CANCER SURVIVAL IN QUEENSLAND, 2002

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1 CANCER SURVIVAL IN QUEENSLAND, 2 Danny Youlden Michael Coory Health Information Branch Queensland Health Charlotte Street Brisbane QLD Postal Address: GPO Box 48 Brisbane QLD 1 AUSTRALIA Telephone: Facsimile: Website: Peter Baade Viertel Centre for Research in Cancer Control Queensland Cancer Fund 553 Gregory Terrace Fortitude Valley QLD 6 Postal Address: PO Box 1 Spring Hill QLD 4 AUSTRALIA Telephone: Facsimile: Website: The State of Queensland, Queensland Health, 5 Copyright protects this publication. However, Queensland Health has no objection to this material being reproduced with appropriate acknowledgment, except for commercial purposes. Permission to reproduce for commercial purposes should be sought from the Policy and Quality Officer, Queensland Health, GPO Box 48, Brisbane Q 1. ISBN: Suggested citation: Youlden D, Baade P, Coory M. Cancer Survival in Queensland, 2. Brisbane, Queensland Health and Queensland Cancer Fund. 5.

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The researchers acknowledge and appreciate the work of the staff of the Queensland Cancer Fund, working in the Queensland Cancer Registry. Without their effort in providing accurate and timely data, this publication would not have been possible. Thanks also to Dr Paul Dickman from the Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, for his willingness to provide technical support and make freely available the suite of SAS programs that he developed to calculate relative survival estimates and excess mortality. RELATED PUBLICATIONS Baade P, Coory M, Ring I. Cancer Survival in Queensland, 1982 to Brisbane, Health Information Centre, Queensland Health.. Queensland Cancer Registry. Cancer in Queensland: Incidence and Mortality Brisbane, Queensland Cancer Registry, Queensland Cancer Fund and Queensland Health. 4. Hall L, Youlden D, Coory M. Mortality and incidence trends for leading cancers in Queensland, 1982 to 2. Information Circular 68. Health Information Branch, Queensland Health. 5. Health Information Branch, Queensland Health. Health Status Indicators for Queensland Cancer Incidence and Mortality Data. i

3 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS RELATED PUBLICATIONS INTRODUCTION SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RESULTS BY TYPE OF CANCER All Cancers Cancer of the Oesophagus Cancer of the Stomach Cancer of the Colon or Rectum Cancer of the Liver Cancer of the Pancreas Cancer of the Larynx Cancer of the Lung Melanoma Mesothelioma Cancer of the Female Breast Cancer of the Cervix Cancer of the Uterus Cancer of the Ovary Cancer of the Prostate Gland Cancer of the Testis Cancer of the Kidney Cancer of the Bladder Cancer of the Brain Cancer of the Thyroid Gland Hodgkin s Disease Non-Hodgkin s Lymphoma Adult Leukaemia Childhood Leukaemia Myeloma APPENDIX 1 DATA AND METHODS APPENDIX 2 - CANCER SITE CODES APPENDIX 3 - SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS PAGE i i ii

4 INTRODUCTION This report describes the survival of people with cancer in Queensland, and provides an update on similar information that was published in. The work was performed jointly by Queensland Health and the Queensland Cancer Fund (QCF). The aims of the report are to: provide an up-to-date estimate of survival for the most common cancers in Queensland; compare survival in Queensland with survival for all of Australia and internationally; investigate how survival varies by sex and age; and, examine trends in survival over time. Cancer is one of the seven National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs) for Australia. Currently, about one out of every three people in Queensland will be diagnosed with cancer before the age of 75, and over 6, Queenslanders died from cancer in 2. The report is based on data from the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR). A population-based cancer registry, such as the QCR, allows cancer survival to be measured in a geographically-defined population (eg. Queensland). The report includes people diagnosed with cancer in the period from 1 January 1982 to 31 December, with mortality followed-up to 31 December 2. Results are presented for all cancers combined, as well as for the 24 most common types of cancer. All results for Queensland shown in this report are for relative survival based on the cohort method. Relative survival analysis compares the survival of persons diagnosed with cancer against the survival of persons of the same age, sex and time period from the general population. This is the most commonly used approach for calculating cancer survival using data from a population-based cancer registry, and allows for reasonably consistent comparisons with data published nationally and internationally. Five-year relative survival is the measure used for comparative purposes throughout this publication. It is considered that reporting five-year relative survival gives both an indication of the effectiveness of treatment immediately following the detection of the cancer in addition to being an indicator of the longer-term remission or cure for most forms of the disease. For further details on the data and methods used in this report, see Appendix 1 on page 55. 1

