# 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of demand (PED)

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1 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of demand (PED) Learning Outcomes Explain the concept of price elasticity of demand, understanding that it involves responsiveness of quantity demanded to a, along a given demand curve. Calculate PED using the following equation: PED = percentage change in quantity demanded / percentage. State that the PED value is treated as if it were positive although its mathematical value is usually negative. Explain using diagrams and PED values, the concepts of price elastic demand, price inelastic demand, unit elastic demand, and perfectly inelastic demand. Explain the determinants of PED, including the number and closeness of substitutes, the degree of necessity, time, and the proportion of income spent on the good. What is price elasticity of demand and how is it calculated? Price elasticity of demand (PED) measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded for a good to a change in its price. percentage change in quantity demanded It is calculated using the formula PED = percentage = % Qd % P is the Greek letter delta. It is used in mathematics and means change in. This formula is used when the changes are given in percentages. Calculation of PED using the formula PED = % Qd % P a step-by-step guide price elasticity of demand (PED) a measure of how quantity demanded responds to a in percentage terms quantity demanded the amount of a good consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price over a given period of time Price falls by 6% leading to an increase in quantity demanded of 9%. I will enter the percentage changes into the formula: PED = 9 6 simplify by dividing 9 by 6 (% P is negative because price has decreased) PED = 1.5 (PED is negative because a positive number divided by a negative number gives a negative number) When the changes are in raw values we use the formula: PED = Qd/Qd P/P ( Qd/Qd means Qd divided by Qd) ( P/P means P divided by P) Qd is the change in quantity demanded, Qd is the original quantity demanded, P is the and P is the original price. Calculation of PED using the formula PED = Qd/Qd Qd/Qd a step-bystep P/P guide Price increases from \$3 to \$9 causing quantity demanded to fall from 12,000 units to 4000 units. Qd = 8,000 units ( is negative because quantity demanded falls). Original Qd = 12, 000 units, P = \$3 to \$9 = \$6 (it is positive because price has increased) and Original price = \$3. Now the calculations are added into the formula: PED = 8000/12000 simplify by dividing 8000 by 12,000 and by dividing 6 by 3 6/3 PED = 0.67 Simplify by dividing 0.67 by 2 2 PED = 0.34 (PED is negative because a negative number divided by a positive number gives a negative number) 19

2 How to calculate an unknown value when all the other values are known a step-by-step guide Calculation of the change in quantity demanded caused by a when the original price, the, the original quantity demanded, and the value of PED are known. P = \$4, new price = \$6, original quantity demanded = 120 units, and PED = 0.5 The figures are entered into the formula PED = Qd/Qd P/P 0.5 = Qd/120 simplify by dividing 2 by 4 2/4 0.5 = Qd/ simplify by multiplying both sides of the equation by = Qd/120 simplify by multiplying both sides of the equation by = Qd New quantity demanded = original Qd Qd = 90 An increase in price from \$4 to \$6 causes quantity demanded to fall from 120 units to 90 units. inverse relationship a change in the value of one variable leads to an opposite change in direction in the value of the other variable. For example an increase in price leads to a fall in quantity demanded. law of demand states that there is a negative causal relationship between price and quantity demanded. As price rises quantity demanded falls. demand curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded absolute value the distance a number is from zero (e.g. the absolute value of 5 is 5 and the absolute value of -5 is 5) price elastic the percentage supplied > the percentage price inelastic the percentage supplied < the percentage price unit elastic the percentage change in quantity demanded / supplied = the percentage. PED/PES = 1 Why is the value of PED negative? A price increase is a positive change and it causes quantity demanded to fall which is a negative change and as price falls (negative change) quantity demanded rises (positive change). So price and quantity demanded have an inverse relationship reflecting the law of demand. In order to work out PED the percentage change in quantity demanded is divided by the percentage. When one value is positive the other value is negative. A negative number divided by a positive number gives a negative number (minus divided by plus is minus) and a positive divided by a negative gives a negative (plus divided by minus is minus). As the value of PED is always negative economists often ignore the minus sign. Explain using diagrams and PED values, the concepts of price elastic demand, price inelastic demand, unit elastic demand, and perfectly inelastic demand Figure 8.1a and 8.1b show demand curves for two different goods served during one week at a cafe. Price of burgers \$ Quantity of burgers Figure 8.1a Figure 8.1b D Price of chips \$ Portions of chips In Figure 8.1a an increase in price of 5% causes quantity demanded to fall by 10%: PED = 10/5 = ( ) 2. The % Qd > % P so the absolute value of PED is greater than 1 (ignoring the minus sign) and demand is price elastic. In Figure 8.1b a price rise of 20% causes quantity demanded to fall by 10%. PED = 10/20 = 0.5 (ignoring the minus sign). The % Qd < % P so the absolute value of PED is less than 1 and demand is price inelastic. When % Qd = % P the absolute value of PED is equal to 1 and demand is price unit elastic. D 20 Section 1: Microeconomics

