1 Applying Variable Speed Drives In Industrial Refrigeration Systems Douglas Reindl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison Director, Industrial Refrigeration Consortium (2012) Reindl, All Rights Reserved
2 High pressure liquid Equalizer line Single Stage Compression System High pressure gas Evaporative Condenser condenser Evaporative Condenser condenser DX evaporator High pressure receiver T King valve (automatic) Flooded evaporator Dry suction 1 4 Wet return Overfed evaporator(s) To HPR Suction trap Refrigerant transfer system Compressor(s) Pumped recirculator 4 4 T Compressor(s)
3 Where Can VFDs Be Applied? Condenser fans o All or none expect 2-3% savings Evaporator fans o 2-4% savings range o Simple paybacks 1-5 years Compressors o At most, one VFD comp per suction level o Simple paybacks 1-4 years
4 VFD Basic Principles Common terms AFD, ASD, VFD, VSD, drive What it is an electronic controller device capable of adjusting speed of electric motor by modulating power being delivered What it can do: o Vary motor speed to match variable load requirement o Soft start to eliminate mechanical, electrical, hydraulic surges/transients o Potentially save energy, energy cost
5 How VFDs Work Rectifier Converts 3 phase AC voltage to pulsating DC voltage Intermediate circuit Stabilizes the pulsating DC voltage Inverter Converts DC voltage to variable voltage, variable frequency AC Source: Ohme Fundamentals of VFDs and Refrigeration Applications, IRC R&T Forum (2009)
6 VFD Basic Principles Rating o Voltage o Required current to motor o Load type o Overload requirements Variable torque required torque increases as speed increases (condenser, evaporator fans) Constant torque required torque independent of speed (compressors)
7 VFDs Condenser Fans A variable torque application.
8 Evaporative Condenser Operating Principles (Induced draft, counter flow) Moist, hot air out Eliminators Spray header High pressure vapor refrigerant, in High pressure liquid refrigerant, out Ambient air Ambient air Remote sump Makeup water Remote pump Local pump Condenser water circuit
9 Condenser Fan Control Options Single speed fan with on/off control o Most common method of head pressure control o Need to set cut-in (e.g. 150 psig), cut-out pressures (e.g. 145 psig) o Simple control method except: Highest energy consumption option Higher maintenance (fan motors, belts) Potential for liquid management problems in multiple condenser systems Two-speed fan control
10 Condenser Fan Control Options (continued) Variable frequency drive o Set target head pressure, modulate fan speed to maintain o Simple to implement: Slightly higher capital cost versus fixed speed Lowest energy consumption control alternative Multiple condenser systems, modulate ALL condensers together Smooth system operation with minimal transients
11 Condenser Fan Control Map Example Strategy Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode Small Motor off on off on Large Motor off off on on Small Motor off off on Large Motor off on on Small Motor off on on on Large Motor off off half-speed on Small Motor off half-speed half-speed on on Large Motor off off half-speed half-speed on Small Motor off variable speed Large Motor off variable speed
12 Comparative Condenser Fan Performance ~44% ~6%
13 Simple Two Condenser System Heat rejection load Fixed speed control # condensers HP Variable speed drive # condensers HP * 100% % 30 75% 1 + 1/ % % % 1.8 Each condenser equipped with 15 HP fan. * Sans drive losses
14 VFDs Condenser Fans Benefits Stable head pressure Reduced maintenance on shafts, bearings, belts Allows ability to optimize head pressure Reduced energy consumption and operating costs Look to achieve optimal/near-optimal performance with a simplified control strategy
15 Questions on VFDs for condenser fans?
16 VFDs Evaporator Fans A variable torque application.
17 Evaporator Fans Opportunity Load variability essential Best choices for modulating evaporator capacity as space load is reduced: o Cycle refrigerant feed, always run fans (normal situation) o Cycle refrigerant feed + cycle fans after period of time with no call for refrigerant feed (duty cycle) o Raise suction pressure, always run fans (often not possible) o Cycle refrigerant feed with VFD control frequency (best practice) Which is best?
