

More information

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior

Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes

More information

Essentials of Geology. Earthquakes and Earth s Interior. David Sallee

Essentials of Geology. Earthquakes and Earth s Interior. David Sallee Essentials of Geology David Sallee Earthquakes and Earth s Interior Chapter 14 An aerial view of the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain, Central California What are Earthquakes? The shaking or trembling

More information

Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault

Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault Big Bend in the San Andreas Fault * Many faults in Southern California other than San Andreas (SAF) * Most are right-lateral (like SAF) but many in So-Cal are not (thrust, normal, blind thrust) * Right-lateral

More information

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

More information

Mud volcano erupts from ocean floor. An Unusual Earthquake Event

Mud volcano erupts from ocean floor. An Unusual Earthquake Event Earthquakes Mud volcano erupts from ocean floor An Unusual Earthquake Event Elastic Rebound Earthquake Waves Body waves move through the solid earth P-waves - longitudinal S-waves - transverse Surface

More information

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide

Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather

More information

Chapter 5: Earthquakes

Chapter 5: Earthquakes Chapter 5: Earthquakes 1. Experiencing an Earthquake firsthand 2. The Science of Ghost Forests and Megaearthquakes 3. Faults, Earthquakes, and Plate Tectonics 4. Seismic Waves and Earthquake Detection

More information

Earthquakes. Earthquakes. Earth s Interior. Earthquake Fracture. Earthquake Energy. Earthquake Terms

Earthquakes. Earthquakes. Earth s Interior. Earthquake Fracture. Earthquake Energy. Earthquake Terms Earthquake Terms Chapter 13 Earthquakes Earthquake Seismic Wave Focus Epicenter Body wave P-wave S-wave Surface wave Rayleigh wave Love wave Seismometer Seismograph Richter Magnitude Moment magnitude Subduction

More information

Digging Deeper THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES. Earth s Interior Structure

Digging Deeper THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES. Earth s Interior Structure Digging Deeper THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES Earth s Interior Structure In the Investigate, you looked at the locations of volcanoes and earthquakes throughout the world. You saw

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT

Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT Environmental Geology Chapter 6 EARTHQUAKES and ENVIRONMENT Violent ground-shaking phenomenon by the sudden release of strain energy stored in rocks. This is one of the most catastrophic and devastating

More information

Eighth Grade Science QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT. Zanesville City Schools 1

Eighth Grade Science QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT. Zanesville City Schools 1 Eighth Grade Science 1 2 3 4 QUARTERLY ASSESSMENT Name Teacher Period Zanesville City Schools 1 1. [ES8.9] [ES 2] [K2] Examine the illustration of a tectonic plate boundary. Movement of the plates is indicated

More information

10/23/ build up of strain. Elastic Rebound Theory: -- apply stress. What is an Earthquake?

10/23/ build up of strain. Elastic Rebound Theory: -- apply stress. What is an Earthquake? Earthquakes Earthquakes Where Do Earthquakes Occur? Topics Where do earthquakes occur? Earthquake Fundamentals What is an Earthquake? Seismic Waves Locating an Earthquake Sizes of Earthquakes Earthquakes

More information

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know What Are Plate Tectonics? Seismic Zones Recycling of Crustal Material What is an earthquake? What are Seismic Waves? Magnitude and Intensity of

More information

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND CALIFORNIA. Chapter 5

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND CALIFORNIA. Chapter 5 PLATE BOUNDARIES AND CALIFORNIA Chapter 5 THE BIG IDEA California is located on a plate boundary, where major geologic events occur. Lesson 1: Interactions at Plate Boundaries There are three main types

More information

EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES

EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES EFFECTS OF PLATE TECTONICS When plates move, they bump into each other Depending on the type of plate boundary, different deformations result Two special events/formations happen

More information

Earthquakes. Measuring the Strength of Earthquakes: Richter Scale 9-1. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can still get an earthquake:

Earthquakes. Measuring the Strength of Earthquakes: Richter Scale 9-1. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can still get an earthquake: 9-1 Earthquakes Unfortunately, faults blocks do not slide smoothly by each other. Friction between the blocks will lock them into place for a time. Even if there isn t a fault initially in place one can

More information

Earth. Earthquake Generation. A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Chapter 10 CE/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition

Earth. Earthquake Generation. A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Chapter 10 CE/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition CE/SC 10110-20110 A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Earth Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition Chapter 10 San Francisco Bay Area Earthquake Generation Brittle Deformation Bending = stress build up Break = energy

More information

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas Volcanoes and Earthquakes For two-column notes, underlined titles are main ideas Volcanoes Volcanoes A mountain that forms in the Earth s crust when magma (molten material) reaches the surface and cools

More information

Hint: FOUR of the statements are false.

