GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems"

Transcription

1 UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and y axes, it is fairly simple to calculate distances and areas using plane geometry (e.g. Pythagorean theorem) - in a spherical coordinate system, these calculations are very difficult because lines of longitude converge at the poles - and the length of a degree of longitude (in miles) changes with latitude - the Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System (UTM) was designed to address this problem - the UTM coordinate system is a projected coordinate system - for a small area, the curvature of the Earth can be ignored and the area is treated as a flat surface - to accomplish this, the map is projected first (using a cylindrical transverse Mercator projection) - then, a rectangular x, y coordinate system is overlaid to describe the location of points How it works - in the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system the Earth is divided into 60 UTM zones - each zone covers 6 o of longitude - and each zone has a central meridian - in the UTM system, each of the 60 UTM zones are projected separately - and then the zone s coordinate system (an x.y grid) is applied to that zone - given that the UTM coordinate system is constructed using a transverse cylindrical map projection, the line of tangency (where the transverse cylinder touches the globe) follows along the central meridian - the map distortion in each zone is therefore minimal along the central meridian and it increases E and W - within a UTM zone, the accuracy of measurements is about 1 linear unit in 2500 (about 2 feet per mile) Northern hemisphere - in the northern hemisphere, the origin of each zone is define by: 1) the Equator and 2) a line located 500,000 m west of the central meridian - the easting and northing coordinates of a location are then measured as follows: - easting: the distance east of the line located 500,000 m west of the central meridian - northing: the distance measured north of the Equator Southern hemisphere - in the southern hemisphere, the origin of each zone is define by: 1) a line located 500,000 m west of the central meridian 2) a line located 10,000,000 m south of the Equator and - the easting and northing coordinates of a location then are measured as follows: - easting: the distance east of the line located 500,000 m west of the central meridian - northing: the distance north of the line located 10,000,000 m south of the Equator Horizontal Datums and Units - the UTM coordinate system can be referenced any datum - in the U.S. the UTM coordinate system is usually referenced to NAD_27 or NAD_83 - NAD_27 on older topographic maps - NAD_83 for most U.S. digital data - in either case, the units (eastings and northings) are usually in meters - in other parts of the world, UTM coordinates are usually referenced to WGS_84 in meters Describing Coordinates - recognize that a single coordinate (easting, northing) can be replicated 120 times (twice in each zone) - to describe a coordinate, you must specify the datum, zone and hemisphere, and measurement units - e.g. NAD 83, Zone 14 North, easting: 328,256 m E, northing: 3,450,586 m N UTM on Topographic Maps (in lab) - know how the UTM coordinate system works - know how to find UTM coordinates on a topographic map Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University

2 Texas Capital Dome NAD 83, Zone 14 North 621,161 m E, 3,349,894 m N Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University

3 State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular coordinate system - like UTM, the system was designed to overcome the difficultly of calculating distances and areas How it works - the SPCS was established in the 1930 s by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - the system was designed to facilitate surveys and mapping within a state - the SPCS is a projected coordinate system - like UTM, the SPCS ignores the curvature of the Earth over a small area - each state is divided into one or more zones - the number of zones depends upon the size of the state (some states have only one zone) - for the largest states, Texas has 5 zones, California has 6 zones and Alaska has 10 zones - in Texas the 5 zones are designated as North, North Central, Central, South Central and South - each state or zone within a state is projected - the projection used is either a transverse Mercator or a Lambert conformal conic - a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system is then applied to the map area (the state zone) - in some states the zones run north-south - to minimize distortion, these states use a transverse Mercator projection for each zone - a central meridian runs north-south down the center of each zone in the state - in some states the zones run east-west - to minimize distortion, these states use a Lambert conformal conic projection for each zone - the standard parallels run east-west through the each zone in the state - in Texas, the zones run east-west so Texas uses a Lambert Conformal Conic projection - the SPCS provides a linear accuracy of 1 unit in 10,000 (about 6 inches a mile) - in the 1930 s, 1 in 10,000 was considered the limit of survey accuracy - it is 4 times more accurate than UTM, which has a accuracy of 1 in 2,500 (about 2 feet in a mile) Horizontal Datums and Units - SPCS is usually referenced to either NAD_27 or NAD_83 - when the SPCS is referenced to NAD_27, the system was designed to use English units (feet) - when referenced to NAD_83, the system was designed to use metric units (meters) although these metric units are often converted to feet - in the U.S., most cadastral and engineering applications use the SPCS in feet referenced to either NAD_27 or NAD_83 - the easting is measured east of a line located west of the zone border - the northing is measured north of a line located south of the zone Describing Coordinates - recognize that a coordinate can be replicated in different states and in different zones within a state - to describe a coordinate, you must specify the datum, state and zone, and measurement units - e.g. NAD 27, Texas Central Zone (4203), easting: 2,818,560 feet E, northing: 230,591 feet N - also note that the State Plane Coordinate System is not a global coordinate system (like UTM) - it only applies in the United States - including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico - in other parts of the world, most countries have developed similar systems for their own use State Plane Coordinate System on Topographic Maps (in lab) - know how the state plane coordinate system works - know how to find state plane coordinates on a topographic map Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University