3 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of demand (PED) Price \$ Figure 8.2 Price \$ Figure Quantity demanded D In Figure 8.2 at a price of \$3 quantity demanded has no end. It is infinite. As price changes, quantity demanded falls from infinity to zero. To reflect this the demand curve is horizontal at price. As price changes, the change in quantity demanded is infinite. Any number divided by or into infinity equals infinity. A 5% increase in price for example causes quantity demanded to fall from infinity to zero. PED = % Qd % P PED = = ( means infinity). 5 Demand is perfectly elastic with respect to price. In Figure 8.3 a causes no change in quantity demanded. The change in quantity demanded = 0. Quantity demanded is 30 units at all prices. To reflect this the demand curve is vertical at 30 units. Any number divided by or into 0 equals 0. Price increases from \$2 to \$4. This is a 100% increase causing quantity demanded to change by 0. To reflect this the demand curve is vertical at 30 units. PED = % Qd % P = = 0. Demand is perfectly inelastic with respect to price. Model sentence: The value of PED is determined by the relative size of the percentage and quantity demanded: when the percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than the percentage, PED has an absolute value greater than 1 and demand is price elastic and when the percentage change in quantity demanded is less than the percentage, PED has an absolute value less than 1 and demand is price inelastic. Explain how PED is determined D Quantity demanded Quantity demanded of a good is more responsive to a change in its price when there are lots of close substitutes available for consumers to buy instead of the good. Demand is more price elastic. If a good is a necessity (e.g. oil) quantity demanded is less responsive to a change in its price and demand is more price inelastic. Demand for luxury goods is more price elastic than for necessities because consumption of luxury goods is not essential. perfectly elastic demand at a particular price quantity demanded is infinite but falls to nothing as price changes. The abosolute value of PED is equal to infinity. perfectly inelastic demand quantity demanded does not change as price changes. The absolute value of PED is equal to zero. substitutes in production two or more goods that can be produced by a firm necessity a consumer good or a producer good that is important to the producer or consumer and has few or no substitutes, therefore its PED tends to be inelastic. Also describes a good that is income inelastic. expenditure the price paid by buyers in exchange for goods and services. Total expenditure = price quantity purchased. consumption...use proportion...amount expenditure...spending/ money spent Glossary addictive something your body needs regularly and you cannot stop taking it If a good is addictive (e.g. tobacco) it is more difficult to reduce consumption following an increase in price. Therefore demand is more price inelastic. It is difficult for consumers to immediately change patterns of consumption. It takes time to find suitable substitutes and to ration use of a good following an increase in price. Over a short period of time demand is more price inelastic but becomes less price inelastic over time, as consumers are able to find substitutes and reduce consumption further. The price of some goods is very low. Expenditure on them makes up a very small proportion of a consumer s income so that even after a large increase in price there is little or no change in quantity demanded. If the price of a box of matches increases by 15% the change in quantity demanded would be much less than 15%, therefore demand is price inelastic. Model sentence: The more close substitutes there are available on the market the easier it is for consumers to switch expenditure and buy an alternative good, therefore demand for a good with many close substitutes will be more price elastic. 21

4 Test your understanding of this unit by answering the following questions Explain why the value of PED is negative. Calculate the PED when price falls by 25% causing quantity demanded to increase by 75%. Calculate PED when a price increase from \$4 to \$6 causes quantity demanded to fall from 1200 units to 1000 units. Quantity demanded = 150 units at \$16. Price increases to \$20 and PED for the good = Calculate the change in quantity demanded. Explain why as income rises PED for most goods becomes less elastic. Explain why demand for cigarettes is inelastic. Use a diagram to illustrate your answer. Learning Outcomes Calculate PED between two designated points on a demand curve using the PED equation. Explain why PED varies along a straight line demand curve and is not represented by the slope of the demand curve. Examine the role of PED for firms in making decisions regarding price changes and their effect on total revenue. Explain why PED for many primary goods is relatively low and the PED for manufactured goods is relatively high. Examine the significance of PED for government in relation to indirect taxes. designated...chosen/ selected diminishing...becoming smaller quantity demanded the amount of a good consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price over a given period of time price inelastic the percentage supplied < the percentage revenue the income a firm receives from consumers in exchange for goods (revenue = price quantity sold) price elastic the percentage supplied > the percentage Calculate and explain PED along a straight line demand curve (see Figure 9.1a/b) Price \$ PED > PED = 1 PED < Quantity Figure 9.1a Figure 9.1b As price increases from \$2 to \$4 quantity demanded falls from 40 to 30 units. (See pages for a detailed explanation of how to calculate PED.) PED = Qd/Qd P/P = 10/40 = 0.25 = ( ) PED < 1 so demand is price inelastic. Remember when stating 