Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment

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1 Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment Stage 4 Science FW4S1 Name:

2 Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes from the sun either directly or indirectly. waves wind coal (prehistoric plants stored suns energy in their leaves) water falling into our dams (evaporated from oceans) Energy sources can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable. Renewable energy sources can be replenished quickly or are nondepletable. Non- renewable energy sources are finite in their supply and take millions of years to form. At Futureworld renewable energy technology is displayed, (energy that will not run out or produce greenhouse gases). Types Of Energy Used to Make Electrical Energy 1. Fill in the blanks below in the Energy table. Give one example of an Advantage and Disadvantage for each type of Energy source. Type of Energy Renewable (R ) or Non- Renewable (NR) Advantages Coal Low cost ($) Wave Disadvantages Wind Nuclear Solar Natural Gas NR Wind speed changes over time (not constant) Reliability and storage problems Hydropower (Water) R Abundant, clean and safe Oil Geothermal Biofuel

3 Station 1 - The Model Greenhouse 1. Using the model greenhouse, while in the sun, measure the temperature in the sun inside and outside the greenhouse simultaneously and calculate the temperature difference over time. Record your readings in the table below. Time 0 secs (Initial Temperature) T 1 (outside Temperature) T 2 (inside Temperature) Temperature difference 30 seconds 1 minute 1 m 30 s 2 m 2 m 30 s 3 m 2. What was the difference in temperature between inside and outside after 3 minutes? C Why did this occur? _ 3. Draw a graph below showing how T1 and T2, temperatures change over time. Time (seconds)

4 Station 2 - The Greenhouse Effect How can we minimise GREENHOUSE GAS emissions? The greenhouse effect is a natural part of the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases trap the heat from the sun and keep our earth at a suitable temperature for us to live. Human activities such as burning coal, cutting down forests and driving cars has led to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is slowly making our earth warmer. We can minimise the greenhouse effect by consuming less fossil fuels and using less electricity. 1. Fill in the following table using information from The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect display. Carbon Dioxide Example of how is it produced? Possible Global Warming Effects Methane Nitrous Oxide 2. Draw a diagram with arrows showing how the greenhouse effect occurs. Incoming shortwave radiation passes through to the earth s surface Longwave heat radiated from the earth is partially absorbed by greenhouse gases, which increases the earth s average temperature. ATMOSPHERE (composed of less than 1% greenhouse gases) EARTH S SURFACE

5 Station 3 - Wind Investigation Wind turbines come in many different sizes. The bigger the area swept by the wind turbine blades the greater the power output from the wind turbine. The higher the wind speed the greater the power generated. 1. Determine the power output of the wind turbine with increasing wind speed. Use the fan, anemometer and the model of the wind turbine for this investigation. Wind Speed (m/s) Graph your results in the space below Power Output Kilowatts (kw) Wind Speed (m/s) 2. How does this innovation help the environment? What design features make this renewable energy source efficient?

6 Station 4 - Australian Innovations The Solar Sailor How can we reduce the environmental impact of our TRANSPORT SYSTEMS? The Marjorie K is the solar powered catamaran in the Eco-Technology Centre. There are a number of individual solar cells that power the electric motor that drives the propeller of the Marjorie K. Wind power is also harnessed to power the catamaran. 1. What is a Hybrid Powered system and how does the Solar Sailor use this system? 2. What are some advantages of a Hybrid Powered System? 3. A number of energy conversions occur to make the Marjorie K work? Write these conversions above the arrows. SUN Solar Cell Storage Electric Motor Propeller

7 Station 5 - Australian Innovations Wave Energy How can we use our oceans to help produce clean ENERGY? Wave energy is a concentrated form of renewable energy. The display includes information on the wave power plant built at Port Kembla by Energetech(now Oceanlinx), which was able to supply enough electricity to power homes. It is possible to extract the kinetic and potential energy from water waves and convert this to electricity. Water waves are just one of many types of wave in our world. 1. Describe how the wave machine uses the energy in the waves to make electricity? 2. What two special features make this design unique? (a) (b) 3. How does this innovation help the environment? 4. What are two uses for the Oceanlinx green wave unit? (a) (b) Image by Oliver Rennert courtesy of Australian Geographic

8 Station 6 Conservation in the Home How can we reduce the consumption of resources in our home? We use many resources in our home unwisely at great cost to the environment and ourselves. By making a few simple changes we can save money, and ensure there is enough energy and water to go around in the future. Around Futureworld you will find some great examples of devices and technologies that are designed to save water and energy. Have a look around and draw and label some of those, or your own ideas in the house above. Don t forget the roof and outside. Things to think about Water use - using less, reusing and capturing water are all ways to ensure that Australian water supplies will be able to cope with growing population. Heating Many people do not heat and cool their homes effectively. A few changes and you might not even have to turn on the heater. Electricity Much of our electricity is wasted; it s being consumed when we re not even using our appliances! Building and Manufacturing It takes energy to make things and dispose of them, and far less to recycle.

9 Station 7 Energy from the Sun Solar power can be used in remote areas without access to conventional electricity for pumping water to crops or for drinking water. The solar photovoltaic panel converts sunlight into electricity. We can use solar electricity to power a water pump. Experiment: The Solar Powered Pump Objective: to determine the conditions which are most suitable for the operation of a solar pump. Procedure: Record the time to fill the bucket with water using the solar pump under the conditions shown in the table. Results: Pump operating conditions The solar panel pointing directly towards the sun. Time to fill bucket (seconds) The solar panel held parallel to the sun s rays. The panel pointing directly towards the sun with half the cells covered. Conclusion: The solar pump works best when the solar panel _ Questions: 1. How could this experiment be improved? 2. What other factors could we investigate in order to determine the maximum performance of the solar pump? 3. New types of photovoltaic cells are under development in Australia. List 3 types of generation 2 and 3 cells. (a) (b) (c)

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