4 Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University

5 Other Projected Coordinate Systems In addition to UTM and State Plane, there are many other projected coordinate systems in use throughout the world. As noted earlier, many countries have systems similar to the State Plane Coordinate System. These other projected coordinate systems are collectively known as national grids. - to create a national grid, the country is projected first (using the most suitable map projection for that country) - and then an x,y, Cartesian coordinate system is overlaid on the projected map of the country - the origin (0,0) of the coordinate system will fall outside of the country somewhere to the southwest - this is done to make the coordinate values all positive within the country boundaries Mapping with the United States when mapping within the U.S. you have three basic choices: - you can use a Projected Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) - must be used for larger areas (e.g. the whole country or western U.S.) - can also be used to map small areas if you set up a custom projection - or you can use the UTM Coordinate System (UTM) - UTM is a projected coordinate system that can be used to map small areas anywhere in the world, so it is widely used throughout the world - and that includes the United States - or you can use the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) - the SPCS is also a projected coordinate system - used to map small areas - but it can only be used in the U.S. Mapping Outside of the United States when mapping outside of the U.S. you also have three basic choices: - you can use a Projected Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) - must be used for larger areas (e.g. Europe, western Australia, China) - can also be used to map small areas if you set up a custom projection - or you can use the UTM Coordinate System (UTM) - UTM is a projected coordinate system that can be used to map small areas anywhere in the world, so it is widely used throughout the world - some small countries do not have a national grid and only use UTM - or you can use a National Grid (a national projected coordinate system) - most larger countries have a system similar to the SPCS - some smaller countries have a single grid (with no zones) Copyright Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University

6 GIST 3300 / 5300 Projected Coordinate Systems Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System (UTM) - why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - how does it work? - UTM coordinate system on topographic maps State Plane Coordinate System - why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - how does it work? - State Plane coordinates on a topographic map

7 Last lecture coordinate systems and map projections Geographic Coordinate Systems (GCS) - recognize that the Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) is not projected - the GCS might be referenced to different ellipsoids and datums - but the data are not projected and the units are unprojected decimal degrees Spatial Reference or Data Frame Properties Dialog GCS unprojected

8 Last lecture coordinate systems and map projections Projected Coordinate Systems (GCS) - only when we apply a map projection to the data frame or the data layers - does GCS become a projected coordinate system Spatial Reference or Data Frame Properties Dialog GCS projected using North America Albers Equal Area

9 Projected Coordinate Systems 1) Projected Geographic Coordinate System - the x, y coordinate (latitude and longitude) of a feature remains the same - but the display of the x, y coordinates (latitude and longitude) is projected - used to minimize distortion in shape, area, distance or direction - e.g. we apply an Albers Equal Area Conic projection to map the U.S.

10 Projected Coordinate Systems In addition to a projected GCS, there are many other different projected coordinate systems in use around the world. 2) Other Projected Coordinate Systems - all other projected coordinate systems are designed to be used on a relatively small area of the earth s surface - for a small area, the curvature in the earth's surface can be ignored - the area to be mapped (zone, country, state, county) is projected first - then, a Cartesian coordinate system is superimposed on the projected map - x, y coordinates are expressed as feet or meters relative to a origin a) Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System b) State Plane Coordinate System c) other national, state and county coordinate systems (grids)

11 Projected Coordinate Systems a) Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System

12 UTM Coordinate System Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? Cartesian Coordinate System x 2,y 2 Y axis How do we calculate the distance from x 1,y 1 to x 2,y 2? x 1,y 1 X axis

