3 rd Interdisciplinary Conference on English Studies. Near East University Nicosia Cyprus

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1 3 rd Interdisciplinary Conference on English Studies Near East University Nicosia Cyprus

2 ACADEMIC LITERACY AND STUDENT DIVERSITY: TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE HIGHER EDUCATION PEDAGOGY Ursula Wingate King's College London, UK There is a growing recognition that Anglophone universities have to provide more inclusive methods of helping students to develop the academic literacy needed to become proficient communicators in their disciplines. Although student populations have become increasingly diverse over the last two decades, literacy instruction at UK universities has remained largely the same. It is based on a simplistic distinction between native-speakers and non-native speakers of English and offers academic language classes to the latter category. As these classes cater for students from all disciplines, academic language is usually taught generically, without much consideration of discipline-specific discourses. In this seminar, I will make a case for a discipline-embedded and genre-based approach to literacy instruction, in which writing specialists and subject experts collaborate in the production of teaching resources and the design of literacy workshops. In these workshops, students engage in a systematic analysis of the texts and are encouraged to consider the practices and contextual features that shape academic texts. After introductory classroom sessions, the teaching resources can be used independently by students. I will give examples of the resources we developed for four disciplines (Pharmacy, Management, Applied Linguistics, History), and their application and evaluation. I will argue that this approach offers an effective alternative to the current support provision. The collaboration with subject experts ensures the specificity of the resources to student needs, and facilitates the embedding of literacy instruction into the curriculum. In this way, instruction enables all students in a study programme to understand the literacy requirements of their academic discipline. Page2

3 DIFFICULTIES OF THE PRONUNCIATION AND INTONATION OF MULTIPLE ARTICULATIONS IN TEACHER EDUCATION: A DEMONSTRATION BY COMPUTER Prof.Dr. Mehmet DEMİREZEN E:mail: Hacettepe University Multiple articulations consist of intertwined bundles of pronunciation traits. In other words, they are complex pronunciation and intonation patterns with multiple nested subsystem with primary, secondary, and coarticulations in the micro and macrostructures of utterances, which pose specific perception and production difficulties to the non-native teachers. Even in the articulation of each word there are primary and coarticulations, and in a great majority vocabulary items the trio of primary, secondary, and coarticulations take place. Since pronunciation is the area of language learning most resistant to change or improvement, the fossilized pronunciation problems triggered by this trio are further deepened by interferences from the L1. Therefore, there is almost no non-native teacher without pronunciation difficulty due to the interference of L1 primary, secondary, and coarticulations over the L2; they have probably already developed over a number of years fossilized speech habits and a foreign accent which become progressively harder to undo or change without serious and concerted effort. But having a strong foreign accent is a professional defect for non-native teachers. Still, it is probable to sound at least like near-native-like for the sake of the job in teacher training schools where the future non-native foreign language teachers are educated. Teachers with a strong foreign accent have a trouble of being understood by the students, have a weak communicative competence, and cannot monitor their pronunciation in independent learning environments. In this presentation, the impact of primary, secondary, and coarticulations in forms of multiple articulations will be explored and their certain applications will be administrated to improve pronunciation intelligibility via electronic dictionaries, audacity downloading program, and text to speech labs in relation to computational phonetics. Keywords: primary articulation, secondary articulation, coarticulations, intelligibility, computational phonetics. Page3

4 IMPACT OF MOTHER CULTURE ON TRANSLATING CULTURE-SPECIFIC IDIOMS Aziz Thabit Saeed College of Languages, Sana'a University, Yemen This study endeavors to explore the problems that Translation trainees' mother culture poses when translating culture-specific idioms. More specifically, the study seeks answers to the following two questions: 1. What problems do translation trainees encounter when rendering culture specific idioms? 2. What strategies do translation trainees utilize when rendering such idioms and to what extent is the resultant rendition accurate? The presentation will show the difficulties that Arab Translation Trainees encounter due to the interference of their L1 Culture, particularly when translating idiomatic expressions that contain reference to entities that can have negative connotations in the Arabic culture. The presentation will provide some suggestions that might help trainees tackle these problems. Page4