2/2 1 the value of PED that the minus sign is ignored it is treated as a positive. Revenue = price quantity. When price is \$2 revenue = \$2 40 = \$80. Total revenue (P Q) \$ Quantity (Q) When price is \$4 revenue = \$4 30 = \$120, an increase of \$40. As price rises from \$2 to \$4 revenue increases by \$40. As price falls from \$4 to \$2 revenue falls from \$120 to \$80, a fall of \$40. Therefore when demand is price inelastic an increase in price leads to an increase in revenue and a fall in price leads to a fall in revenue because the percentage is greater than the percentage change in quantity demanded. As price increases from \$6 to \$8 quantity demanded falls from 20 to 10 units. PED = 10/20 2/6 = / 20 = 0.5 = ( ) PED > 1 so demand is price elastic When price is \$6 revenue = \$6 20 = \$120. When price is \$8 revenue = \$8 10 = \$80, a fall of \$40. As price rises from \$6 to \$8 revenue falls from \$120 to \$80, a decrease of \$40. As price falls from \$8 to \$6 revenue increases from \$80 to \$120, a rise of \$40. Therefore, when demand is price elastic an increase in price leads to a fall in revenue and a fall in price leads to an increase in revenue, because the percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than the percentage. 22 Section 1: Microeconomics

5 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of demand (PED) The slope remains constant moving along a straight line demand curve. The measure of the slope of the demand curve is in absolute terms. For example, a price increase of \$2 from \$2 to \$4 causes a fall in quantity demanded from 40 to 30 units and a price increase of \$2 from \$6 to \$8 causes a fall in quantity demanded from 20 to 10 units. In both cases price changes by \$2 causing quantity demanded to change by 10 units. PED, on the other hand, measures the relationship between a percentage and a percentage change in quantity demanded. It is measured in relative terms. A or quantity when price or quantity is low results in a relatively large percentage change. A or quantity when price or quantity is high results in a relatively small percentage change. For example, a price increase of \$2 from \$2 to \$4 is a 100% increase in price whereas a price increase of \$2 from \$6 to \$8 is only a 33.33% increase in price, even though the actual price in both cases changes by the same amount. Explain the relationship between PED and total revenue (see Figure 9.1a/b) At first, as price increases from zero the percentage > the percentage change in quantity demanded. Demand is price inelastic, therefore revenue increases as price rises. As price continues to rise it causes a movement up and along the demand curve. Price elasticity of demand becomes less price inelastic, because the difference between the rate at which price and quantity demanded changes begins to fall. While the percentage is greater than that of quantity demanded, revenue will continue to rise as price increases, but at a diminishing rate. This means that, as price increases, the addition to total revenue is positive, but the increase in total revenue is less than the increase gained by the previous increase in price. When the percentage = the percentage change in quantity demanded, total revenue is maximized. The value of PED = 1 and demand is unit price elastic. This occurs halfway along the straight line demand curve at a price of \$5 and a quantity of 25 units. As price increases above \$5 the percentage change in quantity demanded > the percentage, therefore revenue begins to fall. As price continues to rise, PED becomes more elastic. Total revenue falls at an increasing rate until price is \$10 and quantity demanded is 0 and there is no revenue. Revenue maximization If a firm s output and price is at a point on the demand curve where PED is inelastic the firm can increase revenue by increasing price and reducing output. If output and price is at a point where PED is elastic the firm can increase revenue by lowering price and increasing output. Therefore, in order to maximize revenue, a firm sets output or price where PED = 1 and demand is unit price elastic. Model sentence: When the absolute value of PED is less than 1 increasing price causes revenue to rise and when the absolute value of PED is more than 1 reducing price causes revenue to rise, therefore revenue is maximized when the absolute value of PED = 1. Examine the role of PED for firms in making decisions regarding price changes and their effect on total revenue A firm launching a new good wants to maximize revenue over the life of the good. The firm will try to get individual consumers to pay the most they are willing to pay. In other words the firm tries to steal as much consumer surplus as possible. Initially the firm charges a high price and a quantity of units are sold to less price-sensitive consumers who are willing and able to pay the high price. When demand of these consumers has been met and sales begin to fall the firm lowers price at a point on the demand curve where PED is inelastic, more consumers enter the market to buy the good, and revenue increases. Over time the firm continues to lower the price in order to increase quantity demanded and increase revenue. This pricing strategy is called skimming the market and is particularly used by firms producing new technological goods. In industries where there are firms producing branded goods a new firm might reduce the price of its new good in order to gain market share. As brand awareness rises and the good is established in the market, PED becomes more inelastic and the firm can raise the price and increase revenue. Why is PED for primary goods lower than the PED for manufactured goods? Primary goods such as wheat have fewer substitutes than manufactured goods. Primary goods are more likely to be necessities. Manufactured goods are often luxuries. In countries where incomes are