5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Type of cancer As shown in Figure 1 below, the five-year relative survival for all cancers diagnosed in Queensland between 1996 and was 63.5%. Figure 1: Five-year relative survival by type of cancer, Queensland, Mesothelioma Pancreas Liver Lung Brain Oesophagus Stomach Myeloma Adult Leukaemia Ovary Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Kidney Colon or Rectum All cancers Larynx Cervix Bladder Prostate Gland Childhood Leukaemia Uterus Hodgkin's Disease Female Breast Melanoma Thyroid Gland Testis % 1% % 3% % 5% % 7% % 9% % 5-year relative survival Five-year survival was highest (greater than 9%) for cancer of the testis, cancer of the thyroid gland and melanoma. Other types of cancer for which the five-year survival was relatively high (7% to 89%) included female breast, Hodgkin s disease, uterus, childhood leukaemia, prostate gland, bladder and cervix. Cancers for which the five-year survival was between 5% to 69% were larynx, colon or rectum, kidney, non-hodgkin s lymphoma, ovary and adult leukaemia. Myeloma was the only type of cancer included in the study that had five-year survival in the range of 3% to 49% Cancers for which the five-year survival was relatively low (1% to 29%) included stomach, oesophagus, brain and lung. Five-year relative survival was lowest (less than 1%) for the following cancers: liver, pancreas and mesothelioma. Comparisons by sex, age and time period Differences in cancer survival by sex, age and time period are expressed in terms of excess mortality (or relative risk of death) within 5 years of diagnosis. Generalised linear models (Poisson) based on exact survival times were used to calculate the comparisons. The reference groups (i.e. where excess mortality = 1.) were females, the youngest age group (usually year olds) and persons diagnosed during respectively. 2

6 For age group and sex, only those cancers diagnosed between 1996 and are included. For time period differences, cancers diagnosed between 1982 and are considered. Differences are adjusted for age group and sex, where applicable. See Appendix 1 on page 55 for further details of the methods used. Comparisons by sex Males were about one and a quarter times more likely to die within five years of diagnosis compared to females for all cancers combined, and had significantly poorer survival than females for the following types of cancer: oesophagus, stomach, lung, melanoma, mesothelioma, thyroid, and non-hodgkin s lymphoma. The only type of cancer for which females had significantly poorer survival than males was cancer of the bladder. Survival for males and females was about the same for the following cancers: colon or rectum, liver, pancreas, larynx, kidney, brain, Hodgkin s disease, adult leukaemia, childhood leukaemia and myeloma. Comparisons by age For most types of cancer there was a significant decrease in the relative survival as age at diagnosis increased. For all cancers combined, persons aged 7-79 years were more than four and a half times more likely to die within five years of diagnosis compared to the age group, while the excess mortality was over six times higher for persons aged -89 years. The differences in excess mortality by age group were smallest for cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon or rectum, larynx and mesothelioma. On the other hand, excess mortality was greatest in the older age groups for the following types of cancer: cervix, ovary, testis, bladder, brain, thyroid, and Hodgkin s disease. Comparisons by time period Survival from cancer has generally increased over the last years. Most of the cancers included in this report have shown a steady improvement in five-year relative survival over the time periods that were analysed. For all cancers combined, persons diagnosed in the period were 55% more likely to die within five years of diagnosis compared to persons diagnosed between The greatest improvements in survival over time were found for the following cancers: melanoma, female breast, prostate gland, testis, thyroid gland and childhood leukaemia. For each of these cancers, the relative risk of dying within five years of diagnosis in was more than % higher compared to those people diagnosed between Cancers for which the excess mortality was between 5% and % higher in than in included oesophagus, colon or rectum, liver, uterus, ovary, kidney, Hodgkin s disease and adult leukaemia. The excess mortality was less than 5% higher (but still statistically significant) in compared to for the following cancers: stomach, pancreas, lung, bladder, non-hodgkin s lymphoma and myeloma. There were four types of cancer (larynx, mesothelioma, cervix, and brain) for which there was no statistically significant change in survival over the time periods included in this report. None of the cancers in the study had a statistically significant decrease in survival between and Similar gains in relative survival over time have also been reported at the national level by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (see reference in Appendix 3, page 61). Improvements in survival for the various cancers could be due to earlier diagnosis brought about by effective detection programs and/or advances in cancer treatment and management programs. National and international comparisons This report contains comparisons of population-based survival for Queensland, Australia, the United States and selected countries in Europe (England, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden). Appendix 3 on page 61 contains references to the data sources used. Note that any comparisons across different populations must be interpreted with due caution for a number of reasons. These include different methodologies used to calculate survival, varying definitions of particular types of cancers used by the registries, and differences in the age groups and time periods for 3