Hint: FOUR of the statements are false. GEOL 344: EARTHQUAKES AND SEISMIC HAZARDS (SPRING 2008) MIDTERM EXAM NAME: GRADE: / 136 TIME AVAILABLE: 75 MINUTES Instructions: There are NINE pages of questions. Take a minute or so now to page through

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Review Earthquakes and Volcanoes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Write the correct term in the spaces after each definition. Unscramble the boxed letters to answer question 17. 1. wave that

More information

THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Explaining why there are many types of volcanic rocks. LAB: Comparing rocks

More information

Chapter 6: Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Earthquakes. Case History: Earthquake. Causes for Earthquakes 10/19/2012

Chapter 6: Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Earthquakes. Case History: Earthquake. Causes for Earthquakes 10/19/2012 Chapter 6: Overview Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Chapter 6 Earthquakes Jennifer Barson Spokane Falls Community College Understand earthquakes, faulting, and estimation of magnitude Know earthquake

More information

Chapter 6 Earthquakes Practice Exam and Study Guide

Chapter 6 Earthquakes Practice Exam and Study Guide Chapter 6 Earthquakes Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. What are earthquakes? 2. When rocks break during brittle failure, they release stored up elastic strain energy as and. 3. As seismic waves pass through

More information

Introduction to Earthquakes and Seismology

Introduction to Earthquakes and Seismology I. Importance of Earthquakes Introduction to Earthquakes and Seismology A. Death and Destruction 1. Examples a. Turkey, Auguest, 1999 (1) Mag. 7.4 quake (2) 15,000 dead, 600,000 Homeless (a) 15,000 more

More information

Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior

Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior Page 1 of 13 Prof. Stephen A. Nelson EENS 111 Tulane University Physical Geology Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior This page last updated on 22-Sep-2003 Earthquakes Earthquakes occur when energy stored

More information

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

More information

EARTHQUAKES THE BIG IDEA REVIEW VOCABULARY CHAPTER 6. So What?! 11/16/2015. fault LESSON 1: EARTHQUAKES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Normal S.A.F.

EARTHQUAKES THE BIG IDEA REVIEW VOCABULARY CHAPTER 6. So What?! 11/16/2015. fault LESSON 1: EARTHQUAKES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Normal S.A.F. EARTHQUAKES CHAPTER 6 THE BIG IDEA Earthquakes cause seismic waves that can be devastating to humans and other organisms. Lesson 1: Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

Unit 13: Earthquakes

Unit 13: Earthquakes Unit 13: Earthquakes A. Earthquakes 1. Earthquake vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 2. Focus The point within Earth where the earthquake starts 3. Epicenter Location on the surface

More information

What we ll learn today:!

What we ll learn today:! Learning Objectives (LO) Lecture 15: Earthquakes Read: Chapter 11 Homework #13 due Tuesday 12pm What we ll learn today:! 1. Describe different earthquake hazards! 2. List 4 types of seismic waves! 3. Describe

More information

Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes

Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and

More information

Chapter Two Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Case History: Two Major CA Cities. San Andreas Fault System

Chapter Two Overview. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e. Case History: Two Major CA Cities. San Andreas Fault System Chapter 2 and Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Jennifer Barson Spokane Falls Community College Chapter Two Overview Basic internal structure and processes of Earth Basic ideas and evidence of

More information

Earthquakes Practice Questions and Answers revised November 2008

Earthquakes Practice Questions and Answers revised November 2008 1. Earthquakes are produced during: (a) plastic failure within the mantle, (b) brittle failure during faulting, (c) mushrooming during folding (d) none of the above Earthquakes Practice Questions and Answers

More information

Earth Science. Name Block. Unit 2 Review Worksheet. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer

Earth Science. Name Block. Unit 2 Review Worksheet. Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer Earth Science Unit 2 Review Worksheet Name Block Circle the letter that corresponds to the correct answer 1. Which theory states that Earth s crust and rigid upper mantle move in different directions and

More information

Geology. Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes

Geology. Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Geology Earth s Interior, Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Earth s Interior 1. Earth s interior is divided into the: a. Crust surface b. Mantle c. Outer core d. Inner core center of earth 2. The

More information

EARTHQUAKES. Tommy Her, Ben Lee, James Edwards, Chandler Collier, Brent Dorn, and April Bartholomew (photographer)

EARTHQUAKES. Tommy Her, Ben Lee, James Edwards, Chandler Collier, Brent Dorn, and April Bartholomew (photographer) EARTHQUAKES Tommy Her, Ben Lee, James Edwards, Chandler Collier, Brent Dorn, and April Bartholomew (photographer) Introduction to Physical Science, EMPACTS Project C. Dianne Phillips, Instructor, NWACC,

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

What is an earthquake?