relatively high consumers spend a lower proportion of income on primary goods and a higher proportion on manufactured Glossary slope the angle/gradient of the curve maximized made as great as possible demand curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded unit price elastic the percentage change in quantity demanded / supplied = the percentage. PED/PES = 1. output the quantity of goods produced by a firm, industry or economy consumer surplus the difference between the price a consumer is willing and able to pay and the price the consumer actually pays demand the amount of a good that consumers are willing and able to buy at each price market where buyers and sellers meet to exchange money for goods and services pricing strategy a plan made and used by a firm with the aim of increasing revenue and profits through the setting of price industry a group of firms that produce the same or similar goods or services branded goods goods that are identifiable as being the product of a particular firm usually through a distinctive label or logo market share the proportion of the market supply of a good or service that is controlled by a firm primary good a good that has not been processed and is in a raw state (e.g. fruit/wheat) substitutes in production two or more goods that can be produced by a firm manufactured goods goods produced from raw materials necessities consumer goods or producer goods that are important to the producer or consumer and few or no substitutes, therefore their PED tends to be inelastic. Also describes goods that are income inelastic. luxuries when income changes demand for a luxury good changes at a greater rate. Demand is relatively sensitive to changes in income. 23

6 unemployment occurs when there are people actively looking for work at the equilibrium wage rate but are not able to find work industry a group of firms that produce the same or similar goods or services tax revenue the income the government receives through the levying and collection of taxes duty... tax concept(s)...idea(s)/ theory/ies responsiveness...reaction/ sensitivity goods. Therefore quantity demanded of primary goods is less sensitive to a than quantity demanded of manufactured goods. Therefore the value of PED is likely to be lower and demand less price elastic for primary goods than for manufactured goods. Examine the significance of PED for government in relation to indirect taxes An indirect tax is a tax imposed on producers by the government. It is a tax placed on a good or service. Examples include duties on cigarettes, alcohol, fuel, and value added tax (VAT). When a government increases the duty on a good, the price of the good increases leading to a fall in quantity demanded. If demand is highly price elastic the rate of change in quantity demanded > the rate of change in price and a duty that raises price will cause a large decrease in sales increasing unemployment in the industry. The government places taxes on goods that are more price inelastic because the fall in quantity of goods bought is not as great, therefore there are not as many job losses and the tax revenue (tax per unit quantity sold) collected by the government from the sale of the goods will be greater. Test your understanding of this unit by answering the following questions Explain why revenue is maximized when the absolute value of PED = 1. Use a diagram to illustrate your answer. Explain why PED is lower for primary goods than for manufactured goods. Learning Outcomes Outline the concept of cross-price elasticity of demand, understanding that it involves responsiveness of demand for one good (and hence a shifting demand curve) to a change in the price of another good. Calculate XED using the following equation XED = percentage change in quantity demanded of good x percentage of good y Show that substitute goods have a positive value of XED and complementary goods have a negative value of XED. Explain that the (absolute) value of XED depends on the closeness of the relationship between two goods. Examine the implications of XED for businesses if prices of substitutes or complements change. cross-price elasticity of demand (XED) measures the responsiveness of demand for one good to a of another good in percentage terms complementary goods/ complements goods that are used together quantity demanded the amount of a good consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price over a given period of time demand curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded shifting...moving implications...effects/ outcomes relatively...comparatively 24 Section 1: Microeconomics Calculation of XED XED measures the responsiveness of demand for one good to a change in the price of another good. percentage change in quantity demanded of good x It is calculated using the formula XED = percentage of good y How does the price of one substitute affect the demand for the other? a step-by-step guide Goods X and Y are substitutes: one good can be used in place of the other. As the price of good Y increases it becomes relatively more expensive than good X. Some consumers buy good X in place of good Y. This leads to a fall in quantity demanded for good Y (a movement up and along the demand curve) and an increase in demand for good X (a shift up and to the right of the demand curve). As the price of good Y falls it becomes relatively cheaper than good X. Some consumers buy good Y in place of good X leading to an increase in quantity demanded for good Y (a movement down and along the demand curve) and a fall in demand for good (a shift down and to the left of the demand curve). Model sentence: In the case of two substitutes an increase in the price of one leads to a fall in quantity demanded of that good (a movement up and along its demand curve) and an increase in demand for the other good (a shift up and to the right of its demand curve).