5 ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE INCLUSION OF GAY AND LESBIAN TOPICS IN THE CLASSROOM: THE CASE OF GREEK CYPRIOT EFL TEACHERS Dimitris Evripidou University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus Cise Cavusoglu Near East University, Cyprus The EFL classroom is composed of a mixture of people with various backgrounds and identities. Sexuality is increasingly recognised as a form of identity similar to other categorical forms such as class, gender and ethnicity (Nelson, 1999; Vandrick 1997; Dumas, 2008). Developments in critical pedagogy, queer theory and poststructuralist theories of identities have resulted in changes to the way sexual identity is viewed within the EFL and ESL classroom- a classroom which should ideally function as a liberatory environment where consciousness can be changed and weaknesses - racism, classism, homophobia, etc.,- expelled (Vandrick, 1994). Based on the idea that otherness related issues should be treated in the foreign language classroom as a means to achieve Existential Competence (CEF, 2001), the present study investigates the attitudes of Greek Cypriot EFL teachers towards the inclusion of gay and lesbian topics in the EFL classroom. A 15-item questionnaire was designed and distributed to 58 English language teachers in Cyprus. The results indicated that EFL teachers tended to have negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian topics in the classroom. They seem to believe that such topics are unrelated to EFL teaching or learning, while a number of social factors such as age, gender, education, years of experience, and country of studies appear to have an impact on their attitudes towards issues of sexual diversity and orientation in the classroom. Keywords: gay/lesbian topics, EFL classroom, EFL teachers Page5

6 TEACHING LEGAL ENGLISH DISCOURSE USING A MODULE PROFESSIONALLY-ORIENTED TEXTBOOK Lada Stupnikova All-Russian Academy of Foreign Trade, English Language Department of the Law Faculty, Moscow, Russia Teaching Russian students legal English discourse is a challenge as Russia uses civil law that mostly relies on the codes adopted by the government and English-speaking countries use common law that is governed by binding precedent. That leads to the fact that Russian legal terms and concepts do not usually correspond to English ones. Therefore, teaching Russian students legal English is based not only on learning legal terminology and specific grammar structures, but also on learning to understand a new mode of thinking. Future lawyers should be able not only to use certain terms and concepts translating them directly from Russian into English and vice versa in their professional communication, but also to explain and define them to their foreign partners and Russian colleagues. All these aspects should find their reflection in a modern textbook for law students, which is looked upon as the core of the system of teaching materials essential for mastering a language for specific purposes. It is supposed to help to develop a law student s professional communicative skills. Competence approach governs the contents of such a textbook. Analyses of English legal concepts and famous precedents help law students to understand English system of law. A module structure of the textbook for specific purposes allows law students to learn professional material better and enables the teacher to exercise an effective control over the students acquiring professional communicative skills. The module professionally-oriented textbook makes the learning process systemic, structurally clear-cut and flexible. Keywords: Competence approach, legal discourse, legal terminology, module textbook, professional communication, professional communicative skills. Page6

7 BURKE S PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO CONCORDANCING: CLUSTER-AGON ANALYSIS OF A CORPUS OF GENDER-RELATED TALKS Fulya Erdentuğ, Gülşen Musayeva Vefali Eastern Mediterranean University The language of New Age discourse has not yet received sufficient attention, therefore, the present study has attempted to undertake a critical analysis of a corpus of Osho s talks on gender. The talks include transcriptions of Osho s public speech, in which he, in the capacity of the leader of the New Age Religious movement, addressed his followers and/or those people who were attracted to his teachings. This study was conducted within K. Burkey s (1967) cluster-agon analytical framework; accordingly, it adopted his pragmatic approach to concordancing since verbal works are designed to do something for the poet [the rhetor] and his readers (Burke, 1967, p. 89). Pragmatic approach requires consideration of both content and form since a verbal work gets its form by relation to the question its producer is answering (Burke, 1967, p. 92). Thus, a pragmatic approach to the analysis of the structural way in which events and values are put together in the symbolic act (Burke, 1967, p. 20) reveals not only the rhetor s attitudes, and motivational forces underlying his/her rhetorical act (the conflict that leads the rhetor to engage in the rhetorical act), but also the rhetorical strategies exploited to secure its appeal to the audience, and potential rhetorical effects of his/her rhetoric. In the present study, the associated and disassociated terms clustering around the key terms woman and man in the concordance evidence revealed associations of the metaphoric equations of body versus mind, heart versus head, and right hemisphere versus left hemisphere with woman and man, respectively. Thus, in the gender-related corpus, the female and male genders are stereotypically agonistically construed in that woman is associated with natural, domestic, internal, space as opposed to man who is associated with scientific, cultural, external space. Page7