7 which survival estimates are available. For further information, see the section titled Interpretation of national or international differences in Appendix 1 (page 55) of this report. Broadly speaking, five-year relative survival by type of cancer in Queensland was similar to the estimates reported for Australia and the United States, and generally higher than the European countries, particularly England. For example, five-year relative survival for cancer of the colon or rectum was 62.9% in Queensland, comparable to that in Australia (58.4%) and the United States (63.4%), but higher than Netherlands (54.1%), Sweden (53.9%), Italy (51.6%) and England (45.9%). Likewise, five-year relative survival for breast cancer in Queensland (86.9%) was similar to the United States (87.7%), Australia (84.%) and Sweden (83.2%), and higher than Italy (81.2%), Netherlands (78.8%) and England (74.8%). 4

8 All cancers (ICD-2: C-C) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (75.3, 76.2) 81.6 (81.2, 82.) (68.2, 69.1) 75.7 (75.2, 76.1) (63.9, 65.) 72.1 (71.6, 72.7) (61.2, 62.3) 69.9 (69.3, 7.4) (59.1,.3) 68.1 (67.4, 68.7) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (86.3, 88.2) (77.6, 79.6) 1.84 (1.67, 2.2) (68.5, 7.3) 2.71 (2.49, 2.95) (61.1, 62.8) 3.57 (3.29, 3.87) (53.8, 55.6) 4.57 (4.21, 4.95) (44.6, 48.2) 6.33 (5.81, 6.89) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (59.1,.3) 1.24 (1., 1.27) Females (67.4, 68.7) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 5

9 All cancers (ICD-2: C-C) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (5.3, 51.6) 1.55 (1.51, 1.58) (56.4, 57.4) 1.29 (1.26, 1.31) (61.2, 62.1) 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) (63., 63.9) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (48.3, 49.2) 58.9 (58.5, 59.4) (45.5, 46.7) 56.2 (55.7, 56.8) 45.1 (43.9, 46.2) 55.1 (54.1, 56.1) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 6

10 Cancer of the Oesophagus (ICD-2: C15) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (.2, 48.2) 52. (45.6, 58.) (25.1, 32.4) 34.1 (28.2,.) 3.4 (17.1, 23.9) 28.8 (23.2, 34.6) (15.7, 22.6) 25.8 (.3, 31.8) (15.3, 22.5) 24.2 (18.5, 3.4) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (18.8, 32.1) (18.3, 3.6) 1.7 (.85, 1.34) (13.2, 23.7) 1.28 (1.3, 1.) (6.9, 21.1) 1.75 (1.36, 2.24) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (15.3, 22.5) 1.3 (1.1, 1.55) Females (18.5, 3.4) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia n.a. United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 7

11 Cancer of the Oesophagus (ICD-2: C15) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (5.8, 12.1) 1.59 (1.38, 1.83) (12.2, 18.9) 1.21 (1.7, 1.37) (14.5,.4) 1.1 (.98, 1.23) (17.3, 23.5) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (8.3, 12.7) 14. (1.7, 17.7) (5.9, 12.) 11.6 (7.9, 16.3) 8.1 (3.6, 15.4) n.a (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 8

12 Cancer of the Stomach (ICD-2: C16) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (43.2, 49.2) 5.4 (46., 54.6) (31.1, 36.9) 39.7 (35.4, 43.9) (25.5, 31.3) 35.3 (31., 39.6) (22.2, 28.2) 3.7 (26.3, 35.2) (.6, 27.1) 27.9 (23.4, 32.6) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (31.4, 49.4) (18.4, 32.7) 1.23 (.93, 1.63) (19.5, 29.6) 1.36 (1.5, 1.76) (., 29.1) 1.54 (1., 1.98) (14.4, 27.4) 1.98 (1.52, 2.58) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (.6, 27.1) 1.16 (1.1, 1.33) Females (23.4, 32.6) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 9