7 Calculate XED and explain why it is always positive in the case of substitutes There are two barber shops in the high street, John s and Sam s. John increases the price of a haircut from 20 to 25. Some customers go to Sam s instead of John s. Quantity demanded of haircuts at John s falls and demand for haircuts at Sam s increases from 100 a week to 150. How to calculate XED from the information above a step-by-step guide Use the formula XED = QdX/QdX PY/PY QdX is the change in quantity demanded for service X, Qd is the original quantity demanded for service X, PY is the of service Y, and P is the original price of service Y. XED = 50/100 simplify by dividing 50 by 100 and 5 by 20 5/20 XED = 0.5 simplify by dividing 0.5 by XED = 2 There is a positive correlation between the price of one good and the demand for another when the goods are substitutes. An increase in price of one good causes an increase in demand for the other. A positive divided by a positive equals a positive. If John reduces the price some customers have their haircut at John s instead of Sam s leading to an increase in quantity demanded at John s and a fall in demand at Sam s. The fall in price of one service leads to a fall in demand for the other. A negative divided by a negative equals a positive. Therefore the value of XED for substitutes is always positive. The services are close substitutes: one can easily be consumed in place of the other. The demand for one service is very sensitive to a change in the price of the other. The greater the similarity between two goods the more responsive demand for one good is to a change in the price of the other and the higher the value of XED. 1.2 Elasticity: Cross-price elasticity of demand (XED) Glossary barber a shop where men s hair is cut positive correlation a relationship between two variables such that they move in the same direction rival business a competitor pricing strategy a plan made and used by a firm with the aim of increasing revenue and profits through the setting of price revenue the income a firm receives from consumers in exchange for goods (revenue = price quantity sold) profit the difference between total revenue and total cost correlation...link/ relationship consumed...used How does the XED of substitutes affect businesses? It is useful for a firm to know the effect on demand for their good when a rival business changes its price and the effect on demand for a rival s good when it changes price. This knowledge helps firms develop a pricing strategy that increases revenue and profit. How does the price of one complementary good affect the demand for the other? a step-by-step guide Goods X and Y are complements: they are used together. As the price of good Y falls quantity demanded increases (a movement down and along its demand curve). As more of good Y is sold demand for good X which is used with good Y increases (a shift up and to the right of the demand curve). As the price of good Y increases quantity demanded falls (a movement up and along its demand curve). As less of good Y is sold demand for good X decreases (a shift down and to the left of the demand curve). Model sentence: In the case of complementary goods an increase in the price of one good leads to a fall in quantity demanded of that good (a movement up and along its demand curve) and a fall in demand for the other good (a shift to the left of its demand curve). 25

8 inverse relationship a change in the value of one variable leads to an opposite change in direction in the value of the other variable unrelated goods goods that are not linked in their use Calculate XED and explain why it is always negative in the case of complements The price of using mobile phones falls and quantity demanded increases, leading to a movement down and along the demand curve. As more phones are sold the demand for apps (applications) increases causing the demand curve for apps to shift up and to the right. The price of mobile phones falls by 10% and this leads to a 25% increase in quantity demanded of apps. XED = % QdX % PY = 25% 10% = 2.5 Let s say the price of using mobile phones increases by 10% leading to a 25% fall in quantity demanded of apps. XED = 25% 10% = 2.5 The value of XED is always negative in the case of complements because of the inverse relationship between the price of one good and the demand of the other. A positive divided by a negative equals a negative. A negative divided by a positive equals a negative. Lots of people use apps on their mobile phones, therefore the number of phones sold has a large impact on the demand for apps. Demand for apps is highly responsive to changes in the price of mobile phones. The stronger the relationship between the two complementary goods the higher the negative value of XED. How does the XED of complements affect businesses? Trips to the cinema and confectionery and fizzy drinks are strong complements. The profit on the sale of confectionery and drinks at the cinema is very high. The owner knows how much on average each customer spends on these items. Reducing the price of cinema tickets to attract more customers will lead to an increase in demand for confectionery and drinks. It is possible that this pricing strategy might increase profits overall. Unrelated goods Goods are unrelated when an increase in the price of one good does not affect the demand for the other. concept(s)...idea(s)/ theory/ies shifting...moving Test your understanding of this unit by answering the following questions Explain why the value of XED is positive in the case of substitutes. Calculate the XED when price of one good falls from \$9 to \$6 causing quantity demanded for the other good to increase from 120,000 units to 200,000 units. Comment on the relationship between the two goods. As the price of petrol increases demand for more fuel-efficient cars will increase. Using the concept of cross-price elasticity of demand, comment on the validity of this comment. Learning Outcomes Outline the concept of income elasticity of demand, understanding that it involves responsiveness of demand (and hence a shifting demand curve) to a change in income. Calculate YED using the following equation percentage change in quantity demanded YED = percentage change in income Show that normal goods have a positive value of YED and inferior goods have a negative value of YED. Distinguish, with reference to YED, between necessity (income inelastic) goods and luxury (income elastic) goods. Examine the implications for producers and for the economy of a relatively low YED for primary goods, a relatively higher YED for manufactured goods, and an even higher YED for services. 26 Section 1: Microeconomics

