INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE HISTORY, SCOPE, AND GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY PRACTIONERS ORANGE COUNTY ASSE PDC Embassy Suites Anaheim - North March 19, 2014

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1 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE HISTORY, SCOPE, AND GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY PRACTIONERS ORANGE COUNTY ASSE PDC Embassy Suites Anaheim - North March 19, 2014 Howard B. Spielman, PE, CIH, CSP, REHS Health Science Associates Noel Street Los Alamitos, CA

2 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE DEFINED (AIHA 1959) INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE IS THAT SCIENCE AND ART DEVOTED TO THE RECOGNITION, EVALUATION AND CONTROL OF THOSE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OR STRESSES, ARISING IN OR FROM THE WORK PLACE, WHICH MAY CAUSE SICKNESS, IMPAIRED HEALTH AND WELL BEING, OR SIGNIFICANT DISCOMFORT AND INEFFICIENCY AMONG WORKERS OR AMONG CITIZENS OF THE COMMUNITY. 2

3 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE DEFINED (CURRENT ABIH) Industrial Hygiene is the science of protecting and enhancing the health and safety of people at work and in their communities. Health and safety hazards cover a wide range of chemical, physical, biological and ergonomic stressors. Those dedicated to anticipating, recognizing and controlling these hazards are known as Industrial Hygienists, they are professionals dedicated to the well-being of people at work, at home and in the community. 3

4 HOW DID WE GET HERE? 4

5 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. 5

6 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. 6

7 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. 7

8 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. Agricola (1566) prevalent diseases in mining, smelting and refining. 8

9 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. Agricola (1566) prevalent diseases in mining, smelting and refining. Ramazzini (1713) treatise on occupational diseases. 9

10 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. Agricola (1566) prevalent diseases in mining, smelting and refining. Ramazzini (1713) treatise on occupational diseases. Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788 (Percival Pott) England 10

11 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. Agricola (1566) prevalent diseases in mining, smelting and refining. Ramazzini (1713) treatise on occupational diseases. Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788 (Percival Pott) England English Factory Acts of st effective legislative acts expressing interest in health of the working man. 11

12 HOW DID WE GET HERE? Hippocrates ( BC) lead poisoning in miners. Pliny the Elder (1 st century AD) refiners using bladders. Galen (2 nd century AD) dangers of acid mists to copper miners. Agricola (1566) prevalent diseases in mining, smelting and refining. Ramazzini (1713) treatise on occupational diseases. Chimney-Sweepers Act of 1788 (Percival Pott) England English Factory Acts of st effective legislative acts expressing interest in health of the working man. Not much else until after

13 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? Office of Industrial Hygiene & Sanitation, USPHS 13

14 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? Office of Industrial Hygiene & Sanitation, USPHS Extreme hazards in the workplace. Exploring the Dangerous Trades Alice Hamilton, M.D. Handful of I.H. s essentially univ. & govt. 14

15 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? Office of Industrial Hygiene & Sanitation, USPHS Extreme hazards in the workplace. Exploring the Dangerous Trades Alice Hamilton, M.D. Handful of I.H. s essentially univ. & govt. Depression Social Security Act provided funds to states to initiate programs. ACGIH 1937 AIHA Emphasized recognition & evaluation. Controls/enforcement gentle at best. Walsh-Healy Act 15

16 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? WWII Worsening Conditions in the war industries. 16

17 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? WWII Worsening Conditions in the war industries Postwar prosperity. Industrial growth st federal health & safety legislation introduced (Humphrey) not passed. Walsh-Healy Public Contracts Act some help. Probably no more than 600 I.H.s in USA, mostly in government insurance and academia 17

18 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? 1970s & 1980s - OSHA (1970) I.H. explosion evolution to control. Add anticipation. 18

19 HOW DID WE GET HERE & WHERE ARE WE? 1970s & 1980s s to Present- OSHA (1970) I.H. explosion evolution to control. Add anticipation. Evolution to private practice/consultation. Evolution to litigation practice. Return to environmental. Public health issues asbestos, lead, formaldehyde, radon, microbiologicals. Manufacturing leaving USA. Evolution to generalism Evolution to management. Evolution to product stewardship Changes in approach to risk assessment (OELs) Evolution to sustainability Green Chemistry movement 19

20 SCOPE CHEMICAL Dusts Fumes Mists Gases Vapor Skin/eye contact 20

21 SCOPE CHEMICAL Dusts Fumes Mists Gases Vapor Skin/eye contact PHYSICAL ENERY Non-ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation Noise Vibration Extremes of heat or cold 21

22 SCOPE BIOLOGICAL Bacteria Virii Mold Insects Rodents Sanitation 22

23 SCOPE BIOLOGICAL Bacteria Virii Mold Insects Rodents Sanitation ERGONOMIC Repetitive motion Musculoskeletal stress 23

24 HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARDS Not generally detectable or able to be evaluated by the five senses: smell, sight, taste, feel, hearing. 24

25 HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARDS Not generally detectable or able to be evaluated by the five senses: smell, sight, taste, feel, hearing. Know the process, chemistry, et al. 25

26 HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARDS Not generally detectable or able to be evaluated by the five senses: smell, sight, taste, feel, hearing. Know the process, chemistry, et al. Review Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). 26

27 HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARDS Not generally detectable or able to be evaluated by the five senses: smell, sight, taste, feel, hearing. Know the process, chemistry, et al. Review Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). Know the exposure potentials Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Skin irritation/sensitization Take home 27

28 HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARDS Not generally detectable or able to be evaluated by the five senses: smell, sight, taste, feel, hearing. Know the process, chemistry, et al. Review Safety Data Sheets (SDSs). Know the exposure potentials Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Skin irritation/sensitization Take home Know the work cycle. 8 hours/day; 40 hours/week Short-term peak activities Anything different on off shifts Overtime 28

29 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. 29

30 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. ACGIH TLVs 30

31 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. ACGIH TLVs NIOSH RELs 31

32 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. ACGIH TLVs NIOSH RELs Manufacturer s recommendations 32

33 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. ACGIH TLVs NIOSH RELs Manufacturer s recommendations International guides and standards 33

34 OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS CAL/OSHA PELs 8CCR 5155 plus specific substance sections. ACGIH TLVs NIOSH RELs Manufacturer s recommendations International guides and standards Understand the basis of the numbers and what they purport to prevent. 34

35 MEASURING EXPOSURES Selecting the right equipment and methodology. Know the applicability and limitations of the equipment. Make sure the data is interpreted properly. 35

36 HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO HEALTH AND/OR DISCOMFORT COMPLAINTS? 36

37 HAVING ACCESS TO A WELL-EXPERIENCED CIH FROM WHOM YOU CAN CONSULT AND SEEK GUIDANCE IS AN INVALUABLE ASSET IN ACCOMPLISHING YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE OCCUPATIONAL/ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH ARENA. 37

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