13 UTM Coordinate System Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? Cartesian Coordinate System x 2,y 2 Y axis C B Pythagorean Theorem A 2 + B 2 = C 2 C = (A 2 + B 2 ) x 1,y 1 A x 2,y 1 C = (x 2 -x 1 ) 2 + (y 2 -y 1 ) 2 X axis

14 UTM Coordinate System Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? 35 o,-100 o Y axis C B If the coordinate values are degrees, this approach doesn t work. 34 o,-102 o A 34 o,-100 o In this example, the longitude A = 2 o but the number of miles per degree varies with latitude. X axis

15 UTM - How does it work? - the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system is designed to address this problem - for a small area, the curvature of the Earth s surface can be ignored - and a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system can be overlaid to describe the location of features

16 UTM - How does it work? - the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate system is a projected coordinate system (the map is projected first) - set up as a grid using a transverse cylindrical projection - the Earth is divided into 60 zones - each zone covers 6 o of longitude

17 UTM - How does it work? - the transverse cylindrical projection is tangent to the Earth along a line of longitude - there is minimal distortion along this line a longitude - the line of longitude is designated as the central meridian for a UTM zone

18 UTM - How does it work? - The Earth is divided into 60 zones - with each zone covering 6 o of longitude - each zone has a central meridian - for example, Zone 14 - extends from 96 o W to 102 o W - the zone has a central meridian at 99 o W

19 UTM - How does it work? - in the northern hemisphere - the origin of each zone is defined by the Equator - and a line located 500,000 m (500 km) west of the central meridian 99 o W 80 o N 500,000 m UTM Zone 14 N 0,0 0 o Equator 102 o W 96 o W UTM Zone 14 S Sketch not to scale Central Meridian 80 o S

20 UTM - How does it work? - UTM coordinates - easting, distance east from a line 500,000 m west of the central meridian - northing, distance north of the Equator 99 o W 80 o N 430,000 m x,y 3,500,000 m UTM Zone 14 N easting (x) = 430,000 m northing (y) = 3,500,000 m 0,0 0 o 96 o W 102 o W Sketch not to scale 80 o S

21 UTM - How does it work? - UTM coordinates - easting, distance east from a line 500,000 m west of the central meridian - northing, distance north of the Equator 620,000 m 99 o W 80 o N x,y 3,650,000 m UTM Zone 14 N easting (x) = 620,000 m northing (y) = 3,650,000 m 0,0 0 o 96 o W 102 o W Sketch not to scale 80 o S

22 UTM - How does it work? - Cartesian coordinate system applied to a small portion of the Earth's surface - Earth is assumed to be flat over measured distances within a zone 99 o W x,y B 80 o N UTM Zone 14 N x,y A 620,000 m 430,000 m 0,0 0 o A = 190,000 m 102 o W 96 o W 3,650,000 m 3,500,000 m Sketch not to scale B = 150,000 m 80 o S

23 UTM - How does it work? - works the same way in the southern hemisphere - the origin of each zone is defined by a line 10,000,000 m south of the Equator - and a line located 500,000 m west of the central meridian 99 o W 80 o N 96 o W 102 o W 0 o 500,000 m UTM Zone 14 S Sketch not to scale 10,000,000 m 0,0 80 o S

24 UTM - How does it work? - UTM coordinates - easting, distance east from a line 500,000 m west of the central meridian - northing, distance north of a line located 10,000,000 m south of the Equator 99 o W 80 o N 96 o W 102 o W 595,000 m x,y 0 o UTM Zone 14 S easting (x) = 595,000 m northing (y) = 2,480,000 m Sketch not to scale 2,480,000 m 0,0 80 o S

25 UTM - How does it work? - UTM coordinate example: the Capital Dome in Austin NAD 83; UTM Zone 14 N; 621,161 m E; 3,349,894 m N

26 UTM on Topographic Maps

27 UTM on Topographic Maps UTM Blue Ticks Full values shown in lower right and upper left on map

28 UTM Horizontal Datums and Units The UTM coordinate system can be referenced to any datum United States - in the U.S. it is usually referenced to either NAD 27 or NAD 83 - NAD 27 on older topographic maps - NAD 83 for most U.S. digital data and imagery - in either case, the units (eastings and northings) are usually in meters Other Parts of the World - UTM coordinates are usually referenced to WGS 84 in meters

29 UTM Describing Coordinates - recognize that a single coordinate (an easting and northing) can be replicated 120 times (twice in each of 60 zones) - to describe a complete UTM coordinate, you must specify: 1) the datum 2) the zone and hemisphere 3) the easting and northing 4) and the measurement units (usually meters) Example: NAD 83, Zone 14 North, 621,161 m E, 3,349,894 m N