9 How does a change in income affect demand in the case of normal goods? Income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to a change in income. percentage change in quantity demanded It is calculated by using the formula YED = percentage change in income Price P e1 P e Figure 11.1 Calculate YED a step-by-step guide As income increases, demand for flights increases, leading to a shift up and to the right of the demand curve and excess demand (Q 2 Q e ) at the equilibrium price P e. Price increases to eliminate the excess. As price rises there is a movement up and along the supply curve and up and along the new demand curve D 1. Price rises until quantity demanded = quantity supplied at P e1. An increase in income causes price to rise from P e to P e1 and quantity demanded and supplied to increase from Q e to Q e1. A fall in income leads to a shift down and to the left of the demand curve and a fall in equilibrium price and quantity demanded and supplied. A consumer s income increases from \$30,000 to \$40,000 leading to an increase in quantity demanded from 120 to 160 units. The formula used to calculate YED when not given the changes in percentage terms is YED = Qd/Qd Y/Y Qd is the change in quantity demanded, Qd is the original quantity demanded, Y is the change in income, and Y is the original income. 40/120 YED = simplify by dividing 40 by 120 and by / YED = YED = 1 The proportional change in quantity demanded (0.33) = the proportional change in income (0.33) YED = 1 and demand is income unit elastic. There is a positive correlation between income and quantity demanded for normal goods (income and quantity demanded change in the same direction). Therefore the value of YED for a normal good is positive: a positive number divided by a positive number gives a positive number and a negative divided by a negative gives a positive. What is the difference between normal goods that are necessities and those that are luxuries? When the proportional change in quantity demanded < the proportional change in income YED is less than 1. This means that quantity demanded is relatively insensitive to changes in income. Demand is income inelastic and goods are described as necessities. For example, a fall of 3% in income leads to a 0.6% fall in the quantity of bread demanded. YED = % Qd % Y = = 0.2 D Q e Q e1 Q 2 Quantity D/S S D 1 YED is positive and less than 1, therefore bread is a necessity. 1.2 Elasticity: Income elasticity of demand (YED) income elasticity of demand a measure of how quantity demanded responds to a change in income in percentage terms quantity demanded the amount of a good consumers are willing and able to buy at a given price over a given period of time income the payment received by the factors of production (e.g. wages paid to labour, rent paid to the owners of land) demand the amount of a good that consumers are willing and able to buy at each price demand curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded excess demand occurs when quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied equilibrium price the price at which the quantity consumers are willing and able to buy is equal to the quantity firms are willing and able to produce supply curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity supplied quantity supplied the amount of a good that firms are willing and able to produce at a given price over a given period of time positive correlation a relationship between two variables such that they move in the same direction normal goods goods for which demand increases when income increases, and falls when income falls income inelastic demand for a good is income inelastic when the value of income elasticity of demand is positive and less than 1 necessities consumer goods or producer goods that are important to the producer or consumer and few or no substitutes, therefore their PED tends to be inelastic. Also describes goods that are income inelastic. responsiveness.reaction/ sensitivity eliminate...remove/get rid of 27

10 income elastic demand for a good is income elastic when the value of income elasticity of demand is greater than 1 luxuries when income changes demand for a luxury good changes at a greater rate. Demand is relatively sensitive to changes in income. inferior goods goods for which demand falls as income increases negative correlation a relationship between two variables such that they move in the opposite direction market where buyers and sellers meet to exchange money for goods and services manufactured goods goods produced from raw materials output the quantity of goods produced by a firm, industry or economy capital (goods) manufactured goods that are used in the production of other goods primary good a good that has not been processed and is in a raw state (e.g. fruit/wheat) direct taxes a tax that is paid directly by an individual or firm to the governmnent. For example income tax on wages and company profits. disposable income household income after direct taxation has been deducted industry a group of firms that produce the same or similar goods or services consumption...use When the proportional change in quantity demanded > the proportional change in income YED is greater than 1. This means that quantity demanded is highly responsive to changes in income. Demand is income elastic and goods are described as luxuries. For example, incomes increase by 4% leading to a 6% increase in the quantity of taxi journeys demanded. YED = % Qd % Y = 6 4 = 1.5 YED > 1, therefore a taxi journey is a luxury service. Model sentence: As quantity demanded becomes more responsive to changes in income, demand becomes more income elastic and the positive value of YED increases. Explain how a change in income affects demand in the case of inferior goods In the case of inferior goods, as income increases demand falls, leading to a shift down and to the left of the demand curve and a fall in quantity demanded. As income falls demand increases, leading to a shift up and to the right of the demand curve and an increase in quantity demanded. YED is negative for an inferior good because there is a negative correlation between income and quantity demanded (income and quantity demanded change in opposite directions). A positive divided by a negative gives a negative and a negative divided by a positive gives a negative. Calculation of YED An increase in national income of 3% leads to a 1% fall in the quantity of bus journeys demanded. YED = % Qd % Y = 1 3 = 0.33 YED is negative, therefore a bus journey is an inferior service. Explain the factors that affect YED Consumers react differently to changes in their income because the amount of benefit gained from the consumption of a good varies from person to person. Goods that are luxuries to some are necessities to others. If already on a very high income an increase in income might lead to no changes in the consumption