13 Cancer of the Stomach (ICD-2: C16) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (13.5, 18.2) 1.34 (1.22, 1.47) (17.4, 22.1) 1.22 (1.11, 1.33) (21.2, 26.) 1.7 (.98, 1.17) (22.5, 27.8) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (16.5,.2) 21.6 (19.1, 24.2) (16.,.8) 21.2 (18.1, 24.6) 17.5 (13.1, 22.8) 18.1 (12.9, 24.3) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 1

14 Cancer of the Colon or Rectum (ICD-2: C18-C, C218) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (78.8, 81.).2 (78.9, 81.4) (71.2, 73.7) 72.5 (71.1, 73.9) (65.8, 68.7) 68. (66.4, 69.5) (61.7, 64.9) 65.5 (63.8, 67.1) (.1, 63.5) 64.2 (62.4, 66.) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (.3, 75.3) (62.5, 7.6) 1.8 (., 1.47) (62.6, 67.8) 1.11 (.84, 1.47) (63.2, 67.5) 1.17 (.89, 1.55) (58., 62.7) 1.42 (1.8, 1.87) (53.9, 62.9) 1.87 (1.41, 2.49) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (.1, 63.5) 1.7 (1., 1.16) Females (62.4, 66.) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia (colon/rectum) /58.3 United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 11

15 Cancer of the Colon or Rectum (ICD-2: C18-C, C218) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (48., 51.4) 1.52 (1.43, 1.61) (53.5, 56.3) 1.3 (1.23, 1.38) (59.1, 61.6) 1.8 (1.3, 1.14) (61.6, 64.1) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (5.5, 53.1) 56.6 (55.3, 57.8) (49.9, 53.7) 56.4 (54.6, 58.3) 53.8 (5.2, 57.5) 59.2 (55.7, 62.7) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 12

16 Cancer of the Liver (ICD-2: C22) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) 1 3. (25.7, 34.3) 3.2 (23.2, 37.5) (15.9, 23.6) 17.8 (12.2, 24.3) (12.6,.) 12.7 (7.8, 18.7) (7.9, 14.7) 11.9 (7.1, 18.1) (5.3, 11.5) 12.1 (7.2, 18.5) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (11.6, 34.8) (15.8, 36.3).91 (.58, 1.42) (1.3, 7.8) 1.67 (1.12, 2.47) (2.6, 11.7) 1.57 (1.6, 2.32) (.1, 6.6) 2.48 (1.58, 3.89) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (5.3, 11.5) 1.7 (.85, 1.34) Females (7.2, 18.5) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia n.a. United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 13

17 Cancer of the Liver (ICD-2: C22) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (1.5, 7.3) 1. (1.29, 1.99) (4., 9.9) 1.26 (1.6, 1.5) (6.3, 11.6) 1.25 (1.7, 1.46) (6.6, 12.2) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (3.6, 7.2) 8.2 (5.4, 11.8) (1.4, 8.) 6.8 (3.3, 11.9) n.a. n.a (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 14

18 Cancer of the Pancreas (ICD-2: C25) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (18.7, 24.3).9 (18., 23.8) (9.1, 13.4) 9.6 (7.6, 11.8) (6.6, 1.5) 8. (6.2, 1.2) (5.8, 9.7) 6.3 (4.6, 8.4) (5.1, 9.) 6.1 (4.4, 8.2) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (15.4, 32.9) (7.1, 16.7) 1.35 (1.2, 1.79) (3.6, 8.7) 1.85 (1.43, 2.39) (2.6, 7.) 1.98 (1.54, 2.55) (1., 4.6) 2. (2.14, 3.65) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (5.1, 9.) 1.5 (.94, 1.18) Females (4.4, 8.2) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 15

19 Cancer of the Pancreas (ICD-2: C25) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (1.3, 3.3) 1.36 (1.23, 1.5) (3.3, 5.9) 1.17 (1.7, 1.28) (3.7, 6.2) 1.8 (.99, 1.17) (5.3, 8.) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (2.5, 4.4) 4.6 (3.6, 5.8) (1.6, 4.2) 3.7 (2.4, 5.6) 2.7 (1.4, 4.8) 3.1 (1.1, 7.4) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 16

20 Cancer of the Larynx (ICD-2: C32) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (84.4, 9.9) 94.8 (81.7, 99.4) (75.6, 83.7) 89.4 (74.7, 96.9) (67.8, 77.) 83.3 (66.7, 93.5) (64.9, 75.) 75.1 (56.3, 88.1) (.9, 72.2) 68.2 (47.7, 83.7) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (65., 81.1) (52.4, 7.1) 1.52 (.98, 2.35) (54.8, 76.4) 1.55 (.97, 2.48) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (.9, 72.2) 1.34 (.68, 2.66) Females (47.7, 83.7) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia n.a. United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 17

