ACTIVITY 9.1 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

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1 ACTIVITY 9.1 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 9.1A. Latitude: 40 S Longitude: 20 W 9.1B. 1. north 24 east; azimuth of south 24 west; azimuth of C. 1. center SW1/4, NE1/4, SE1/4, sec. 11, T1S, R2W 2. A township is 6 miles x 6 miles, or 36 square miles. Since 1 square mile contains 640 acres, there are 36 x 640 acres in a township, or 23,040 acres altogether. 3. This area is ¼ of ¼ of 1 section, and a section is 640 acres, or 1 square mile. So the area is x 640 acres, or 40 acres. 40 acres x $500/acre = $20, D. 1. zone m N m E San Andreas Rift Zone (i.e., San Andreas Fault) 5. Total relief is the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points on the map. The highest point will be found in the highest hills of the map and is usually labeled as a peak or radio tower. In this case, the highest peak is Odell 5217 in the Sierra Pelona hills. The lowest point on a topographic map usually occurs where a major river or lake leaves the map. In this case, the lowest point occurs in the northeast corner of the map where Amargosa Creek leaves the map at about 2600 feet. The difference between 5217 feet and 2600 feet is 2617 feet, which is the total relief of the map. 9.1E. 1. 1:100,000 means that 1 inch on the map equals 100,000 inches on the ground. There are 12 inches per foot, so 100,000 in. 12 in./ft = feet There are 5280 ft/mi, so ft 5280 ft/mi = mi 72

2 So, 1 inch on the map equals miles on the ground. 2. 1:100,000 means that 1 cm on the map equals 100,000 cm on the ground. There are 100 cm per meter, so 100,000 cm 100 cm/m = 1000 m So, 1 cm on the map equals 1000 m (i.e., 1 km) on the ground. 9.1F. At a scale of 1:24,000, 1 mm on the map equals 24,000 mm on the ground. There are 1000 mm/m, so 1 mm on the map equals 24 meters on the ground. 5 m 24 m = 0.2, so an object that is 5 m long in real life (on the ground) will be 0.2 mm on the map. 9.1G. 9.1H. 73

3 9.1I. 9.1J. 1. The contour interval is 20 meters. 74

4 meters 180 meters = 240 meters (Student answers may be m higher.) meters 3 km = 13 m/km 4. One kilometer is about 4.5 mm long on this map and the contour interval is 20 m. So any area where the contour lines are closer than 4.5 mm is an area where the slope exceeds 20m/km. 5. Using the method described above, the areas of the map with slopes steeper than 20m/km have been shaded (next page). Thus, the black line from A to B is one route you could drive to avoid gradients over 20 m/km. The dashed line from A to B is another route you could drive to avoid gradients over 20m/km by having a road with many switch-backs. Other routes are possible. Completed Map for Activity

5 ACTIVITY 9.2 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 76

6 9.2A. Completed topographic profile in Figure NOTE: Student profiles will vary in vertical scale and vertical exaggeration unless you specify them ahead of time. 9.2B. The horizontal scale of the map and profile is printed on the map: 1:24,000. If students use a vertical scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet, and there are 12 inches per foot, then the vertical scale is 1:1200. Using either method 1 or 2 from Figure 2.14 (lab manual page 213), students can calculate that the vertical exaggeration is thus 20x. This answer will vary if students use a different vertical scale. 77

7 ACTIVITY 9.3 ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 9.3A. A yellow line indicates the likely location of the fault. 9.3B. 1. The fault has been plotted in red on the map below. 2. The boundary contact between Pelona Schist and Quaternary gravel is blue on the map below. 3. Students should color the map yellow north of the blue line. They should use a second color to color the area between the red and blue lines. 78

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