of goods. In this case YED would be 0. (A number divided into zero = zero.) Chicken is a luxury good in China. As incomes increase, quantity demanded increases at a greater rate. As incomes continue to increase, the value of YED for chicken will begin to fall. In time chicken might become income inelastic. YED changes over the life of a good. Demand for mobile phones when first brought to market was income elastic. They were luxury goods. As price has fallen over time demand has become less income elastic. For many the good is no longer a luxury. Some models have become inferior goods. But in poorer countries demand will still be income elastic. YED depends upon how the good is described. For example, demand for bread in general is income inelastic and a necessity, but demand for specialist bread, such as organic raisin and walnut bread, is income elastic and a luxury. Explain how YED affects government and producers A business can predict what will happen to demand when income changes if it knows the YED. When incomes are expected to increase firms producing luxury manufactured goods, such as ipads, and services, such as foreign holidays, will have to make plans if the firm wants to increase output in order to meet the higher levels of demand. The firm will need to employ and train more workers and buy new capital. When incomes are expected to fall the same firms would have to consider reducing the size of the work force and the size of production. The firm might also consider producing an inferior good. Firms can reduce the risk of business failure by producing a range of goods with different YED values. 28 Section 1: Microeconomics

11 Why is demand for primary goods income inelastic? The demand for many primary goods is income inelastic. That is, the proportional change in income is greater than the proportional change in quantity demanded so the value of YED <1. As incomes rise the demand for many primary goods such as tea, coffee, and sugar increases, but by a proportionately smaller amount. If income rose by 30% the percentage change in quantity demanded of sugar or tea would be much smaller. 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of supply (PES) implications...effects/ outcomes responsiveness...reaction/ sensitivity YED and tax Direct tax is a tax on income. It is called a direct tax because it goes directly from the payer of the tax to the government. Increasing tax reduces consumers disposable income and causes a fall in demand for necessities and luxury goods and an increase in demand for inferior goods. This will have an impact on employment in those industries producing goods that have high positive and high negative YEDs. Test your understanding of this unit by answering the following questions Organic bread has a YED of 4 and basic white bread has a YED of 0.1. Incomes are expected to increase by 5% next year. Calculate the percentage increase in quantity demanded for both types of bread. Discuss the implications of the expected increase in income for the bread-making industry. Learning Outcomes Explain the concept of price elasticity of supply, understanding that it involves responsiveness of quantity supplied to a along a given supply curve. Calculate PES using the following equation percentage change in quantity supplied PES = percentage Explain, using diagrams and PES values, the concepts of elastic supply, inelastic supply, unit elastic supply, perfectly elastic supply, and perfectly inelastic supply. Explain the determinants of PES, including time, mobility of factors of production, unused capacity, and ability to store stocks. Explain why the PES for primary goods is relatively low and the PES for manufactured goods is relatively high. Why is there a positive correlation between price and quantity supplied? As price increases, ceteris paribus, profit increases. Assuming that firms are profit maximizers they will allocate more resources to the production of the good that is now more profitable in order to increase output. As price rises output rises. When price falls profit falls and firms reduce output as it is now less profitable. Price elasticity of supply (PES) measures the responsiveness of quantity supplied to a and is percentage change in quantity supplied calculated using the formula PES = percentage Calculations of PES a step-by-step guide Price increases from \$8 to \$10 leading to an increase in quantity supplied from 8000 units to 9000 units. The formula used to calculate PES when the changes are in raw values is PES = Qs/Qs P/P Qs is the change in quantity supplied, Qs is the original quantity supplied, P is the change in price, and P is the original price. PES = 1000/8000 simplify by dividing 1000 by 8000 and 2 by 8 2/8 PES = simplify by dividing by PES = 0.5 The proportional change in quantity supplied (0.125) < the proportional (0.25) therefore PES < 1 and supply is price inelastic. perfectly elastic supply at a particular price quantity supplied is infinite but falls to nothing as price changes. The absolute value of PES is equal to infinity. perfectly inelastic supply quantity supplied does not change as price changes. PES equals zero. ceteris paribus Latin phrase meaning all other things being equal or all other things being held constant resources the inputs into the production process, the factors of production output the quantity of goods produced by a firm, industry or economy price elasticity of supply (PES) a measure of how quantity supplied responds to a change in price in percentage terms price inelastic the percentage supplied < the percentage 29

12 correlation...link/ relationship shift(s)...move(s) supply curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity supplied demand curve a graph that shows the relationship between price and quantity demanded demand the amount of a good that consumers are willing and able to buy at each price perfectly inelastic supply quantity supplied does not change as price changes. PES equals zero. price unit elastic the percentage change in quantity demanded / supplied = the percentage. PED/PES = 1 perfectly elastic supply at a particular price quantity supplied is infinite but falls to nothing as price changes. The absolute value of PES is equal to infinity. factors of production the inputs into the production process (land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship) output the quantity of goods produced by a firm, industry or economy short run a period of time when at least one factor is variable and the others are fi xe d capital (goods) manufactured goods that are used in the production of other goods Glossary slope the angle/gradient of the curve When the changes are in percentage terms use the formula PES = % Qs % P Price falls by 2% leading to a fall in quantity supplied