8 POSTCOLONIALISM AND RELIGION Ahmet Kayıntu Bingöl University, Department oof English Language and Literature, Turkey In this paper, it is aimed to debate the relationship between religious consciousness and postcolonialism. In recent years, scholars of postcolonialism and various disciplines have begun to engage it more critically with the moral issues of writing about and studying not only other cultures but also any group that has been related to the Western hegemonic farmework. In spite of the growing interest, very little has been written about the role of religion in colonial and postcolonial literatures; and even less has been written concerning the problems of using the category of religion within postcolonial contexts and in response to the postcolonial fiction and how colonialism and imperialism have influenced the conception of the term religion in the contemporary world. Postcolonial theorists are mostly outside of this debate, which results in either the neglect of religion altogether, for religion implies a backwardness or dependence on inexplicable forces and superstition, or the uncritical restriction of the term to descriptions of missionary violence during colonial contact. In the light of recent debates, the category religion is construed as connected to a Western history of conquest, imperialism, colonial encounters. Religion has begun to be defined in terms of historical struggles of possesion, inclusion and exclusion, domination and resistance. As postcolonial literature is read in relation to the conflicts of space, land and territory that define religion, the full impact of colonialism on identity as well as Christian nature of conquest is realized, thus acknowledging another vital level in the palimsest that typifies the colonial encounter. the study of religion has been underestimated by its European history and has neglected not only the importance of human negotiations of power to a conceptualization of religion, but more generally, the necessary analysis into its involvement in colonialism and conquest. Page8

9 CAUSE MARKERS IN THE ENGLISH PARAGRAPHS OF TURKISH LEARNERS OF ENGLISH Çiler Hatipoğlu & Çiğdem Uluçay Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus (METU NCC) The aim of this study was three fold: (1) to identify and analyse the frequencies and functions of cause markers employed by native speakers (NS) of Turkish when writing cause paragraphs in English; (2) to compare those cause markers with the ones used by NS of English and (3) to uncover why and how NS of Turkish while writing in English decide/choose to use or not to use specific cause markers in the new language they are learning. It is hoped that this study will contribute to filling in an important gap in the ELT field (in Turkey) since as far as the authors are aware this is the first study specifically focusing on the cause paragraphs written by Turkish students in English. The data for the study were collected in two stages. First, 63 students (M=40, F=23) attending the pre-intermediate level prep classes of METU NCC were asked to write word long cause paragraphs in English. Then, in order to uncover students reasons for (not) using the cause markers taught to them semi-structured interviews with two groups of participants were conducted. The quality and quantity of the cause markers used by the first group of interviewees resembled the patterns followed by native speakers while the second group of interviewees comprised of participants whose paragraphs deviated the most from the NS norms. All of the paragraphs and interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using the CLAN CHILDES program. The results of the study showed that students use of cause markers deviated greatly from the patterns observed in the cause essays of expert native speakers. The students who participated in the study overused one of the categories of cause markers while they underuse or did not use at all other categories of markers which, in turn, led to repetitious paragraphs. Page9

10 STUDYING RACINE'S HIPPOLYTE AND PHEDRE Alireza Nabilu Department of Persian Literature, University of Qom For the analysis in this article, I chose the story of Phedre and Hippolyte from European Literature. The narration is in Ancient Greek and the story relates to love of Phedre-wife of Theseus, Greek Empire with her adopted son, Hippolyte. This story was analyzed according to the Todorov's narrative analysis model. In the story of Phedre and Hippolyte, all events occur around the three characters (King, a son and a woman who are related to the court), in this story the woman loves the son, but the son remained loyal to the king, and rejects her love. The son is accused with treason and finally the truth becomes evident. Its propositions include: proper noun (characters), verb (actions) and adjective (features and characteristics of persons). Also according to Todorov's view, the five modes in propositions (Declarative mode, Optative mode, Subjunctive mode, Conditional mode, Predictive mode) have been investigated in it. Keywords: Phedre and Hippolyte, Todorov, Comprative Literature. Page10