30 Summary Projected Coordinate Systems (UTM) - UTM is a stand-alone projected coordinate system - designed for use over a small area of the Earth s surface (UTM zone) - we do not apply a projection because each UTM zone is already projected - each zone is projected separately using a transverse Mercator projection Spatial Reference or Data Frame Properties Dialog UTM Zone 14N

31 Projected Coordinate Systems b) State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - trying to address the same problem as the UTM coordinate system - uses the same basic approach - for a small area, we can ignore the curvature of the Earth and apply a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system x 2,y 2 latitude C B We can not calculate distances and areas if the coordinates are expressed in degrees? x 1,y 1 A x 2,y 1 longitude

32 State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - we could use the UTM coordinate system for state-wide mapping - but many states cover more than one UTM zone

33 State Plane Coordinate System How does it work? - the SPCS system was established in the 1930 s - by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - system designed to facilitate surveys and mapping at the state level - uses a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system over a small area - like UTM, the SPCS ignores the curvature of the Earth within a zone - hence the name state plane - allows us to use plane geometry or plane surveying techniques - provides linear accuracy of 1 unit in 10,000 (roughly 6 inches in a mile) - in 1930 s, 1 in 10,000 was considered the limit of surveying accuracy - SPCS is four times more accurate than UTM (1 linear unit in 2500) - roughly 2 feet in a mile

34 State Plane Coordinate System How does it work? California 6 zones Texas 5 zones Comparison of State Plane and UTM Zones

35 State Plane Coordinate System To minimize distortion - states with zones that run north-south use a Transverse Mercator projection - central meridian through the center of each north-south zone - states with zones that run east-west use a Lambert conformal conic project - standard parallels through the center of the east-west zone

36 State Plane Coordinate System

37 State Plane Coordinate System - the Capital Dome in Austin

38 State Plane on Topographic Maps Full values shown in lower left and upper right on map State Plane Black Ticks

39 State Plane Horizontal Datums and Units United States - because the SPCS is a coordinate system designed for use in each of the U.S. states, it is usually referenced to either NAD 27 or NAD 83 - when referenced to NAD 27, the system uses English units (feet) - when referenced to NAD 83, the system was designed to use meters but English units can be used as well - most widely used in local cadastral surveys and engineering applications Other Parts of the World - the State Plane Coordinate System applies only in the U.S. - many other countries and provinces have their own system

40 State Plane Describing Coordinates - recognize that a single coordinate (an easting and northing) can be replicated in different states and different state zones - to describe a complete State Plane coordinate, you must specify: 1) the datum 2) the state and zone within the state 3) the easting and northing 4) and the measurement units (feet or meters) Example: NAD 27, Texas Central Zone, 2,818,560 feet E, 230,591 feet N

41 Summary Projected Coordinate Systems (State Plane) - State Plane Coordinate System is a stand-alone projected coordinate system - designed for use over a small area of the earth s surface (zone within a state) - we do not apply a projection because each State Plane zone is projected - each zone is projected separately using a either a transverse Mercator or Lambert conformal conic projection Spatial Reference or Data Frame Properties Dialog

42 Projected Coordinate Systems c) Other Projected Coordinate Systems In addition to UTM and State Plane, there are many other projected coordinate systems in use throughout the world. Many countries have systems similar to the State Plane Coordinate System. These projected coordinate systems are collectively known as national grids. - to create a national grid, the country is projected first - using the most suitable map projection for that country - and then an x,y, Cartesian coordinate system is overlaid on the map - the origin (0,0) of the coordinate system will fall outside of the country somewhere to the southwest - this is done to make the coordinate values (eastings and northings) all positive within the country boundaries

43 Projected Coordinate Systems c) Other Projected Coordinate Systems Mapping with the United States when mapping within the U.S. you have three basic choices: - you can use a Projected Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) - must be used for larger areas (e.g. the whole country or western U.S.) - can also be used to map small areas if you set up a custom projection - or you can use the UTM Coordinate System (UTM) - UTM is a projected coordinate system that can be used to map small areas anywhere in the world, so it is widely used throughout the world - and that includes the United States - or you can use the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) - the SPCS is also a projected coordinate system - used to map small areas - but it can only be used in the U.S.

