GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System


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1 State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular coordinate system  like UTM, the system was designed to overcome the difficultly of calculating distances and areas How it works  the SPCS was established in the 1930 s by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey  the system was designed to facilitate surveys and mapping within a state  the SPCS is a projected coordinate system  like UTM, the SPCS ignores the curvature of the Earth over a small area  each state is divided into one or more zones  the number of zones depends upon the size of the state (some states have only one zone)  for the largest states, Texas has 5 zones, California has 6 zones and Alaska has 10 zones  in Texas the 5 zones are designated as North, North Central, Central, South Central and South  each state or zone within a state is projected  the projection used is either a transverse Mercator (for NS zones) or a Lambert conformal conic (for states with EW zones)  a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system is then applied to the map area (the state zone)  in some states the zones run northsouth  to minimize distortion, these states use a transverse Mercator projection for each zone  a central meridian runs northsouth down the center of each zone in the state  in some states the zones run eastwest  to minimize distortion, these states use a Lambert conformal conic projection for each zone  the standard parallels run eastwest through the each zone in the state  in Texas, the zones run eastwest so Texas uses a Lambert Conformal Conic projection  the SPCS provides a linear accuracy of 1 unit in 10,000 (about 6 inches a mile)  in the 1930 s, 1 in 10,000 was considered the limit of survey accuracy  it is 4 times more accurate than UTM, which has a accuracy of 1 in 2,500 (about 2 feet in a mile) Horizontal Datums and Units  SPCS is usually referenced to either NAD_27 or NAD_83  when the SPCS is referenced to NAD_27, the system was designed to use English units (feet)  when referenced to NAD_83, the system was designed to use metric units (meters) although these metric units are often converted to feet  in the U.S., most cadastral and engineering applications use the SPCS in feet referenced to either NAD_27 or NAD_83  the easting is measured east of a line located west of the zone border  the northing is measured north of a line located south of the zone Describing Coordinates  recognize that a coordinate can be replicated in different states and in different zones within a state  to describe a coordinate, you must specify the datum, state and zone, and measurement units  e.g. NAD 27, Texas Central Zone (4203), easting: 2,818,560 feet E, northing: 230,591 feet N  also note that the State Plane Coordinate System is not a global coordinate system (like UTM)  it only applies in the United States  including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico  in other parts of the world, most countries have developed similar systems for their own use Copyright 2015, Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University
2 State Plane Coordinate System on Topographic Maps (in lab)  know how the state plane coordinate system works  know how to find state plane coordinates on a topographic map Copyright 2015, Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University
3 Copyright 2015, Kevin Mulligan, Texas Tech University
4 Last Time GIST 3300 / 5300 Projected Coordinate Systems Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System  why do we need the UTM coordinate system?  how does it work?  UTM coordinate system on topographic maps
5 Today GIST 3300 / 5300 State Plane Coordinate System Projected Coordinate Systems  why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  how does it work?  State Plane coordinates on a topographic map
6 State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  trying to address the same problem as the UTM coordinate system  uses the same basic approach  for a small area, we can ignore the curvature of the Earth and apply a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system Y axis x 2,y 2 C B x 1,y 1 A x 2,y 1 We can use this approach if the units are planar (ft or m). We can not calculate distances and areas if the coordinates are expressed in degrees. X axis
7 State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  we could use the UTM coordinate system for statewide mapping  but many states cover more than one UTM zone
8 State Plane Coordinate System How does it work?  the SPCS system was established in the 1930 s  by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey  system designed to facilitate surveys and mapping at the state level  uses a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system over a small area  like UTM, the SPCS ignores the curvature of the Earth within a zone  hence the name state plane  allows us to use plane geometry or plane surveying techniques  provides linear accuracy of 1 unit in 10,000 units (roughly 6 in in a mile)  in 1930 s, 1 in 10,000 was considered the limit of surveying accuracy  SPCS is four times more accurate than UTM (1 linear unit in 2,500 or 4 units in 10,000 roughly 2 feet in a mile)
9 State Plane Coordinate System How does it work? California 6 zones Texas 5 zones Comparison of State Plane and UTM Zones
10 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) To minimize distortion  states with zones that run northsouth use a Transverse Mercator projection  central meridian through the center of each northsouth zone  states with zones that run eastwest use a Lambert conformal conic project  standard parallels through the center of the eastwest zone
11 State Plane Coordinate System
12 State Plane Coordinate System  the Capital Dome in Austin
13 State Plane on Topographic Maps Full values shown in lower left and upper right on map State Plane Black Ticks
14 State Plane Horizontal Datums and Units United States  because the SPCS is a coordinate system designed for use in each of the U.S. states, it is usually referenced to either NAD 27 or NAD 83  when referenced to NAD 27, the system uses English units (feet)  when referenced to NAD 83, the system was designed to use meters but English units can be used as well  most widely used in local cadastral surveys and engineering applications Other Parts of the World  the State Plane Coordinate System applies only in the U.S.  many other countries and provinces have their own system
15 State Plane Describing Coordinates  recognize that a single coordinate (an easting and northing) can be replicated in different states and different state zones  to describe a complete State Plane coordinate, you must specify: 1) the datum 2) the state and zone within the state 3) the easting and northing 4) and the measurement units (feet or meters) Example: NAD 27, Texas Central Zone, 2,818,560 feet E, 230,591 feet N
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