21 Cancer of the Larynx (ICD-2: C32) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (61., 72.7) 1.4 (.79, 1.37) (65., 75.1).91 (.7, 1.19) (68.1, 77.2).82 (.64, 1.7) (61.3, 72.) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (55.2, 62.4) 51.8 (41.6, 61.7) (44.3, 54.1) 39.9 (26.9, 54.) 41.6 (33.8, 49.9) 45.6 (3.8, 61.7) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 18

22 Cancer of the Lung (ICD-2: C33-C34) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (34.2, 36.8).7 (38.7, 42.8) 2.9 (19.8, 22.) 25.7 (23.9, 27.6) (14.5, 16.5). (18.3, 21.7) (12.4, 14.5) 17. (15.4, 18.8) (11.1, 13.2) 14.6 (13., 16.4) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (25.6, 49.1) (15.9, 24.9) 1.46 (1.5, 2.3) (14.7, 19.4) 1.65 (1., 2.26) (1.9, 14.1) 1.87 (1.37, 2.55) (1.7, 13.9) 1.96 (1.44, 2.67) (3.1, 7.1) 2.68 (1.95, 3.68) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (11.1, 13.2) 1.13 (1.7, 1.) Females (13., 16.4) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 19

23 Cancer of the Lung (ICD-2: C33-C34) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (9., 11.) 1.16 (1.11, 1.21) (1.6, 12.4) 1.7 (1.3, 1.12) (11.4, 13.1) 1.1 (.98, 1.5) (12., 13.8) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (7., 8.) 1.9 (9.9, 11.9) (5.4, 6.7) 8.8 (7.7, 1.1) 4.9 (4., 6.1) 8.2 (6.6, 1.2) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable).

24 Melanoma (ICD-2: C44, M872 - M879) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (96.9, 98.) 98.8 (98.3, 99.2) (95.1, 96.5) 98. (97.3, 98.6) (93.2, 95.) 96.8 (96., 97.6) (92., 94.1) 96. (95., 96.9) (91.5, 93.9) 95.8 (94.7, 96.8) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (95.9, 97.7) (94., 96.4) 1.51 (1.3, 2.22) (91.7, 94.7) 2.7 (1.45, 2.96) (9.7, 94.6) 2.43 (1.67, 3.54) (89.6, 95.4) 2.52 (1.65, 3.87) (84.2, 99.6) 3.68 (1.97, 6.88) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (91.5, 93.9) 1.89 (1.47, 2.44) Females (94.7, 96.8) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 21

25 Melanoma (ICD-2: C44, M872 - M879) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (87.2, 89.9) 2. (1.87, 2.58) (9.4, 92.3) 1.47 (1.26, 1.73) (91.1, 92.9) 1.37 (1.18, 1.59) (93.2, 94.9) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (85.2, 87.4) 92.7 (91.8, 93.6) (85.3, 88.5) 92.1 (9.8, 93.3) 86.9 (83.7, 9.1) 93. (9.9, 95.1) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 22

26 Mesothelioma (ICD-2: M95) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) 1.2 (34.8, 45.6) 51.6 (36.5, 64.9) (11.3, 18.9) 31.5 (18.6, 45.5) (5.3, 11.2) 22.3 (11., 36.2) (3.1, 8.6) 14.9 (5.1, 3.) (1.8, 7.3) 15.1 (5.2, 3.4) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (2., 13.8) (1.6, 12.6).93 (.7, 1.25) (1.9, 1.5) 1.35 (1.3, 1.77) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (1.8, 7.3) 1.75 (1.22, 2.51) Females (5.2, 3.4) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia n.a. United States n.a. England n.a. Italy n.a. Netherlands n.a. Sweden n.a. mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 23

27 Mesothelioma (ICD-2: M95) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (2.8, 15.8) 1.12 (.86, 1.46) (3.6, 11.4) 1.18 (.97, 1.44) (4.4, 11.) 1.11 (.94, 1.31) (2.8, 8.8) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (2.4, 6.1) 1.4 (4.8, 18.6) (1.7, 5.8) n.a. n.a. n.a (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 24