18 Hours per Year Good Applications For Evaporator Fan VFDs Larger fan motors High hours/year operation Frequent part-load operation 1,500 Good VFD Candidate Poor VFD Candidate 1, Percent of Design Load
19 First Principles Applicable fan laws N N full load CFM CFM full load hp hp full load CFM CFM full load 3 Limitations typical minimum motor speeds between Hz Heat exchange impact Capacity Capacity full load CFM CFM full load 0.76
20 Speed Control Impact On Fan Power hp / hp full-load hp hp full load Capacity Capacity full load 3.95 PLR PLR 20-Hz 30-Hz
21 Evaporator Fan VFD Savings Example Evaporator TD* = 12 o F for cooler and 8 o F for freezer VFD costs o Assume 3 HP VFD for each evaporator o Installation 15 hours/vfd by $65/hour Energy costs o Blended $0.08/kWh * TD = Temperature difference (T room T refrigerant )
22 Hours per Year Comparative Load Profiles Cooler 1,500 35F cooler 1, Percent of Design Load
23 Hours per Year Comparative Load Profiles Freezer 2,000-20F Freezer 1,500 1, Percent of Design Load
24 Control Options Fan Speed Control Suction Pressure Control #1 Fixed Fixed #2 Fixed Variable #3 Duty Cycle Fixed #4 Variable Fixed #5 Variable Variable
25 Compressor + Evaporator Efficiency (kw/ton) Comparative Energy Performance Cooler Fixed Speed // Fixed Suction Fixed Speed // Variable Suction T s p a c e = 3 5 [ F ] N e v a p = Duty Cycling / Fixed Suction Variable Speed / Fixed Suction Variable Speed / Variable Suction T D d e s i g n = [ F ] Refrigeration Load (%)
26 Compressor + Evaporator Efficiency (kw/ton) Comparative Energy Performance - Freezer Fixed Speed // Fixed Suction Fixed Speed // Variable Suction Duty Cycling / Fixed Suction T s p a c e = [ F ] N e v a p = 7 T D d e s i g n = 8. 5 [ F ] 2.6 Variable Speed / Fixed Suction Variable Speed / Variable Suction Refrigeration Load (%)
27 Economic Analysis Results From always on fan control to VFD Cooler (35 o F) Freezer (-20 o F) Savings per ton $72 $96 Capital cost per ton $65 $95 Installation cost per ton $48 $71 Simple payback 1.6 years 1.7 years From cycling fan control to VFD Savings per ton $48 $64 Simple payback 2.4 years 2.6 years Assumes single drive operates all fan motors (4) on individual evaporators
28 VFDs Evaporator Fans Reduced system power o Evaporator fan power drastically reduced at part-load o Compressor power reduced due to lower parasitic space refrigeration loads attributable to lower fan energy use (5 HP = 1 ton of refrigeration) More stable suction pressure Increased motor life o Less motor cycling, inherently soft-start Improved power factor Decreased noise, wind-chill
29 VFD Heads Up Drive losses (~3-6%, losses increase at low loads) Evaporator throw loss Typical systems have large number of small evaporator fan motors (cost) Additional equipment to maintain Resonance of equipment (natural frequency) Power quality Siting the drives Minimum fan speed/drive frequency Requires low temperature bearing lubrication/grease
30 Questions on VFDs for evaporator fans?
31 VFDs Compressors A fixed torque application.
32 Compressor Capacity Control Reciprocating o Start/stop individual compressors (rack system) o Discrete cylinder unloaders o Hot gas bypass (not preferred) o Variable speed drive? o Screw single, twin o Continuous slide valve, poppet valves, etc. o Hot gas bypass (not preferred) o Variable speed drive?