What is an earthquake? Earthquakes and structural damage (and nifty examples of geophysical forensics) What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates

More information

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism I. Earth s Surface Relief II. Orogenesis III. Earthquakes A. What is an earthquake B. Anatomy of an Earthquake C. Measuring Earthquakes D. Tsunamis Earth s Hypsometry

More information

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT

TECTONICS ASSESSMENT Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?

More information

Earthquake Hazards and Risks

Earthquake Hazards and Risks Page 1 of 7 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Earthquake Hazards and Risks This page last updated on 28-Aug-2013 Earthquake Risk Many seismologists have said that "earthquakes

More information

Study Guide for Test: Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes

Study Guide for Test: Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Name: Date: Period: Study Guide for Test: Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes & Volcanoes Copy of Class Notes at http://feldmannscience.weebly.com. Access website by computer or mobile device! Tutoring offered

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

P-wave compression. propagating wave

P-wave compression. propagating wave Did you feel it? That side to side, up and down, ground-shaking motion felt by many Californians every year, not to mention folks all around the world. The shaking motion is referred to as an earthquake,

More information

Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory

Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory Earthquake Machine Stick-slip: Elastic Rebound Theory Jerky motions on faults produce EQs Three Fs of earthquakes: forces, faults, and friction. Slow accumulation and rapid release of elastic energy. World

More information

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics CHAPTER 4 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the theory of plate tectonics? What

More information

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas.

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. An earthquake is a sudden vibration of earth surface

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th 1. How is Earth organized? A. Earth has an inner and outer core, a mantle, and a crust. B. Earth has an inner mantle and an outer lithosphere. with a liquid inner core. C. Earth's crust rests atop the

More information

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes

Volcanoes and Earthquakes. Part 1: Volcanoes Volcanoes and Earthquakes Part 1: Volcanoes Introduction Earth s crust is made of cool, solid rock. Yet, most of Earth is made of extremely hot rock in the mantle and liquid metal in the core. Sometimes,

More information

FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2. An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth.

FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2. An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth. FORCES ON EARTH UNIT 3.2 An investigation into how Newton s Laws of Motion are applied to the tectonic activity on Earth. GEOLOGY Geologists scientists who study the forces that make and shape the Earth

More information

EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position

Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position Regents Earth Science Unit 11: The Dynamic Crust Crustal Changes Principle of Original Horizontality - sedimentary rocks form in a horizontal position horizontal any change in the horizontal position is

More information

Use a highlighter to mark the most important parts, or the parts. you want to remember in the background information.

Use a highlighter to mark the most important parts, or the parts. you want to remember in the background information. P a g e 1 Name A Fault Model Purpose: To explore the types of faults and how they affect the geosphere Background Information: A fault is an area of stress in the earth where broken rocks slide past each

More information

1 What Are Earthquakes?

1 What Are Earthquakes? CHAPTER 8 SECTION Earthquakes 1 What Are Earthquakes? BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Where do most earthquakes happen? What makes an earthquake

More information

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates.

Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. Notes on Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics states that the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into sections, called plates. These plates move around the mantle. Plates are composed of the crust and

More information

Page - Lab 09 - Seismology

Page - Lab 09 - Seismology Lab 09 - Seismology Page - Every year earthquakes take a tremendous toll on human life and property throughout the world. Fires from broken gas lines, flooding by large tsunamis (tidal waves caused by

More information

Worksheet: Earthquakes

Worksheet: Earthquakes Earthquake vocabulary super quiz Worksheet: Earthquakes Purpose: This participation and discussion exercise enables students to widen their vocabulary relating to earthquakes and related seismic activity.

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault

More information

Faults and the Elastic Rebound Theory

Faults and the Elastic Rebound Theory Faults and the Elastic Rebound Theory What is a Fault? A fault is defined as any break in the Earth s lithosphere along which movement has occurred. Fault break from 1952 Kern County earthquake. Kickapoo

More information

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur?

Tectonic processes. 2.1 Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? 2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

Seismic Waves Lab. Please write on this paper. Complete parts 1-3 and turn in your completed lab in the clear tray for a classwork grade!

