# Geographic Grid. Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3

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1 Geographic Grid Name The geographic grid refers to the internationally-recognized system of latitude and longitude used to location positions on Earth's surface. Accurate use of this coordinate system is fundamental to the science of geography, which relies so heavily on maps as a medium of communication and analysis. The system of time zones, also internationally accepted, is based on longitude and the speed of Earth's rotation. Purpose: Practice coordinate location using globes, become familiar with time zone relationships, learn geographic grid terms, such as latitude, longitude, parallel, meridian, equator, pole, prime meridian, international dateline, great circle, and time zone. Objectives 1. Understand Great Circle routes 2. Learn the geographic grid system 3. Understand the relationship between longitude and time. Great Circle routes On the globe, find the great circle route (shortest distance route) between the following pairs of places by carefully stretching a string between each pair. For each route, list three features by name (e.g. Andes mountains, Yangtzee River, Laos, Singapore, etc.) lying on or near the route: Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3 Seattle, WA - Tokyo, Japan Sydney, Australia - Beijing Reykjavik, Iceland - Colombo, Sri Lanka Santiago, Chile - Cairo, Egypt Latitude and Longitude The geographic grid refers to the spherical coordinate system of latitude and longitude used to locate positions uniquely anywhere on the surface of the Earth. These coordinates are given as angles, rather than distances used in more familiar rectangular coordinate systems. Angles are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds, in which 60 seconds = 1

2 minute, and 60 minutes = 1 degree. By convention, the symbol represents degrees, the symbol ' represents minutes, and the symbol " represents seconds. Thus 29 40' 22" S, means 29 degrees, 40 minutes, 22 seconds South latitude. Latitude lines, also called parallels, are angles north and south of the Equator (0 ), ranging from 90 North (the North Pole) to 90 South (the South Pole). Longitude lines, also called meridians, are angles east or west from the Prime Meridian (0 ) ranging from 180 West to 180 East (both coordinates identify the International Date Line). Using the Geographic Grid below, draw in and label the following parallels and meridians: a. Tropic of Cancer e. Tropic of Capricorn b. Arctic Circle f. Antarctic Circle c. Prime Meridian g. International Date Line d. Equator Using the globe, find the following locations and note the name of the nearest city. Latitude Longitude City 30 N 90 W 30 N 30 E 23 S 46 W 38 N 122 W 34 S 18 E

3 Using the globe, find the geographic coordinates of the following cities. Do not forget to designate North or South for the latitude and East or West for the longitude: Latitude Longitude City Honolulu Tokyo London Sydney New York How many degrees latitude difference between Honolulu and London? How many degrees latitude difference between Sydney and New York? How many degrees longitude difference between Honolulu and New York? How many degrees longitude difference between London and Sydney? How many degrees longitude difference between Honolulu and Tokyo? You are at 10 S and 165 E; you move to a new location that is 25 North and 60 East of your present position. What will be your new latitude and longitude? Latitude Longitude Zones The Earth rotates 360 in a day (24 hours). Thus, a 15 difference in longitude corresponds to a 1-hour difference in time. So, one hour time zones are 15 longitude wide, and each time zone has a multiple of 15 as its central (standard) meridian. The time at places to the east is later, and places to the west is earlier. A place 45 East of Hawai'i will have sunrise 1. Before or After Hawai'i does (circle one) 2. by hour(s). A place 15 West of Hawai'i will have sunset 1. Before or After Hawai'i does (circle one) 2. by hour(s) is standardized around the globe so that the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky at approximately noon no matter where you are. Each time zone has a standard meridian, which is a multiple of 15 as noted above. For example, the standard meridian for Hawai'i is 150 W.

4 The map shows time zones relative to the Prime Meridian (Greenwich Mean, GMT, also called Universal Coordinated, UTC). The Hawai'i time zone, for example, is -10 or 10 hours earlier than GMT. Figure out the time in each time zone when it is 12 Noon in Hawai'i. Also find the longitude difference and list one or two major cities in each time zone. Hawaii Zone Other Zone Difference Hawaii in Other Zone Longitude Differenc e noon 2 pm GMT 12 noon noon noon noon Cities in Other Zone Los Angeles, Vancouver The day begins at the International Date Line (IDL), the 180 meridian. If you move westward across the IDL, it becomes one day later (Wednesday becomes Thursday). If you move eastward, it becomes one day earlier (Saturday becomes Friday).

5 If it is 3 pm, Thursday in Tokyo, what day and time is it in Honolulu? Day When it is 12 Noon on Monday in Honolulu (150 W), what is the time and day in Sydney (150 E)? Day Map Scales A map scale is the ratio between the size of features on the map and the size of the same features on the ground. Understanding a scale is helpful and important in map interpretation. The figure below illustrates three ways scale can be shown on a map. Map Scale Written scales: Written scales are just that: written statements that indicate the relationship between "map space" and "real space". Representative fractions: These are ratios that tell you how much real space one unit of map space represents. These ratios are constant regardless of what you are using to measure. For example, in the fraction in figure 3, the relationship is "one map thing equals 250,000 real things. The length of your thumb on the map equals 250,000 of your thumbs in reality. The length of your pencil equals 250,000 pencil lengths in reality. Graphic Scales: Graphic scales use a diagram to show you how much real space a given bit of map space represents.

6 Map Scale Calculations Show calculations for the following problems. 1. A straight section of road is 8 km long in reality on the ground and 4 cm when measured on a map. What is the scale of this map as a representative fraction? (note that 1 km = 100,000 cm)? Use steps (a) and (b) below to calculate the answer. (a) What is the distance on the road in cm (multiply km by 100,000) (b) What is the ratio of cm on the ground to cm on the map (divide (a) by cm on the map) Answer: Map scale is 1: 2. Using the scale shown on the topographic map of southeast Oahu, what is the approximate distance between Diamond Head and Makapuu Point in kilometers? Round off to nearest whole number. (note that 1 km = 100,000 cm) Use steps (a), (b), and (c) below to calculate the answer. a) Distance in cm on the map (measure with ruler) b) Distance in cm on the ground (multiply (a) by scale ratio) c) Distance in km on the ground (divide (b) by 100,000)

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