11 COMPARISON OF SHAKESPEARE'S ROMEO AND JULIET WITH NIZAMI'S LAYLI AND MAJNUN Alireza Nabilu Department of Persian Literature,University of Qom For the analysis in this article, I chose the story of Layli and Majnun from Persian Literature and Romeo and Juliet from English Literature. These two stories were analyzed according to the Todorov's narrative analysis model. In both stories, you can find the same major and minor premise and proposition. That is, all events occur around the three characters (Lover, beloved and their families), in both stories the lover loves the beloved but the girl's family refused to allow they married. The lover remained loyal to the beloved. Propositions of these stories include: proper noun (characters), verb (actions) and adjective (features and characteristics of persons), which are common in both stories and are repeated identically in both stories. Also according to Todorov's view, the five modes in propositions (Declarative mode, Optative mode, Subjunctive mode, Conditional mode, Predictive mode) have been investigated in these two stories. This will put more emphasis on the similarity of narrative structure of stories. Keywords: Narration, Todorov, Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Nizami, Layli and Majnun. Page11

12 CORPUS EVIDENCE FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE: INVESTIGATING THE COMPOSING SKILLS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA Prof. Amina Abubakar Bashir Department of English,Federal University Dutse,Jigawa State,Nigeria Dr. Alexandra Esimaje Department of English,Benson Idahosa University,Benin, Nigeria The aim of this study is to identify the types, variety and frequency of use of cohesive devices in university students' writings in Nigeria. Its particular interest is in the usage of cohesive devices in essays. Data for the work is a mini corpus of 100,000 words of students essays extracted from an ongoing compilation of Nigerian English learners' corpora with as many as 300,000 words. The sample population is 200 students, each producing an essay of 500 words. Qualitative and quantitative techniques are applied in the analysis so both the types and frequencies of cohesive devices are identified and inferences are made about the learning process in the context. The quantitative technique of Keyword in Context (KWIC) is used to identity the particular connectives that characterize the students' writings and Scott's Wordsmith5 to calculate the frequency of their use while intuitive inferences follow. The appropriate choice of cohesive devices in writing helps to create texture and can account for second language acquisition especially in Nigeria where more than 400 indigenous languages exist, competing with the English language. Due to the interaction of geographical, linguistic and cultural spaces, the phenomena of the global world, the nominalisation of the bilingualmultilingual, success in second language acquisition has become a focal point for education and research. This study has implications for language learning, language teaching and language education materials. Page12

13 USING TECHNOLOGY TO PROMOTE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS Dr. Asuman Cincioğlu Department of Foreign Languages, Istanbul University, Turkey Enabling educational advancement depends on teachers awareness and performance, which can best be maximized via continuous professional development. While the related literature goes ahead through the research studies carried out and theories put forward, in practice teachers might have difficulty keeping up with the theory. To bridge the gap between theory and practice in the field of English Language Teaching, teachers should engage in professional development acts which are collaborative, sustained, organized, local, useful, convenient, accessible, and time efficient (Fenton-Smith and Stillwell, 2011:252). There are various models of professional development; some are actualized by individual enterprises and others are based on working together with the colleagues; what they have in common is that all help teachers to challenge their practice. In this study, referring to Tallerico s (2005) five-step professional development model, the features of these different types of teacher development performances will be discussed. Underlining the strengths and weaknesses of several distinctive professional development ways such as attending conferences, having in-service trainings, peer coaching, Critical Friends Group, action research, how technology might contribute to the process of teacher development undertakings will be exemplified with an aim to shed light on further complementary studies. The study also emphasizes that it is time saving, motivating, and accessible to implement technology into the process of teacher professional development; in addition, it stimulates teachers to be lifelong learners besides adding to student and school achievement in turn. Page13

