Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW45DT2

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1 Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2 Name:

2 Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes from the sun either directly or indirectly. waves wind coal (prehistoric plants stored suns energy in their leaves) water falling into our dams (evaporated from oceans) Energy sources can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable. Renewable energy sources can be replenished quickly or are nondepletable. Non- renewable energy sources are finite in their supply and take millions of years to form. At Futureworld renewable energy technology is displayed, (energy that will not run out or produce greenhouse gases). Types Of Energy Used to Make Electrical Energy 1. Fill in the blanks below in the Energy table. Give one example of an Advantage and Disadvantage for each type of Energy source. Type of Energy Renewable (R ) or Non- Renewable (NR) Advantages Coal Low cost ($) Wave Disadvantages Wind Nuclear Solar Natural Gas NR Wind speed changes over time (not constant) Reliability and storage problems Hydropower (Water) R Abundant, clean and safe Oil Geothermal Biofuel

3 Station 1 - The Model Greenhouse 1. Using the model greenhouse, while in the sun, measure the temperature in the sun inside and outside the greenhouse simultaneously and calculate the temperature difference over time. Record your readings in the table below. Time 0 secs (Initial Temperature) T 1 (outside Temperature) T 2 (inside Temperature) Temperature difference 30 seconds 1 minute 1 m 30 s 2 m 2 m 30 s 3 m 2. What was the difference in temperature between inside and outside after 3 minutes? ⁰C Why did this occur? 3. Draw a graph below showing how T1 and T2, change over time. Time (seconds)

4 Station 2 - The Greenhouse Effect How can we minimise GREENHOUSE GAS emissions? The greenhouse effect is a natural part of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the sun and keep our earth at a suitable temperature for us to live. Human activities such as burning coal, cutting down forests and driving cars has led to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is slowly making our earth warmer. We can minimise the greenhouse effect by consuming less fossil fuels and using less electricity. 1. Fill in the following table using information from The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect display. Carbon Dioxide Example of how is it produced? Possible Global Warming Effects Methane Nitrous Oxide 2. Draw a diagram with arrows showing how the greenhouse effect occurs. Incoming shortwave radiation passes through to the earth s surface Longwave heat radiated from the earth is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases, which increases the earth s average temperature. ATMOSPHERE (composed of less than 1% greenhouse gases) EARTH S SURFACE

5 1. Draw and label a horizontal axis wind turbine. Station 3 - Wind Turbine Design 2. Draw a cross section of a typical turbine blade. Why do engineers use this aerofoil shape? 3. The power produced is proportional to the square of the blade length. If we triple the blade length, how many times more power will be produced? 4. What other factors should be considered when locating a wind turbine? _

6 Station 4 - Australian Innovations The Solar Sailor How can we reduce the environmental impact of our TRANSPORT SYSTEMS? The Marjorie K is the solar powered catamaran in the Eco-Technology Centre. There are a number of individual solar cells that power the electric motor that drives the propeller of the Marjorie K. Wind power is also harnessed to power the catamaran. 1. Bioimicry played a role in Robert Dane s prototype design of the Marjorie K. What organism inspired him? 2. What is a Hybrid Powered system and how does the Solar Sailor use this system? 3. List some advantages of a Hybrid Powered System? 4. List the features of the Marjorie K that make this a unique design? 5. The SolarSailor s hybrid power system can be used in an unmanned ocean vehicle for ocean monitoring and surveillance. List two special features of this design. (a) (b)

7 Station 5 - Power of Water How can we use our oceans and rivers to help produce clean energy? It is possible to convert the kinetic and potential energy from moving water into electricity. This energy may be extracted from water waves, stored water in dams and tidal movements in waterways. 1. Operate the micro hydro-turbine display and complete the following: (a) What is the function of the Pelton wheel in a water turbine? (b) Draw a bucket from the Pelton wheel in the box below and use an arrow to locate it on the Hydro power plant diagram. (c) What two factors in water turbine design will affect the RPM of the Pelton wheel? 2. Describe how the Ceto wave system uses the energy in waves to make electricity? 3. What else can the pressurised water from the Ceto system be used to make?

8 Station 6 - Solar Passive Design Solar passive design takes into consideration the suns path plus other natural factors to work with nature and gain the maximum benefit when designing a house to reduce heating and cooling costs. 1. Using the solar passive design display, answer the following questions in order to gain design requirements for an energy efficient house. In Australia, which direction should the house be facing to gain the maximum benefit from the suns path? Which direction should large windows be placed and why? How can tree planting be used to help with efficiency? Where should insulation be placed within the building? In what ways can the house be shaded to protect it from the sun? Where would you place solar panels? How could the colour of the roof affect the temperature of the inside of the house? 2. What other Passive design features can be seen indicated on the passive solar house model?

9 Station 7 Solar Investigation Solar power can be used in remote areas without access to conventional electricity for pumping water to crops or for drinking water. The solar photovoltaic panel converts sunlight into electricity. We can use solar electricity to power a water pump. 1. What is the function of a solar cell? 2. Which common element is used in all generation 1 solar (photovoltaic) cells? 3. Why are PV cells still relatively expensive? 4. (a) How many PV cells make up the panel (module) attached to the solar water pump? (a) What term is used to describe a number of panels (modules) working together as on the roof at Futureworld. 5. List 3 types of generation 1 cells in order of efficiency (least to most efficient). (a) (b) (c) 6. A number of very different PV innovations are being developed in Australia. List 3 of these and give one advantage over the generation 1 types.

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