# Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1

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1 Student Worksheets Stage 4 Geography FW4G1 Name:

2 Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes from the sun either directly or indirectly. waves wind coal (prehistoric plants stored suns energy in their leaves) water falling into our dams (evaporated from oceans) Energy sources can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable. Renewable energy sources can be replenished quickly or are nondepletable. Non- renewable energy sources are finite in their supply and take millions of years to form. At Futureworld renewable energy technology is displayed, (energy that will not run out or produce greenhouse gases). Types Of Energy Used to Make Electrical Energy 1. Fill in the blanks below in the Energy table. Give one example of an Advantage and Disadvantage for each type of Energy source. Type of Energy Renewable (R ) or Non- Renewable (NR) Advantages Coal Low cost (\$) Wave Disadvantages Wind Nuclear Solar Natural Gas NR Wind speed changes over time (not constant) Reliability and storage problems Hydropower (Water) R Abundant, clean and safe Oil Geothermal Biofuel

3 Station 1 - The Model Greenhouse 1. Using the model greenhouse, while in the sun, measure the temperature in the sun inside and outside the greenhouse simultaneously and calculate the temperature difference over time. Record your readings in the table below. Time 0 secs (Initial Temperature) T 1 (outside Temperature) T 2 (inside Temperature) Temperature difference 30 seconds 1 minute 1 m 30 s 2 m 2 m 30 s 3 m 2. What was the difference in temperature between inside and outside after 3 minutes? C. Why did this occur? 3. Draw a graph below showing how T1 and T2, change over time. Time (seconds)

4 Station 2 - The Greenhouse Effect How can we minimise GREENHOUSE GAS emissions? The greenhouse effect is a natural part of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the sun and keep our earth at a suitable temperature for us to live. Human activities such as burning coal, cutting down forests and driving cars has led to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is slowly making our earth warmer. We can minimise the greenhouse effect by consuming less fossil fuels and using less electricity. 1. Fill in the following table using information from The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect display. Carbon Dioxide Example of how is it produced? Possible Global Warming Effects Methane Nitrous Oxide 2. Draw a diagram with arrows showing how the greenhouse effect occurs. Incoming shortwave radiation passes through to the earth s surface Longwave heat radiated from the earth is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases, which increases the earth s average temperature. ATMOSPHERE (composed of less than 1% greenhouse gases) EARTH S SURFACE

5 Station 3 - Electricity from the Wind Wind turbines come in many different sizes. The bigger the area swept by the wind turbine blades the greater the power output from the wind turbine. The higher the wind speed the greater the power generated. 1. EXPERIMENT Estimate the power output of the Vestas V47/660kW wind turbine in the wind farm model with increasing wind speed. Use the fan, anemometer and the model of the wind turbine for this investigation. Wind Speed (m/s) Power Output in Kilowatts (kw) 2. How does this innovation help the environment? What design features make this renewable energy source efficient? 3. ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMICS List some advantages and disadvantages of wind power. Advantages Disadvantages

6 Station 4 - Sustainable Transport How can we reduce the environmental impact of our TRANSPORT SYSTEMS and improve air quality? Sustainable Transport comes in many forms, from walking and riding a bike to innovations such as a hybrid vehicle, solar powered transport and hydrogen fuel cell cars. There are also more sustainable fuel alternatives such as bio-diesel, which can be made from used cooking oil, and ethanol which is derived from plants. Look at the transport display at the Centre and answer the following questions: 1. List problems associated with our current forms of transport (e.g. cars)? 2. Using the computer program choose which mode of transport you took to reach Futureworld today and the distance travelled. Transport Distance Travelled a) Click on the Energy Usage tab and write down how much energy was used to travel by the above mode of transport Energy Usage b) What would have been the most energy efficient way to travel to Futureworld today? _ c) Click on the CO 2 produced button. How much CO 2 did the transport you took produce? d) Which transport had the least effect on the environment with Greenhouse Gas production? e) Was the most efficient and environmentally friendly form of transport a feasible form of transport for you to take today? Why/Why not? 3. List some forms of sustainable transport and alternatives to current transport problems. 4. Choosing a form of sustainable transport, list an advantage and disadvantage of using this particular form of transport. Form of transport chosen Advantage Diasadvantage

7 Station 5 The Power of Water Water provides concentrated form of renewable energy. The display includes information on the Ceto wave power system as well as Hydro electricity systems. A Wave energy It is possible to extract the kinetic and potential energy from water waves and convert this to electricity. Water waves are just one of many types of wave in our world. 1. Operate the model on display and describe how the wave machine uses the energy in the waves to make electricity? 2. What are the advantages of this system, having the ocean component submerged? 3. How does this innovation help our society? B Hydro energy 1. What are the impacts on the environment of establishing a Hydro power scheme? 2. Where in Australia are the two main Hydroelectric systems operating?

8 Station 6 Conservation in the Home. How can we reduce the consumption of resources in our home? We use many resources in our home unwisely at great cost to the environment and ourselves. By making a few simple changes we can save money, and ensure there is enough energy and water to go around in the future. Around Futureworld you will find some great examples of devices and technologies that are designed to save water and energy. Have a look around and draw and label some of those, or your own ideas in the house above. Don t forget the roof and outside. Things to think about Water use - using less, reusing and capturing water are all ways to ensure that Australian water supplies will be able to cope with growing population. Heating Many people do not heat and cool their homes effectively. A few changes and you might not even have to turn on the heater. Electricity Much of our electricity is wasted; it s being consumed when we re not even using our appliances! Building and Manufacturing It takes energy to make things and dispose of them, and far less to recycle

9 Station 7 Solar Investigation Solar power can be used in remote areas without access to conventional electricity for pumping water to crops or for drinking water. The solar photovoltaic panel converts sunlight into electricity. We can use solar electricity to power a water pump. Experiment: The Solar Powered Pump Record the time to fill the bucket with water using the solar powered pump under the conditions shown in the table. PUMP OPERATING CONDITIONS TIME(sec) The solar panel pointing directly towards the sun The solar panel held parallel to the sun s rays The solar panel pointing directly towards the sun with half the cells covered Questions: 1. Which of the three conditions above allowed the bucket to be filled most rapidly? 2. Which side of a building (N, S, E or W) in the southern hemisphere should we ideally place solar panels? Why? 3. What others factors could affect the operation of photovoltaic cells? 4. New types of photovoltaic cells are under development in Australia, including flexible plastic sheets. How could this innovation help in developing countries? _

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