14 NOURISHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE THROUGH VOCABULARY BUILDING AND SOFT SKILLS Bashir Al Roubi, Surendra Babu Kaja Department of English, Al-Mergib University, Al-Khoms, Libya Successful learning requires more skills. Regarding language learning, several conventional theories and staple methods of pedagogy are incessantly practiced with a minor variation across the globe. It is apprehensible that not much has been focused on employing the combination of language learning and soft skills (personality traits). Perhaps, combining soft skills with language learning is, indeed, a familiar subject in the area of Business English, since it is meant for career building. In fact, the approach of designing a curriculum with an intensive focus on language learning from the perspective of soft skills might bring an astounding outcome. It will provide a transparent learning platform for both potential vocabulary as well as personality building by step by step learning. However, language learning is intimately related to intrinsic motivation, in other words learner s attitude. Apparently, it will create a win-win situation for all sorts of learners, cutting across the lines of nationality, culture, age and purpose (EAP/ESP). Vocabulary building always remains, in fact, a key part of learning a new language with a minute distinction between children and adults in their receiving and reinforcing capacity. Regarding adult learners, most of them may be laboring under a delusion that after passing their twenties they rapidly and inevitably lose their ability of learning vocabulary. According to Edward Thorndike (1931), Ability to learn drops very, very slowly up to the age of thirty five, and drops a bit more but still slowly beyond that age. Hence, in any context and condition, if the learner has the powerful urge to learn with positive attitude would be likely to achieve his/her goal at a prodigious rate. Because the urge to learn words is different from the urge to learn facts. The latter one will work with the personality of the learner in order to discover, understand and know the mechanism and the dynamics, such as the Universal Grammar (Noam Chomsky) and the Linguistic Properties, of the Target Language. Therefore, the emphasis of this paper, to explore very new integrated approach of viable language learning, remains with the learner s ability to think laterally. Keywords: Nourishing Language Vocabulary - Attitude Intrinsic Motivation Soft Skills. Page14

15 REALITY PERCEPTION AS OBJECT ASSIMILATION IN JOHN FOWLES'S "THE MAGUS" Bianca Foghel Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, Department of English Philology, West University of Timişoara, Romania Individuality is seldom a homogenous structure, but rather an incongruous collage of seemingly antagonistic features. These inherent antagonisms, such as consciousness and unconscious, have been extensively described by the father of analytical psychology, C. G. Jung, as innate structures that long for harmonization within the self. My contention is that in John Fowles s seminal work, The Magus, Nicholas Urfe s development invites an analysis of the Jungian archetypes and typological patterns, with particular focus on the persona and the shadow and the inherent psychological types crystallized along defining concepts such as extraversion, introversion and the four cognitive functions. The paper traces the character-narrator of The Magus in terms of a perception of reality that is highly objectifying in order for it to be more easily internalized and further projected in the form of archetypes. The purpose is to explore the narrative interplay at character level between the dominant psychological function and the way the reality perception of the protagonist is impacted. I shall also analyse how the character-narrator of The Magus displays a rather limited means of perceiving and coping with reality, namely that of the physical senses, which he uses onesidedly in order to gather stimuli from the phenomenal world. Nicholas Urfe s constant and exclusive rationale is limited to possessing and relishing the object, as can be observed in the narrative in terms of his behaviour towards women and towards constantly wanting to grasp the core of the mystery that Bourani is enshrouded in. He can only grasp and internalize reality if it is reinforced by materialization since it is only thorough the senses that he can relate to the outer world, to otherness and selfhood. Page15

16 TEACHABILITY OF PAUSING STRATEGIES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Bilal GENÇ, Mehmet KILIÇ, Erdoğan BADA Inonu University, Gaziantep University, Çukurova University,Hakkari University The study of pronunciation covers both the role of individual sounds and sound segments; that is, features of segmental phonology and supra-segmental phonological issues such as stress, rhythm and intonation are also included under the heading, pronunciation studies. The aim of this paper is to discuss to what extent language teachers should or should not try to teach phonology in foreign language classes.the paper primarily discusses one of the least studied aspects of phonology, i.e., the significance and functions of pausing strategies as well as their teachability in EFL. The discussion evolves within a language teaching methodology context. Keywords: language teaching, pronunciation, phonology, pausing teaching methods. Page16