28 Cancer of the Female Breast (ICD-2: C5) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (97., 97.8) (94., 95.1) (91.2, 92.6) (88.6, 9.3) (85.9, 87.9) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (77.1, 84.6) (86.6, 9.2).61 (.47,.79) (87.1, 9.4).59 (.46,.77) (87.1, 91.).61 (.46,.) (82.3, 88.1).89 (.67, 1.18) (71.7, 85.4) 1.29 (.89, 1.87) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 25

29 Cancer of the Female Breast (ICD-2: C5) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (69.6, 73.1) 2.56 (2.31, 2.84) (78.8, 81.4) 1.73 (1.56, 1.92) (82.5, 84.6) 1.36 (1.23, 1.51) (85.9, 87.9) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (71.6, 73.4) (65.6, 68.2) 62.9 (.5, 65.4) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 26

30 Cancer of the Cervix (ICD-2: C53) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (84.8, 89.4) 2.5 (77.6, 83.1) (74., 79.9) (72.2, 78.5) (71.1, 77.7) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (84.2, 92.2) (76.7, 88.) 1.76 (1.5, 2.95) (58., 76.) 3.75 (2.29, 6.13) (5.7, 69.7) 4.75 (2.95, 7.66) (33.7, 56.) 7.38 (4.66, 11.7) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 27

31 Cancer of the Cervix (ICD-2: C53) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (69.4, 76.2) 1.7 (.88, 1.32) (72.2, 78.3).93 (.76, 1.13) (73., 78.9).86 (.71, 1.5) (71.1, 77.7) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (67.6, 71.3) (63.6, 68.1) 63.6 (.4, 66.7) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 28

32 Cancer of the Uterus (ICD-2: C54) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (91., 94.3) (86.1, 9.3) (83.2, 87.9) (82.6, 87.7) (79.4, 85.5) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (81.2, 94.5) (.8, 9.8) 1.28 (.63, 2.) (.1, 9.4) 1.41 (.69, 2.87) (71.7, 85.5) 2.73 (1., 5.36) (51.6,.4) 5.84 (2.91, 11.7) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 29

33 Cancer of the Uterus (ICD-2: C54) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (71., 79.2) 1.64 (1.28, 2.11) (74., 81.) 1.38 (1.9, 1.76) (77.2, 83.3) 1.18 (.94, 1.49) (79.4, 85.5) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (73.6, 78.1) (71.1, 77.4) 68. (61.7, 74.2) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 3

34 Cancer of the Ovary (ICD-2: C56) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (78.8, 83.6) (68.5, 74.1) (59.5, 65.6) (54.3,.9) (51.3, 58.4) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (79.9, 93.2) (65.5,.9) 2.38 (1.25, 4.55) (5.8, 64.8) 4.36 (2.41, 7.88) (39.4, 55.9) 5.32 (2.94, 9.63) (31.8, 47.) 7.89 (4., 14.2) (13.1, 38.1) 16.9 (8.75, 29.6) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 31

35 Cancer of the Ovary (ICD-2: C56) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (38.8, 47.) 1.64 (1.41, 1.9) (42.8, 49.9) 1.49 (1.29, 1.71) (46.3, 52.7) 1.29 (1.13, 1.48) (51.3, 58.4) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (42.8, 46.8) (41., 45.7) 42.8 (38.9, 46.8) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 32

36 Cancer of the Prostate Gland (ICD-2: C61) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (94.6, 95.8) (9.1, 91.9) (86., 88.1) (82.6, 85.1) 5.6 (79.1, 82.1) (M) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (83.9, 89.6) (86.9, 9.8).82 (.62, 1.8) (75.,.) 1.77 (1.38, 2.27) (57.6, 69.2) 3.3 (2.51, 4.32) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden Five year relative survival for prostate cancer in the United States may be artificially high (see Effects of screening on cancer survival, Appendix 1, for further details). mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 33

37 Cancer of the Prostate Gland (ICD-2: C61) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (58.9, 64.) 2.49 (2.22, 2.79) (64.8, 68.9) 1.95 (1.75, 2.17) (79.2, 81.9) 1.8 (.97, 1.21) (79.1, 82.1) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (.1, 63.) (5.3, 55.7) 54.6 (47.8, 61.9) (M) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 34

38 Cancer of the Testis (ICD-2: C62) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (95.7, 98.7) (94.4, 98.) (94.7, 98.3) (94.6, 98.4) (92.4, 97.5) (M) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (95.7, 99.4) (89.9,.) 1.95 (., 9.56) (63.4, 9.7) 1.97 (3.67, 32.8) Age group This space left blank intentionally. Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 35