33 Percent Full Load BHP Screw Compressor Part-load Characteristics Screw Compressor V i = 5. 0 V i = 3. 6 V i = (Condensing Temperature > 75 F) compressor-only Percent Capacity
34 Efficiency [BHP/ton] Inefficient Part-load Operation! F Suction; 90 F Condensing compressor-only Capacity [%]
35 Percent Full-Load Capacity Compressor Capacity Control Twin Screw Compressor Compressor capacity is directly proportional to shaft speed Percent Compressor Speed
36 Efficiency [BHP/ton] Speed Control Efficiency Benefit Twin Screw Fixed Speed (slide valve) Single Stage 15 psi suction 181 psi discharge thermosiphon oil cooling VFDs perform well at partload conditions! 1.7 Variable Speed Part-Load Capacity [%]
37 % of Run Hours Screw Compressor Field Retrofit Compressors operation on -30 F suction level Comp 1 Comp 2 Slide Valve Position Ref: Campbell, VFDs in Industrial Refrigeration - Lesson's Learned, IRC R&T Forum (2006).
38 Compressor VFD Retrofit Installed 500 HP VFD on -30 suction level (trim machine) Implemented 1 st level of capacity control using speed rather than slide valve All other compressors base loaded at 100% 500 HP inverter rated motor (North Ice Cream Plant) Ref: Campbell, VFDs in Industrial Refrigeration - Lesson's Learned, IRC R&T Forum (2006).
39 Compressor VFD Retrofit Positive Results 5% compressor run time reduction 25% booster energy consumption reduction Savings analysis 160 kw peak demand reduction Simple payback 1.2 yr Ref: Campbell, VFDs in Industrial Refrigeration - Lesson's Learned, IRC R&T Forum (2006).
40 Compressor VFD Application Considerations One VFD-equipped compressor per suction level Operating sequence considerations o Base load fixed speed screws at 100% slide valve o Trim with VFD-equipped compressor Use speed as first level of capacity control Use slide valve as second level of capacity control o Monitor, tune PI control to avoid speed cycling
41 Compressor VFD Application Considerations (continued) Not cost effective for medium voltage (4160 V) motors Speed control range essential to field verify compressor is free from excessive vibration at all frequencies/speeds Adhere to minimum speed o Required for adequate oil circulation o Required to maintain rotor tip velocity o May require supplemental fan for motor cooling
42 Questions on VFDs for compressors?
43 Closing Thoughts Condenser fans o All or none expect 2-3% savings Evaporator fans o 2-4% savings range o Simple paybacks range 1-5 years Compressors o At most, one VFD comp per suction level o Simple paybacks range 1-4 years
44 Questions? Douglas Reindl, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, University of Wisconsin-Madison Director, Industrial Refrigeration Consortium Thank you!
45 Additional Resources Industrial Refrigeration Consortium Research and Technology Forum Presentations o Fundamentals of VFDs and Refrigeration Applications Ohme (2009) o VFDs for Evaporators Runsey (2009) o VFDs for Compressors Cosner (2009) o Case Studies of VFD Applications Zanutto (2009) o VFDs in Industrial Refrigeration Lesson s Learned Campbell (2006) Cold Front Newsletters o VFDs for Evaporative Condenser Fans Vol. 4 No. 2 (2004) o VFDs for Screw Compressors Vol. 4 No. 3 (2004) o VFDs for Evaporator Fans Vol. 4 No. 4 (2004) Industrial Refrigeration Energy Efficiency Guidebook, Reindl & Jekel, 2 nd Edition, (2011)
46 Additional Resources (continued) University of Wisconsin-Madison/IRC o Short course Achieving Energy Cost Savings for Ammonia Refrigeration Systems May 22-24, 2012 o Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Evaporator Fan VFD Initiative o Baseline Market Evaluation Report, April 1999 o Market Progress Evaluation Report No 2., November 2000 o Market Progress Evaluation Report No 2., June 2002 o Reports available at
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