44 Projected Coordinate Systems c) Other Projected Coordinate Systems Mapping Outside of the United States when mapping outside of the U.S. you also have three basic choices: - you can use a Projected Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) - must be used for larger areas (e.g. Europe, western Australia, China) - can also be used to map small areas if you set up a custom projection - or you can use the UTM Coordinate System (UTM) - UTM is a projected coordinate system that can be used to map small areas anywhere in the world, so it is widely used throughout the world - some small countries do not have a national grid and only use UTM - or you can use a National Grid (a national projected coordinate system) - most larger countries have a system similar to the SPCS - some smaller countries have a single grid (with no zones)

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

More information

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

More information

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

More information

OBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10

OBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10 OBJECTIVES This exercise involves understanding map scale and coordinate systems. You will learn to read geographic coordinates in latitude/longitude, the State Plane Coordinate System, and the Universal

More information

The Earth's Graticule

The Earth's Graticule Georeferencing How do we make sure all our data layers line up? Georeferencing: = linking a layer or dataset with spatial coordinates Registration: = lining up layers with each other Rectification: =The

More information

Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe

Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe 1 Latitude is the angle north or south (think ladder going north south) Longitude is the angle east or

More information

G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems

G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems I. Introduction A. Fundamental Concern with Map Work 1. Maps / GIS a. 2-D representation of Earth surface b. locations of map features

More information

Coordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system

Coordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a 2- or 3-D reference frame used to specify locations on the earth. Many different coordinate systems exist, and each is defined by an origin,

More information

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

More information

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

More information

2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz

2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2 Dr W Britz Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter how much computers seem to have automated the

More information

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

More information

f = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth

f = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth Map Projection and Coordinates The shape of the earth Models Sphere with radius of ~6378 km Ellipsoid (or Spheroid) with equatorial radius (semi-major axis) of ~6378 km and polar radius (semi-minor axis)

More information

Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems

Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV - 25755 304-696-6042 Jawolfe@marshall.edu IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000 Today s class

More information

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball. Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

More information

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

More information

GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

More information

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

More information

TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections

TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections 1 TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections When we hand draw a map on the back of an envelope or a napkin, it usually doesn t matter that the position

More information

Coordinate Systems and Map Projections

Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Introduction Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections and coordinate systems no matter how much computers seem to have automated

More information

UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003

UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 I. Introduction The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates occur on most topographic maps. This is the Northing and Easting coordinates discussed below.

More information

Map Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS)

Map Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) Map Projection Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview 1. Geographic coordinate

More information

GIS for Disaster Management

GIS for Disaster Management GIS for Disaster Management Week 04 These slides are taken form Hongjie Xie; Earth shape models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short enough so that earth curvature

More information

Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates

Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates NHLSA TOWN MONUMENT LOCATION WORKSHOP UNH DURHAM, N.H. 8-11-2007 PART 1: THE DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bob Moynihan UNH - TSAS Coordinate Systems 1 Decoding the Mystery

More information

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

More information

Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

More information

EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems

EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define

More information

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

More information

Registered map layers

Registered map layers Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

More information

UTM SYSTEM. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name.

UTM SYSTEM. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. UTM stands for Universal Transverse Mercator which is a technical term for the type of map projection.

More information

Coordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data

Coordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems key concepts Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Projections and Coordinate Systems: Geographic Coordinate System Uses Uses 3D spherical

More information

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

More information

Representing The Shape of the Earth

Representing The Shape of the Earth Representing The Shape of the Earth Geoids Ellipsoids Datums Coordinate Systems Projections The Shape of the Earth 3 ways to model it Topographic surface the land/air interface complex (rivers, valleys,

More information

North Carolina Property Mappers Association. Advanced Mapping. Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS

North Carolina Property Mappers Association. Advanced Mapping. Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS North Carolina Property Mappers Association Advanced Mapping Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS 4-1 4.1 Datums A datum is a set of quantities used as a basis to calculate other quantities. In mapping, it

More information

Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US

Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US Lab 9: Topographic Maps 151 Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Topographic maps are rich sources of geographic information. Geologic maps are commonly constructed upon topographic base maps, and much geological mapping,

More information

Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

More information

Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections

Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections 1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace

More information

From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013

From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 Which Way Does the Water Flow? A topographic map shows relief features or surface configuration of an

More information

Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG

Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Geographic Coordinate Systems and Projections. Decimal Degrees and Degrees Minutes Seconds DNR Garmin for GPS waypoint management GPS tips Submitting coordinate information

More information

DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS. The Real World, Maps, and Coordinate Systems

DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS. The Real World, Maps, and Coordinate Systems DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey lmoore@usgs.gov Revised March, 2001 Paper maps may be printed with reference points for several different grid systems.