39 Cancer of the Testis (ICD-2: C62) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (.7, 9.7) 3.76 (1.98, 7.15) (91.5, 97.4) 1. (.67, 2.94) (91.8, 96.7) 1.31 (.65, 2.63) (92.4, 97.5) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (91.5, 95.) (9.2, 94.9) 92. (87.2, 95.8) (M) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 36

40 Cancer of the Kidney (ICD-2: C64-C66, C68) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (77.5, 82.1) 76.3 (73.1, 79.2) (69.2, 74.5) 67.9 (64.3, 71.2) (64.7, 7.5) 62.9 (59.1, 66.5) (61.7, 67.9) 59.4 (55.4, 63.2) (58.5, 65.4) 57.1 (52.7, 61.3) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (74.3, 85.) (68.6, 78.6) 1.35 (.94, 1.93) (53.9, 64.2) 2.27 (1.63, 3.14) (46., 56.7) 2.81 (2.4, 3.88) (27.7, 45.9) 4.89 (3.46, 6.93) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (58.5, 65.4).93 (.79, 1.9) Females (52.7, 61.3) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 37

41 Cancer of the Kidney (ICD-2: C64-C66, C68) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (42.1, 5.1) 1.71 (1.5, 1.95) (49.2, 55.7) 1.41 (1.25, 1.59) (54.7,.2) 1.13 (1.1, 1.27) (57.4, 62.8) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (47.2, 52.5) 44.4 (41.5, 47.4) (42.6, 5.1) 38.8 (34.9, 42.7) 47.3 (41.1, 53.8) 3.8 (24.1, 38.2) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 38

42 Cancer of the Bladder (ICD-2: C67) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (89.2, 92.) 85.5 (82.6, 88.1) (83.4, 87.) 78.7 (75.2, 81.8) (., 84.2) 76.6 (72.8,.) (77.5, 82.2) 76. (71.9, 79.8) (74.8,.2) 74.1 (69.4, 78.4) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (87.5, 96.) (78.3, 87.5) 2. (1.33, 5.6) (75.4, 83.2) 3.49 (1.87, 6.53) (69.6, 77.8) 4.5 (2.43, 8.35) (57.1, 73.8) 6.63 (3.52, 12.5) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (74.8,.2).75 (.61,.91) Females (69.4, 78.4) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 39

43 Cancer of the Bladder (ICD-2: C67) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (67.2, 73.5) 1.36 (1.16, 1.58) (71.6, 76.9) 1.18 (1.2, 1.36) (72.5, 77.2) 1.1 (.96, 1.26) (74.3, 79.) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (66.7, 71.1) 65.1 (61.8, 68.4) (.9, 67.7) 62.3 (57.6, 67.1).1 (54., 66.4) 69. (61., 77.1) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable).

44 Cancer of the Brain (ICD-2: C7) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (33.,.4) 34.3 (3.2, 38.4) (23.5, 3.4) 24.4 (.8, 28.1) (.7, 27.4) 21.7 (18.2, 25.4) (19.7, 26.4) 19.5 (16.1, 23.2) 5. (16.7, 23.6) 18. (14.5, 21.7) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (56.1, 71.8) (23.8, 39.5) 2.96 (2.14, 4.11) (5.3, 14.4) 5.38 (4., 7.24) (3.1, 1.8) 8.47 (6.28, 11.4) (1.3, 5.7) (1.3, 18.3) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males 632. (16.7, 23.6).98 (.86, 1.13) Females (14.5, 21.7) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 41

45 Cancer of the Brain (ICD-2: C7) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (16., 22.8) 1.3 (.91, 1.17) (18.8, 24.5) 1.3 (.92, 1.15) (18.8, 24.) 1.1 (.91, 1.11) (16.7, 21.7) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (13.9, 17.6) 15.9 (13.9, 18.1) (11.1, 15.2) 13.2 (11., 15.5) 12.6 (1.4, 15.1) 11.4 (8.2, 15.2) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 42

46 Cancer of the Thyroid Gland (ICD-2: C73) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (89.9, 96.6) 98.1 (96.7, 99.) (88.1, 95.9) 97.4 (95.8, 98.6) (87.1, 95.6) 97. (95.2, 98.4) (86., 95.4) 97. (94.9, 98.5) (82.2, 94.) 96.9 (94.6, 98.6) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (98.7,.) (87.5, 97.1) 11.7 (2.55, 48.1) (.3, 96.2) (3.7, 67.9) (58.1, 88.4) (8.49, 156.9) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (82.2, 94.) 2.45 (1., 5.3) Females (94.6, 98.6) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 43