17 EXPLORING THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE OF NORTH CYPRUS AND ITS USE IN ELT CLASSROOMS Burçin Önal Middle East Technical University Northern Cyprus Campus In the field of ELT, there have not been many studies on North Cyprus particularly describing language policy, linguistic landscape (LL), whose practice may differ from language policy, and the use of LL in ELT. In this study, the LL of North Cyprus, especially around Güzelyurt and Girne, was explored in terms of the languages that were included, the addressees that were aimed at, and the underlying messages of the texts in which English was used. Data for the study was collected first by the author for purposes of comparison with students findings and then by students through photographing LL items to be analyzed. The study consists of the researcher s and participants analysis of the items considering the current language policy and its daily practice, and the uses of English in LL depending on what it was associated with. Another purpose of the study was to explore the pedagogical benefits of engaging students with publicly displayed texts in their local LLs for the sake of encouraging them to realize different functions of English using LL. Beginner level students at preparatory school and two groups of TEFL freshmen students took pictures of LL items where English was used in their neighborhood for four weeks. Two of the three groups had interviews with their teacher except the second group of department students, and all participants wrote weekly paragraphs commenting on their pictures that were to be presented at the end of the four-week data collection process. To get the thoughts of the students about the effectiveness of the experience, students answered a few questions given by their teacher at the conclusion of the project. The study revealed that students were able to analyze LL items with a wide perspective, explore how and why English, and also other languages, were used on signs and identify the meanings that English gained in time in the northern Cyprus. With the analysis of students impressions of the LL, the benefits of using LL in ELT and students attitudes towa! rds LL p rojects were identified. The results of the study indicated that students felt positive about LL projects in general. Page17

18 THE FUNCTIONS OF MOTHER TONGUE USE Dilem Koyluoglu ITU Cyprus This study explores the functions of mother tongue use by a group of EFL learners when engaged in cooperative language tasks. The research was conducted in Turkish monolingual setting with a group of preparatory school students. The study was carried out aiming to investigate the functions of learners mother tongue, Turkish, as well as revealing learners perceptions towards their mother tongue use when dealing with cooperative classroom tasks. To collect data, the learners interaction was video-recorded, transcribed and analysed and semi-structured interviews were conducted and learners responses were analysed through thematic analysis. Based on the results of the study, mother tongue performs organisational functions, helps learners engage in metalinguistic negotiations, assists learners in vocabulary deliberations, and get them engage in cognitive reasoning. Page18

19 STUDENTS" OPINIONS ON CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN WRITING Memocan Tutuman, Hanife Bensen Near East University. Nicosia. Cyprus Feedback is important as it is an indicator of how successful an objective of the teachinglearning acitivity has been accomplished and as a response to learners productions (Drown, 2009). This study shows the corrective feedback types that could be employed in writing. The main aim of this study is to find out whether teachers give sufficient feedback to adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners writings at a preparatory school in a private university in North Cyprus. In addition, this study also reveals EFL learners attitudes towards feedback regarding the type of feedback they receive. In order to meet the aims of this study data was collected from the students by means of questionnaire. Keywords: Feedback, response, students writing, teachers writing, suggestions. Page19

20 THE INDISCERNIBLE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FICTION AND HISTORY IN FLAUBERT S PARROT Ecevit Bekler Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Education Faculty Foreign Languages Department, Turkey Flaubert s Parrot, which is considered one of the most popular novels of Barnes, is a postmodern novel which contains different elements such as biography, history, intertextuality, and metafiction. The novel mainly deals with the issue of fictional biography from a postmodernist view and has caught interest among the intellectual circles. In the novel, biography is reflected as subjective since the biographer is collecting information as much as possible about his subject and giving a final shape to the life story of another person. To give a better shape to his biography, the biographer may not use all details regarding the life of his subject, which may keep the biography away from all the truth. One other striking aspect of the novel is the literary criticism. Braithwaite expresses his hatred against the critics and explains why he does that. In Flaubert s Parrot we have more than one story. Although the narrator mainly talks about the famous French novelist Gustave Flaubert, he is in search of the reason for why his wife Ellen committed suicide. Although we get limited information from Braithwaite about his wife Ellen, it is thanks to the juxtaposition of Flaubert s life story with the narrator s story that we learn more about Braithwaite s relationship with his wife. Since the novel is a postmodern novel and has many references and names, the boundary between the reality and fiction becomes invisible. We have fictional and realistic elements combined, which sometimes makes it difficult to catch the historical persons we know from the fictional ones. What is put forward throughout the novel is the question of the truth regarding the past. Although history claims to be objective, it is subjective and the level of truth differs from person to person. The parrot in the novel becomes a symbol for the narrator in order to find the truth. Page20

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