of 3%. PES = % Qs % P = 3 2 = 1.5 The percentage change in quantity supplied ( 3%) > the percentage ( 2%) therefore PES > 1 and supply is price elastic. There is a positive correlation between quantity supplied and price (they change in the same direction), therefore PES is positive (a positive divided by a positive gives a positive and a negative divided by a negative gives a positive). P S Figure 12.1 D S 2 D 2 S 3 Q Figure 12.1 shows a demand and supply diagram with 3 supply curves each representing different values of PES. The demand curve shifts up and to the right from D 1 to D 2. The rate of and quantity supplied caused by an increase in demand varies depending on the initial price and quantity supplied and the slope of the supply curve. Keeping the initial price and quantity supplied unchanged, as S 1 rotates clockwise the slope becomes less steep. The proportional caused by the same increase in demand falls and the proportional change in quantity supplied rises. Supply curve 1 Demand increases and the demand curve shifts up and to the right from D 1 to D 2. Price increases from \$5 to \$9 leading to no change in quantity supplied. Quantity supplied stays at 5 units. YED = Qs/Qs P/P = 0/5 4/5 = 0 = 0 (0 divided by any number = 0) 0.8 PES = 0, supply is perfectly inelastic with respect to price. Supply curve 2 The demand curve shifts up and to the right. Price increases from \$5 to \$7 leading to an increase in quantity supplied from 5 units to 7 units. PES = Qs/Qs P/P = 2/5 2/5 = 0.4 = 1 PES = 1, supply is price unit elastic. 0.4 Supply curve 3 Demand curve shifts up and to the right. Price does not change but quantity supplied increases from 5 units to 9 units. PES = Qs/Qs P/P = 4/5 = 0.8 = (any number divided by infinity = ) PES =. Supply is perfectly elastic with respect to price. Model sentence: The less responsive quantity supplied is to a the lower the value of PES and the more price inelastic the supply. 30 Section 1: Microeconomics Factors that determine how responsive quantity supplied is to a change in price Time In the very short run (the time period immediately after a price increase) the factors of production are fixed and a firm cannot increase output so supply is perfectly inelastic with respect to price. In the short run the quantity of labour is variable (changeable) but the quantities of capital and land are fixed (unchangeable). The firm can only increase output by adding more labour to existing capital so supply is price inelastic. Output can

13 be increased by a relatively small amount by only adding labour. In the long run the quantities of all factors are variable, therefore the firm can employ more labour and buy more capital in order increase output even more so supply becomes more price elastic. Over time quantity supplied becomes more responsive to a change in price. The value of PES increases, supply becomes more price elastic and the slope of the supply curve becomes less steep. For primary goods quantity supplied is less responsive to changes in price. For example, a farmer decides which crops to grow a long time before the goods come to market. It takes a long time to move resources away from the production of one crop to the production of another. It is not possible to change the quantity supplied in the short term therefore supply of agricultural goods is more price inelastic. Manufactured goods are likely to be more price elastic than agricultural goods because it is easier for firms producing manufactured goods to reallocate their factors to different production processes and thereby increase output. Capacity When a firm is operating at full capacity (all the firm s labour and capital is being used) it is difficult to increase output. Supply is more price inelastic. A firm is able to increase output if it has spare capacity. The greater the amount of capital and labour not being used by the firm the more responsive quantity supplied is to an increase in price so supply is more price elastic. Stocks Quantity supplied can be increased when the firm is able to hold lots of stock. These are goods held in storage. Goods can be released onto the market very quickly, therefore supply is more price elastic. Availability and mobility of resources In order to increase output a firm must get more resources. In a period of high economic activity unemployment is very low. Workers are in short supply. Raw materials might not be available. When resources needed for the production of a good are in short supply, quantity supplied of that good is less responsive to increases in its price and supply is more price inelastic. When there is a slowdown in economic activity demand for resources is lower. More are available for firms to use. Quantity supplied can be increased more easily so supply is more price elastic. There is a greater supply of unskilled labour than skilled. It is easier for firms that use unskilled labour to increase the size of the workforce in order to increase output, so supply is more price elastic. When specialized capital and skilled labour are needed, factors are less mobile. A firm will not be able to employ factors quickly in order to increase output so supply is more price inelastic. Model sentence: When the factors used in the production of a good are easily available, firms in an industry can quickly employ them in order to increase output in response to an increase in price and therefore supply is more price elastic. 1.2 Elasticity: Price elasticity of supply (PES) long run a conceptual moment in time when all factors are variable price elastic the percentage supplied > the percentage primary good a good that has not been processed and is in a raw state (e.g. fruit/wheat) resources the inputs into the production process, the factors of production price inelastic the percentage supplied < the percentage unemployment occurs when there are people actively looking for work at the equilibrium wage rate but are not able to find work short supply the amount demanded is greater than the amount supplied raw material the basic material from which a good is made demand the amount of a good that consumers are willing and able to buy at each price unskilled labour workers lacking in skills, training, and education skilled labour workers who are well trained, well educated, and who are experts in their field Glossary Test your understanding of this unit by answering the following questions capacity the amount of something a firm is able to Price of corn increases by 10% leading to an increase in quantity supplied of 1%. Comment on the make value of PES. Explain why PES becomes more elastic over time. Explain why PES is likely to be more inelastic during high levels of economic activity. spare...extra 31

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