More information

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

More information

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

More information

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

More information

Projections and Coordinate Systems

Projections and Coordinate Systems Projections and Coordinate Systems Using Corpscon, the Projector! Extension in ArcView, and Project in ArcInfo Maryland s stateplane coordinate system is based on a Lambert Conformal Conic projection.

More information

GIS s s Roots in Cartography

GIS s s Roots in Cartography Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

More information

FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems

FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems Definition of a Datum A datum is a reference coordinate system which is defined by an origin, orientation and is physically tied to the surface of the

More information

Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system

Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique

More information

UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems - UTM.

UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems - UTM. UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale Coordinate Systems - UTM Convenience of a plane rectangular grid on a global level A section from a transverse Mercator projection is used to develop separate grids

More information

Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013 Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

More information

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System Practical Cartographer s Reference #01 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System 180 174w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w

More information

HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE

HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE PTV VISUM TIPS & TRICKS: HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE COORDINATE SYSTEM? I imported network data in WGS84, calculated my link lengths, but they are all still zero. Why is that and how can I get to correct

More information

Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza

Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter

More information

P-153. NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI, ROMANIA

P-153. NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI, ROMANIA P-153 CONVERSION OF COORDINATES BETWEEN THE GAUSS-KRÜGER AND UTM CARTOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEMS ON TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS IN ROMANIA AND REPUBLIC OF MOLDAVIA FOR GIS USE NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI,

More information

MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections

MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers,

More information

More About UTM. Universal Transverse Mercator UTM

More About UTM. Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Week 6 More About UTM Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Developed by US Army Corps Eng. & Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) in 1947 Originally used Clarke 1866 ellipsoid used for the U.S. (International Ellipsoid

More information

GPS Conversions by Lloyd Borrett (www.borrett.id.au)

GPS Conversions by Lloyd Borrett (www.borrett.id.au) GPS Conversions by Lloyd Borrett (www.borrett.id.au) There are many problems associated with locating dive sites using a GPS receiver. But first it helps if you understand the way the position is given.

More information

Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape

Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic

More information

THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM

THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM NGA Office of GEOINT Sciences Coordinate Systems Analysis (CSAT) Phone: 314-676-9124 Unclassified Email: coordsys@nga.mil March 2007 THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military

More information

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

More information

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

More information

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS ABSTRACT

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS ABSTRACT TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey ABSTRACT A common question about U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital raster graphics (DRG)

More information

CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF SURVEYING

CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF SURVEYING CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF SURVEYING 1.1 SURVEYING DEFINED What is surveying? Surveying is the art of measuring distances, angles and positions on or near the surface of the earth. It is an art? Because only

More information

GIST 3300 / Geographic Information Systems

GIST 3300 / Geographic Information Systems GIST 3300 / 5300 Geographic Coordinate System or Grid GIST 3300 / 5300 Last Time Data Classification Methods Take home point: a map is a communication medium and you as the cartographer or GIS analyst

More information

MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection

MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection Pathloss 4.0 MSI PLANET Terrain Database UTM Projection MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection The UTM projection divides the world into 60 zones or segments.

More information

Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7

Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Introduction The purpose of this document is to serve as a set of Oregon best practices

More information

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Land Division Systems

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Land Division Systems GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Land Division Systems Land Division Systems - in many applications of GIS, land ownership is an important data layer and it is important for GIS users to be familiar

More information

The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve

The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve bands of latitude and twenty-four zones of longitude,

More information

Latitude and Longitude Vocabulary. Equator imaginary line separating the northern and southern hemispheres.

Latitude and Longitude Vocabulary. Equator imaginary line separating the northern and southern hemispheres. Latitude and Longitude Vocabulary Degrees the unit for measuring distance on a map Equator imaginary line separating the northern and southern hemispheres. Globe a miniature model of the Earth Hemisphere

More information

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5 European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

More information

GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM)

GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK 5 14 5.4 Cylindrical Projections 5.4.1 Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) Probably the most famous of the various map projections, the Mercator projection takes its name

More information

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,

More information

Chapter 2 Reading Topographic Maps and Making Calculations

Chapter 2 Reading Topographic Maps and Making Calculations Chapter 2 Reading Topographic Maps and Making Calculations In this chapter you will learn about: Reading the margins Interpreting contour lines Estimating slope Estimating aspect Estimating acreage Estimating

More information

NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS

NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP

More information

A Quick Guide to Using UTM Coordinates

A Quick Guide to Using UTM Coordinates A Quick Guide to Using UTM Coordinates Standing at the road junction marked with the star on the topographic map pictured above, a GPS unit set to display position in UTM coordinates, would report a location

More information

World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography

World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Name World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography

More information

Maps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection

Maps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection Maps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection Ball State University Libraries A destination for research, learning, and friends What is a map projection?

