Moliere & the Ottoman Films

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1 Moliere & the Ottoman Films

2 The Magnificent Century

3 Representing History Is always an act of RECONSTRUCTION

4 What is Capitalism?

5 Dutch Republic: thriving marketplaces

6 entrepreneurial

7

8 Warfare capital

9 Plantation capital

10 Imperialism and capitalism

11 Industry and capitalism

12 Our modern times

13 Economic History of early modern era is no exception

14 Your final Guidelines Are available online

15 Please note Bluenote book Green Scantron 25 MC Questions and 2 our 5 (or 7) Essay questions: 50 points each section

16 June 6 Monday 3:00-5:59pm GH 242

17 LECTURE 12

18 Global Economy State-building Society-building Culture-building Religion and rising imperialism

19 The discovery of America, and that of the passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest events recorded in the history of [human] kind

20 6 Killer Applications 1. Competition (Political) 2. Scientific Revolution 3. Rule of Law (representative governments) 4. Modern Medicine (19 th century) 5. Consumer society 6. Work ethics (work hard)

21 Three important (interrelated) 1. State revolution REVOLUTIONS Military revolution Revolution in Capital

22 1. State revolution: 15 th to the 17 th centuries Levied on subjects and citizens: Sales tax (e.g. salt, silk ) i) Moving away from tributary practices ii) Centralized territorial sovereignty iii) First instances of democratic political economy IV) Tied with colonialism, in the European cases; and state regulation over commerce, in most Eurasia cases

23 New Monarchs (Europe)

24 New Monarchs (Islamicate)

25 New military figures

26

27 Navy

28 Standing Army

29 Standing Army (18 th century)

30 Gunpowder States

31 What are Gunpowder States? States constituted of organized violence, gunpowder and use of weapons for explosives (muskets; canons..) Southernization : China; Western Middle East and Eastern Europe. Gunpowder state also Territorial: taxes; Army; territory. Early modern states (Eurasia: The Ming Army). Napoleonic Wars:1792 to 1815.

32 State & Empire

33

34 British Empire

35 20 th century Empires & War

36 American Empire

37 2. Military Revolution ( )

38 Bigger Armies (300,000)

39

40 Gunpowder

41 Battle of Waterloo (1815)

42 Cannon (French)

43 Wheelock: shorter and lighter muskets

44 Matchlock musket

45 Science and military: precision & perspectivism

46 Siege warfare

47 Islamic Empires Ottoman( ); Safavid ( ); Mughal 1. Mediterranean-Mesopotamia Zone. 2. Asian (sub) continent zone. ( ) 1. Mediterranean Sea 2. Indian Oceanic base.

48 Eastern Hemispheric Complex 1. Ottomans: expansion of global commerce through import of goods (silver) from Americas. 2. Safavids: land-based silk trade throughout Eurasia. 3. Mughals: Production of manufactured goods shipbuilding industry, textile, and steel.

49 OTTOMANS They played a leading role in the expansion of gunpowder warfare. The most enduring world power that ever existed. One of the most cosmopolitan empires in human history. State: Expansionist and militaristic.

50 Janissaries (New Troops) 1383 Elite Corps: constituted the Cavalry force Murad I ( ) Devshirme: an Ottoman institution that recruited male Christian boys (8 to 18) from the Balkans and Anatolia. Trained and converted to Islam. Famous for use of military technology

51

52 Sipahi Cavalry

53 1453 Constantinople

54 Suleiman the Magnificent Siege of Vienna (1529)

55 Ottoman s extent into Central Europe with the aim to control Hungary. Brought to standstill the Ottoman waves of conquest. Why Ottomans failed? Despite 300 various artillery pieces and cannons shortages of supplies. Bad weather condition. Military: a) Not enough heavy artillery b) Light cavalry and lightly-armed. c) Failure to blow up the walls.

56 Second Siege of Vienna (1683)

57 Croissant

58 Ottoman and changing global economy Controlled the spice route (before late 15 th century) Network of caravanserai (roadside inn) Mercantile: direct control over spice trade, but not all markets Guilds well established (late 16 th century): traditional capitalism Cotton market Encouraged greater imports International investment : not competitive enough

59 Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent 1526 First Capitulation to the French Surrendering under an agreement Set of conditions From a position of power: Europeans no need to pay taxes!!! Later this gave Europeans enormous advantage over Ottoman fiscal and markets

60 Globalisation ( ) But cotton market declined because of plantations in Americas 1854 Ottomans took out loans from European banks (Crimean War) Bankruptcy!

61 European Bourgeoisie Urban-based: commercial middle class. Jacob Fugger ( ) His sons published the first newsletter for Merchants and bankers, Which tracked political and Economic developments in Europe

62 Medieval Guilds & Bankers

63 Banking class

64 3. Revolution in Capital POST-FEDUAL WORLD: A rapidly expanding population and market-based economy led to the development of capitalism. Distant trade: trans-regional Markets. Stock market (shareholders) Banking

65 New commodities & Price Revolution Columbian Exchange: especially silver and gold from Americas created surplus value and led to trade disparity Too much money for few goods in growing markets Inflation! Wages fluctuated and dramatic changes in wealth accumulation

66

67 Merchants as leading economic actors Economic growth led to private parties (merchants and entrepreneurs) making their goods and services available in the free market. Financial networks of transportation and communication. Example: Dutch merchants buy grain from Poland, store it in Amsterdam, and when famine hits Mediterranean, they would then sell it to southern France or Spain.

68 The Rise of Risk Society Organized institutions and services to support early capitalism. Banks: granted loans to merchants or entrepreneurs. Join-stock companies: expensive business enterprises and took advantage of extensive commercial activities around the globe.

69

70 LIOYDS Bank First Insurance

71 Moving away from Mercantilism (late 17 th century) Definition: State control of foreign trade (against free-trade) 1) Protectionist: importation of gold, silver; no importation of goods already at home. 2) Limited foreign merchants activities and workers rights. 3) Expansion of military and naval ships for trade and protection of merchants. ---Caused war: in order to promote prosperity. ---And colonial expansion.

72 Adam Smith ( ) on the Capitalist Market What is the species of domestic industry which his capital can employ, and of which the produce is likely to be of the greatest value, every individual, it is evident, can, in his local situation, judge much better than any statesmen or lawgiver can do for him To give the monopoly of the home market to the produce of domestic industry, in any particular art or manufacture, is in some measure to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, and must, in almost all cases, be either a useless or a hurtful regulation.

73 Putting Out System The new entrepreneur paid workers from rural regions for their services. Circumvent the Guilds. Rural Labor: spent little On wages and made huge profits.

74 Protoindustralization

75 Exploitation of Labor

76 Exploitation of Commerce

77 Ming China ( ) Inland agricultural wealth Taxes from agriculture Manufacturing sector: porcelain and silk 1581 changed currency to silver (money was way too unstable in a competitive global economy) But China needed sliver from Europeans Imbalance of commerce: Europeans buy Chinese goods very cheap

78 Qing Dynasty ( ) Kangxi Emperor ( ) Military power on land (defeated the Russians) but Maritime naval weakness

79 European foreign policy & Global Economy The rising merchant class had major influence in foreign policy Favored blocking imports and textile and other goods from Asia European domination over the seas also led to the declining role of China in global economy, a process that took a sharp turn in the 17 th century

80

81 Imperialism & Capitalism

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