Seismic Waves Lab. Please write on this paper. Complete parts 1-3 and turn in your completed lab in the clear tray for a classwork grade! Name: Date: Period: Seismic Waves Lab Please write on this paper. Complete parts 1-3 and turn in your completed lab in the clear tray for a classwork grade! Part 1: Read the following information about

More information

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s

Plate Tectonics II. An In-depth Look at Earthquakes. Faults at divergent boundaries. Earthquakes at divergent bdry s Plate Tectonics II An In-depth Look at Earthquakes at divergent boundaries shallow only, usually weak at translational boundaries shallow only, often strong at convergent boundaries often strong continent-continent

More information

How Rocks Become Deformed

How Rocks Become Deformed Deformation of rocks 1 How Rocks Become Deformed Rocks are deformed by: folding and faulting. Deformation of rock involves changes in the shape and/or volume of these substances. Changes in shape and volume

More information

19 & 20 Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries

19 & 20 Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries 19 & 20 Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries Chpt 19 Divergent Plate Boundaries Zones where 2 lithospheric plates move apart oceanic & continental Both contain: long rift valleys, normal faults (tensional

More information

Introduction to Earthquakes Professor Jeffery Seitz Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences California State University East Bay

Introduction to Earthquakes Professor Jeffery Seitz Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences California State University East Bay Introduction to Earthquakes Professor Jeffery Seitz Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences California State University East Bay Fault Geometry Earthquakes Fault Creep Seismology Earthquakes and Plate

More information

Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc

Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc Name: Lab: Earthquake Epicenters Adapted from Exploration in Earth Science, The Physical Setting, United Publishing Company, Inc INTRODUCTION: Earthquakes occur when there is movement along a fault. The

More information

Earthquakes! photo credit: USGS!

Earthquakes!  photo credit: USGS! Earthquakes! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-znyvpsj8zc&feature=related! photo credit: USGS! Today in earthquake history! M7.4 in Turkey, 1944! 2,790 killed! 50,000 houses destroyed! horizontal offset

More information

80% 24 of 30 Correct. Dynamic Earth Assessment Test Results. Name: Janus Ivan Rae Estrella Date: October 6, 2013

80% 24 of 30 Correct. Dynamic Earth Assessment Test Results. Name: Janus Ivan Rae Estrella Date: October 6, 2013 Dynamic Earth Assessment Test Results Name: Janus Ivan Rae Estrella Date: October 6, 2013 80% 24 of 30 Correct Review the questions and your answers below. The answer you selected is highlighted in red,

More information

GEOL 10: Environmental Geology Mid Term I

GEOL 10: Environmental Geology Mid Term I (1) 2 pts. A is a well tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations. A) law B) hypothesis C) generalization D) theory (2) 2 pts. The currently accepted age of the

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior DATE DUE: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Name: Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior Instructions: Read each question carefully

More information

Magnitude 7.8 SOUTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND

Magnitude 7.8 SOUTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND A magnitude 7.8 earthquake hit the east coast of New Zealand s South Island just before midnight local time Sunday, triggering multiple aftershocks and tsunami waves. The earthquake struck about 93 km

More information

2015 San Andreas Movie Los Angeles Earthquake

2015 San Andreas Movie Los Angeles Earthquake 2015 San Andreas Movie Japan 2011 Earthquake Footage Japan 2011 Tsunami Footage 2014 Los Angeles Earthquake 1 Earthquakes a rapid release of built up elastic energy that travels via seismic waves the study

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher.

14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher. The Process 1. Go to the website: http://www.sciencecourseware.org 2. Click on: GEOLOGY LABS ONLINE 3. Click on VIRTUAL EARTHQUAKE 4. NEXT click on: NEW: A completely revised version of Virtual Earthquake

More information

SIXTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SIXTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SIXTH GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the structure of different types of volcanoes. DURING: Plotting

More information

Focus, Epicenter, and Fault. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Elastic Rebound Hypothesis. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake?

Focus, Epicenter, and Fault. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Elastic Rebound Hypothesis. 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? 8.1 What Is an Earthquake? Focus, Epicenter, and Fault Earthquakes 1. An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Focus and Epicenter a. Focus is the point within Earth

More information

The earthquake source

The earthquake source Global seismology: The earthquake source Reading: Fowler p85 101 Earthquake location Earthquake focus: Latitude, longitude, depth Earthquake epicenter: Latitude, longitude Earthquakes occur on fault planes,

More information