More information

Field Techniques Manual: GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing

Field Techniques Manual: GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing Field Techniques Manual: GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing Section A: Introduction Chapter 2: The Geographical Framework 2 The Geographical Framework One key feature of a GIS allows different types of data

More information

What are map projections?

What are map projections? Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

More information

G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps

G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps I. Introduction A. Map- a 2-d, scaled representation of the earth's surface, 1. Model of Earth's Surface 2. Basic functions: to represent horizontal distance, direction,

More information

Application Note: Using US State Plane Coordinate Systems in the MobileMapper receiver

Application Note: Using US State Plane Coordinate Systems in the MobileMapper receiver Application Note: Using US State Plane Coordinate Systems in the MobileMapper receiver The following procedures will enable users to navigate with the MobileMapper receiver using US State Plane Coordinates,

More information

PART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS

PART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS PART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS 4.1 Introduction As it is well known, the earth is a spherical surface. For most small-area projects, surveyors treat the earth as a plane. The differences between

More information

SS 3 MATHS NOTE WEEK 1

SS 3 MATHS NOTE WEEK 1 SS 3 MATHS NOTE WEEK 1 Longitude and Latitude Lines of latitude run East & West or horizontal but measure distance North & South of the Equator vertically. The equator is labeled as zero degrees latitude.

More information

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types

More information

WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications

WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research

More information

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

More information

*You are responsible for those items that are marked.

*You are responsible for those items that are marked. INTRODUCTION A knowledge of the elements of land measurement is important to resource managers. Surveying is making field measurements that are used to determine the lengths and directions of lines on

More information

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening

More information

Datums, Coordinates, & Projections UNCLASSIFIED

Datums, Coordinates, & Projections UNCLASSIFIED Datums, Coordinates, & Projections Lesson Objectives Modeling the earth Horizontal Datums: Traditionally Derived Regional Horizontal Datums Satellite Derived: World Geodetic System 1984 Vertical Datums

More information

WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams

WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams -Laboratory- TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty chris@gis.usu.edu Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez alex@gis.usu.edu

More information

Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems. Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS

Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems. Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems By Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS Introduction The origin for the modern State Plane Coordinate System in the United States began with two highway engineers

More information

Physical Geography Concepts Directions and Location

Physical Geography Concepts Directions and Location Physical Geography Concepts Directions and Location Directions: In order to study the Earth, we need to be able to locate specific points. Cardinal Directions North, East, West, South Intermediate Directions

More information

Earth Systems Science Laboratory 5 Using and Interpreting Topographic Maps

Earth Systems Science Laboratory 5 Using and Interpreting Topographic Maps Earth Systems Science Laboratory 5 Using and Interpreting Topographic Maps This semester, you will be studying the valley of the Florida River, east of Durango. The Florida River is a source of water for

More information

MAP AND COMPASS. Background Information

MAP AND COMPASS. Background Information MAP AD COMPASS Background Information A compass is an instrument that people use to find a direction in relation to the earth as a whole. The magnetic needle in the compass, which is the freely moving

More information

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

More information

Types of Maps. physical map. political map. thematic map. contour map. 3-Part Cards with Definitions

Types of Maps. physical map. political map. thematic map. contour map. 3-Part Cards with Definitions Types of Maps 3-Part Cards with Definitions physical map political map contour map thematic map physical map political map A physical map shows an area's natural A political map shows boundaries of features

More information

MANAGING COMMON OREGON MAP PROJECTIONS IN ARC MAP

MANAGING COMMON OREGON MAP PROJECTIONS IN ARC MAP MANAGING COMMON OREGON MAP PROJECTIONS IN ARC MAP I. Common Map Projections Used in the State of Oregon The following text blocks provide a listing of the critical parameters for UTM Zone10 N, StatePlane

More information

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

More information

Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

More information