47 Cancer of the Thyroid Gland (ICD-2: C73) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (78.3, 88.9) 3.7 (2.25, 6.9) (84.4, 91.9) 2.61 (1.59, 4.27) (91.4, 96.3) 1.35 (.81, 2.23) (92.6, 96.8) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (76.9, 87.6) 94.9 (92.8, 96.7) (66.7, 84.1) 95.9 (92.9, 98.4) 7.7 (53.5, 86.5) 95.8 (9.6,.) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 44

48 Hodgkin s Disease (ICD-2: M965-M966) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (83.5, 93.8) 93.4 (87.7, 96.6) (78., 9.1) 9.9 (84.6, 94.8) (76.1, 88.9) 89.6 (83., 93.9) (73.4, 87.3) 88.9 (82., 93.5) 5.7 (72.4, 87.1) 86.3 (78.2, 91.9) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (9.8, 97.8) (67., 91.1) 3.92 (1.43, 1.7) (27.9,.9) (6.89, 35.7) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (72.4, 87.1) 1. (.61, 2.38) Females (78.2, 91.9) 1. Males Sex Females Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 45

49 Hodgkin s Disease (ICD-2: M965-M966) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (59.5, 74.5) 1.86 (1.22, 2.83) (67.9, 79.6) 1.37 (.91, 2.4) (75., 85.7).94 (.61, 1.44) (77.9, 87.9) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (66., 75.4) 75.4 (7.2, 79.9) (.5, 72.) 71.2 (64.6, 77.) 65.6 (55.5, 74.9) 72.6 (65.9, 78.5) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 46

50 Non-Hodgkin s Lymphoma (ICD-2: M959, M967-M971) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (73.8, 78.5) 79.2 (76.7, 81.5) (66., 71.2) 72.4 (69.6, 75.1) (.2, 65.9) 67.8 (64.7, 7.6) (55.6, 61.8) 64.4 (61.1, 67.5) (52.2, 58.9) 62. (58.4, 65.5) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (73.7, 84.6) (74.7, 85.3).89 (.58, 1.34) (64.9, 75.7) 1. (.84, 1.72) (5.5,.2) 2.26 (1.63, 3.15) (43.5, 53.3) 2.94 (2.13, 4.6) (24.3, 41.1) 4.68 (3.33, 6.57) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (52.2, 58.9) 1.25 (1.9, 1.44) Females (58.4, 65.5) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia United States England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 47

51 Non-Hodgkin s Lymphoma (ICD-2: M959, M967-M971) (continued) 5-Year Relative Survival by Period of (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) Period of Count (44.6, 51.5) 1.47 (1.31, 1.66) (49.2, 54.9) 1.3 (1.17, 1.44) (51.3, 56.2) 1.19 (1.8, 1.31) (56.1,.9) Period of diagnosis Longer-term Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1982-) (39.4, 44.) 46. (43.6, 48.4) (33.3, 39.5).8 (37.7, 43.9) 33.7 (28.8, 38.9) 38.8 (34., 43.9) (M) (F) mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 48

52 Adult Leukaemia (ICD-2: M9-M994) Relative Survival by Years after and Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) (7.8, 75.8) 73.3 (7.1, 76.2) (63.2, 68.8) 64.6 (61.1, 67.9) 3. (57., 63.) 58.6 (54.9, 62.1) (52.6, 59.1) 55.6 (51.7, 59.4) (48.9, 56.) 54.4 (5.2, 58.4) (M) (F) Year Relative Survival by Age Group at (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Age Group Count (58.3, 72.) (56.1, 72.4).98 (.68, 1.41) (57., 69.8).99 (.72, 1.35) (49.6,.4) 1.34 (1.1, 1.79) (41.9, 52.5) 1.77 (1.35, 2.33) (26.8, 43.) 2.83 (2.12, 3.78) Age group 5-Year Relative Survival by Sex (cancers diagnosed between 1996-) Sex Count Males (48.9, 56.) 1.4 (.9, 1.) Females (5.2, 58.4) 1. Males Females Sex Comparisons of 5-Year Relative Survival State/Country Period Survival (%) Queensland Australia (includes all age groups) United States (includes all age groups) England Italy Netherlands Sweden mortality was adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex (where applicable). 49

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