Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

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1 Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name:

2 Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes from the sun either directly or indirectly. waves wind coal (prehistoric plants stored suns energy in their leaves) water falling into our dams (evaporated from oceans) Energy sources can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable. Renewable energy sources can be replenished quickly or are nondepletable. Non- renewable energy sources are finite in their supply and take millions of years to form. At Futureworld renewable energy technology is displayed, (energy that will not run out or produce greenhouse gases). Types Of Energy Used to Make Electrical Energy 1. Fill in the blanks below in the Energy table. Give one example of an Advantage and Disadvantage for each type of Energy source. Type of Energy Renewable (R ) or Non- Renewable (NR) Advantages Coal Low cost ($) Wave Disadvantages Wind Nuclear Solar Natural Gas NR Wind speed changes over time (not constant) Reliability and storage problems Hydropower (Water) R Abundant, clean and safe Oil Geothermal Biofuel

3 Station 1 - The Model Greenhouse 1. Using the model greenhouse while in the sun, measure the temperature inside and outside the greenhouse simultaneously and calculate the temperature difference over time. Record your readings in the table below. Time 0 secs (Initial Temperature) T 1 (outside Temperature) T 2 (inside Temperature) Temperature difference 30 seconds 1 minute 1 m 30 s 2 m 2 m 30 s 3 m 2. What was the difference in temperature between inside and outside after 3 minutes? ⁰C Why did this occur? 3. Draw a graph below showing how T1 and T2, temperatures change over time. Time (seconds)

4 Station 2 - The Greenhouse Effect How can we minimise GREENHOUSE GAS emissions? The greenhouse effect is a natural part of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the sun and keep our earth at a suitable temperature for us to live. Human activities such as burning coal, cutting down forests and driving cars has led to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is slowly making our earth warmer. We can minimise the greenhouse effect by consuming less fossil fuels and using less electricity. 1. Fill in the following table using information from The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect display. Carbon Dioxide Example of how is it produced? Possible Global Warming Effects Methane Nitrous Oxide 2. Draw a diagram with arrows showing how the greenhouse effect occurs. Incoming shortwave radiation passes through to the earth s surface Longwave heat radiated from the earth is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases, which increases the earth s average temperature. ATMOSPHERE (composed of less than 1% greenhouse gases) EARTH S SURFACE

5 1. Draw and label a horizontal axis wind turbine. Station 3 - Wind Turbine Design 2. Draw a cross section of a typical turbine blade. Why do engineers use this aerofoil shape? 3. The power produced is proportional to the square of the blade length. If we triple the blade length, how many times more power will be produced? 4. What other factors should be considered when locating a wind turbine?

6 Station 4 - Solar Passive Design Solar passive design takes into consideration the sun s path plus other natural factors to gain the maximum benefit when designing a house to reduce heating and cooling costs. 1. Using the solar passive design display, answer the following questions in order to gain design requirements for an energy efficient house. In Australia, which direction should the house be facing to gain the maximum benefit from the suns path? Which direction should large windows be placed and why? How can tree planting be used to help with efficiency? Where should insulation be placed within the building? In what ways can the house be shaded to protect it from the sun? Where would you place solar panels? How could the colour of the roof affect the temperature of the inside of the house? 2. What other Passive design features can be seen indicated on the passive solar house model?

7 Station 5 Energy Efficient Design Insulation is one of the most important aspects of efficient house design. It reduces the flow of heat between the outdoors and the indoors. R is the value given to thermal resistance. The higher the R, the higher the materials ability to resist the flow of heat and the better the material is to insulate. There are many different types of insulation and they can be used in conjunction with each other. 1. Look at the insulation display. What is the highest R value shown on the display? Which materials are used to give that R value? What is the lowest R value? Which materials are used to give this rating? 2. Circle the correct answer for the statements below. Use the insulation model to help you find the answer. Insulation should be a) solid or b) porous. Buildings should be a a) lightweight or b) heavy structure to be energy efficient. 3. Windows need to considered when designing a house as they let in heat and cold easily unless properly insulated or protected. Using the insulation model find the answer to the following. What is the best summer protection for windows? List three others What is the best winter protection for windows? List three others

8 Station 6 Conservation in the Home How can we reduce the consumption of resources in our home? We use many resources in our home unwisely at great cost to the environment and ourselves. By making a few simple changes we can save money, and ensure there is enough energy and water to go around in the future. Around Futureworld you will find some great examples of devices and technologies that are designed to save water and energy. Have a look around and draw and label some of those, or your own ideas in the house above. Don t forget the roof and outside. Things to think about Water use - using less, reusing and capturing water are all ways to ensure that Australian water supplies will be able to cope with growing population. Heating Many people do not heat and cool their homes effectively. A few changes and you might not even have to turn on the heater. Electricity Much of our electricity is wasted; it s being consumed when we re not even using our appliances! Building and Manufacturing It takes energy to make things and dispose of them, and far less to recycle.

9 Station 7 - Solar Panel Investigation 1. What material are solar cells made from? 2. What is the difference between Polycrystalline Solar Cells and Monocrystalline Solar Cells? Which is the most efficient to use? Draw an example of each. Monocrystalline Solar Cell Polycrystalline Solar Cell Solar power can be used in remote areas without access to conventional electricity for pumping water to crops or for drinking water. The solar photovoltaic panel converts sunlight into electricity. We can use solar electricity to power a water pump. 1. What material are solar cells made from? 2. What type of solar cells are being used to power the pump and how efficient are these compared to other types of solar cells? 3. EXPERIMENT Record how long it takes to fill the bucket with water from the solar pump under the following conditions. Pump operating conditions The solar panel pointing directly towards the sun. Time to fill bucket (seconds) The solar panel held parallel to the sun s rays. The panel pointing directly towards the sun with half the cells covered. 4. What are the most efficient operating conditions for the solar pump? Why? 5. What factors could affect the efficiency or output of solar cells?

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