Discipline Disparities. Series: New Research. New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline

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1 New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline Russell J. Skiba, Mariella I. Arredondo, and M. Karega Rausch Discipline Disparities Series: New Research March 2014 In the Series: Discipline Disparities Series: Overview Interventions for Reducing Disparities Policy Recommendations for Reducing Disparities New and Developing Research Collaborative Funded Research Grant Program Closing the Discipline Gap 7 What Have we Learned? Key New Research Findings

2 Future Research Needs Research continues to show that students of color and students with disabilities are at higher risk for suspension and expul- with gender in determining who will be suspended or expelled, and that Hispanic/ Latino students are also disproportionately at risk for exclusionary discipline as they reach middle and high school Racial/ethnic differences in the use of suspension and expulsion are not due to poverty or different rates of misbehavior. The experiences of LGBT students illuminate discipline and criminal justice disparities that are often undocumented and unaddressed of events leading to short- and long-term consequences, including academic disengagement, academic failure, dropout, and delinquency. 25

3 26 27 Breaking School s Rule Commonly relied-upon interventions, such as security measures or alternative placements, are often less effective than assumed, and can exacerbate racial/ethnic disparities. 31 There are hidden costs to society, both school suspensions African American males in secure juvenile detention mirrors their school experiences with school discipline disparities, and LGBT students experience more contact with police than other students. 37 Detention is harmful to youth and its severe effects have been well documented.

4 - are Relationship-Building: Structural Interventions: Emotional Literacy: Relationship-Building Interventions that focus on sustained support for teacher development, strengthening teacher-student relationships, and strengthening student engagement can lead to a reduction in the use of exclusionary discipline, particularly for African American students. My Teaching Partner. My Teaching Partner Restorative Practices. Structural Interventions Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) has been found to create positive reductions in use of exclusionary discipline, although the evidence suggests that and difference may be necessary if PBIS is to reduce disciplinary disparities.

5 A systematic protocol used in schools that respond to students threats of violence without resorting to zero tolerance suspension has shown to effectively reduce suspensions and racial disparities between Black and White males. 51 School and district codes of conduct often stress punitive and exclusionary approaches to discipline, and may be misaligned with preventative approaches to discipline. 52 Emotional Literacy Investing in social and emotional learning, support teams, and planning centers focusing on a learner-centered approach can reduce misbehavior and decrease outof-school suspensions, yet more explicit attention to race, culture, and difference may be necessary to reduce racial disparities. 53 Building Knowledge on the Extent of and Reasons for Disparities What is the extent of, and reasons for, exclusionary discipline for student groups that have been under-researched to date such as Native American, LGBT, gender nonconforming, and English language learning students and where race/ethnicity, gender, disability, and sexual orientation intersect? exclusionary discipline with Hispanic/Latino students? What is the impact of increased law enforcement and security technology in schools on disciplinary disparities? 55 Building Knowledge of Effective Interventions and Systems Change What malleable school factors and interventions show the most promise for reducing disparities? 56 57

6 What are the classroom dynamics and structures that lead to disciplinary disparity reduction? Is disciplinary equity best achieved through interventions that focus on disciplinary systems or through whole-school change efforts? Under which contexts might an equity-implicit vs. equity-explicit approach be more or less effective? How do school-based practitioners respond to state, district, and school disciplinary policy changes? 63 What resources are needed to create greater disciplinary equity? Continuing Methodologically Rigorous Studies Multivariate Studies Mixed Methods 67 Participatory Research

7 School suspensions: Are they helping children? American Psychologist, 63 Urban Review, 34 Social Science Quarterly, 90 Social Problems, 57 School Psychology Review, 40 American Journal of Community Psychology, 40 Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Journal of Education and Learning, 2 Status and trends in the education of Blacks Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities Family Court Review, 51: The Negro Educational Review, 59 Opportunities suspended: The disparate impact of disciplinary exclusion from school. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Journal of African American Males in Education, 1 Pediatrics, 127 LGBTQ Discipline Disparities: Narratives, Challenges, & Solutions.

8 Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Breaking schools rules: A statewide study of how school discipline relates to student s success and juvenile justice involvement. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Discipline and participation: The long-term effects of suspension and school security on the political and civic engagement of youth. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Social Science Quarterly, 90 Sexual victimization in juvenile facilities reported by youth, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39 No place for kids: The case for reducing juvenile incarceration. Criminology, 47 Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Dignity, disparity and desistance: Effective restorative justice strategies to plug the school-to-prison pipeline. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation. Closing the discipline gap The effectiveness of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports for reducing racially inequitable disciplinary exclusions in middle schools. Family Court Review, 51 Examining disproportionality in school discipline practices for Native American students in Canadian schools implementing PBIS. Student threat assessment as a method of reducing student suspensions. Prevention v. punishment: Threat assessment, school suspensions, and racial disparities. A mixed methods approach examining disproportionality in school discipline. Closing the school discipline gap: Research for policymakers. Youth & Society, 39 Phi Delta Kappan, 94 ty. Handbook of the Economics of Education, 3

9 Colormute: Race talk dilemmas in an American school. Race Ethnicity and Education Closing the achievement gap in America s classrooms. Journal of Teacher Education, 60 Journal of College Student Development, 53 Out of school & off track: The overuse of suspensions in American middle and high schools. Using multivariate statistics. Hierarchical linear models Educational Psychologist, 35 Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Participatory action research for educational leadership. The SAGE handbook of action research: Participative inquiry and practice Transforming social inquiry, transforming social action. Harvard Business Review, 79 Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 11 Applied Developmental Science, 3 \ Russell J. Skiba, Ph.D. Early Warning, Timely Response Mariella I. Arredondo, Ph.D. Research Associate

10 M. Karega Rausch Natasha Williams D. Leigh Kupersmith

11 James Bell, J.D. Judith Browne-Dianis, J.D. Prudence L. Carter, Ph.D. Christopher Chatmon Tanya Coke, J.D. Matt Cregor, J.D. Manuel Criollo Jim Eichner, J.D. Edward Fergus, Ph.D. Michelle Fine, Ph.D. Phillip Atiba Goff, Ph.D. Paul Goren, Ph.D. Anne Gregory, Ph.D. Damon T. Hewitt, J.D. Daniel J. Losen, J.D. Tammy B. Luu Kavitha Mediratta, Ph.D. Pedro Noguera, Ph.D. Blake Norton, M.Ed. Mica Pollock, Ph.D. Stephen T. Russell, Ph.D. Russell Skiba, Ph.D. Leticia Smith-Evans, J.D., Ph.D. Lisa Thomas, Ed.D. Michael Thompson Ivory A. Toldson, Ph.D.

12 The Equity Project at Indiana University Center for Evaluation and Education Policy 1900 East Tenth Street Bloomington, Indiana rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu

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