DRAFT. Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION. Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Reply Comments of the

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DRAFT. Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION. Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Reply Comments of the"

Transcription

1 Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices Below 900 MHz and in the 3 GHz Band ET Docket No ET Docket No Reply Comments of the National Public Safety Telecommunications Council I. INTRODUCTION 1. The National Public Safety Telecommunications Council (NPSTC submits the following comments in response to the Commission s Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM, ET (FCC , in the above-captioned proceeding. 2. With over 74,000 public safety organizations in the United States, it is critical to have a resource and an advocate for public safety telecommunications. That is the primary role of the National Public Safety Telecommunications Council. NPSTC is a federation of public safety associations that encourage and facilitate, through a collective voice, the implementation of Public Safety Wireless Advisory Committee (PSWAC and 700 MHz Public Safety National Coordination Committee (NCC recommendations. NPSTC 1

2 II. DRAFT explores emerging public safety telecommunications issues and technologies, and develops recommendations to appropriate governmental bodies to support the broad goals of promoting public safety telecommunications worldwide. Finally, NPSTC serves as a standing forum for the exchange of ideas and information regarding public safety telecommunications. NPSTC currently consists of the following thirteen organizations 1 : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Radio Relay League American Red Cross Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials-International Forestry Conservation Communications Association International Association of Chiefs of Police International Association of Emergency Managers International Association of Fire Chiefs International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies International Municipal Signal Association National Association of State Emergency Medical Services Directors National Association of State Telecommunications Directors National Association of State Foresters. PUBLIC SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS IN THE UHF-T BAND MUST BE PROTECTED FROM INTERFERENCE 3. While NPSTC is pleased to see the Commission promote more efficient use of unused TV channels, a few points in this proceeding give us cause for concern. We do not feel the protection afforded to land mobile radio (LMR users in the UHF-T band which is used by public safety for critical communications in a number of metropolitan areas throughout the country will be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of harmful interference. Metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles and New York City operate radio systems on TV channel NPSTC believes the only means by which unlicensed 1 A number of Federal agencies are affiliate members of NPSTC and active participants in its ongoing efforts. These include the Department of Agriculture, Department of Homeland Security (SAFECOM Program and Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Department of the Interior. 2 ET , MB , FCC 04-80, paragraph F. Amendments to Parts 2, 73, 74, and 90 of our Rules, page 10: (2 The use of the band MHz (TV channel 16 is limited to eligibles in the Public Safety Radio Pool in or near (i the Los Angeles 2

3 devices could be considered is if a new protection criterion were developed to compensate for increased spectrum usage resulting from both mobile and stationary unlicensed devices operating on co-channel assignments in the UHF T-Band. We question the effectiveness of the existing rules to protect public safety operations and believe more study is necessary before enacting the proposed rule. 4. The Association for Maximum Service Television (AMSTV in their June 21 request for clarification brought a number of important issues up that were not addressed to the level of detail a NPRM would require. Strictly speaking they were correct in their assertion that the NPRM did not specify maximum or minimum bandwidth, type of allowed modulation, number of concurrent channels to be used, or channelization for unlicensed devices 3. The MSTV is also correct in stating the need for clarification of what is deemed as other appropriate models when calculating the undesired unlicensed signal levels. We also believe the confusion over use of antenna height and height above average terrain (HAAT in calculating FCC (50, 50 must be clarified. If not resolved, these omissions individually or cumulatively could result in harmful interference not only to broadcasters but to licensed public safety services operating in the UHF-T band. Due to the critical nature of public safety communications we respectfully ask the Commission to provide clarification on the on this mater to protect licensed services and for the public good. 5. NPSTC agrees with the comments of Motorola submitted on July 21, 2004 asking the Commission not allow unlicensed devices to operate on TV channels which urbanized area; and (ii New York City; Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties in New York State; and Bergen County, New Jersey. 3 Association for Maximum Service Television (MSTV, June 21 filing pages 3, and

4 provide critical support to public safety communications in the UHF-T band 4. NPSTC also agrees with Motorola in questioning spectrum availability in major urban areas to support unlicensed devices channels NPSTC respectfully urges the Commission to prohibit the use of unlicensed devices on channels on the national level. III. THE COMMISSION MUST EMPLOY RULES TO ENSURE INTERFERENCE-FREE OPERATIONS TO USERS AND INCOMBANTS 6. NPSTC believes the Commission must include safeguards in the rules governing the deployment of unlicensed devices to prevent harmful interference to licensed services. If this is not accomplished we fear this plan will be unsuccessful. Matters involving shared operation as secondary users have never been attempted in such a grand scale. We urge the Commission to proceed cautiously since this initiative shows great promise to provide access to spectrum for many parties. We have a golden opportunity before stemming from the common goal of mitigating interference to see exciting technologies developed to make this plan come to fruition. 7. Within the aforementioned proceeding the Commission sought comment on the most efficient and effective method to control unlicensed devices 6. We have seen a number of good ideas presented that should be studied. One means is the use of transmitter power control (TPC 7. Transmitter output power should be regulated to what is ever necessary to close a radio link while still maintaining some grade of service (GoS. TPC will foster increased frequency reuse, and provide more use of spectrum of the airwaves and result 4 Motorola filing of July 21, 2004 page 8. 5 Ibid. page 8. 6 ET , Paragraph 24, page Ibid, Paragraph 27, page 14. 4

5 in less interference. NPSTC believes TPC should be incorporated in all equipment operating on vacant TV channels under this order and the rules originating therein. 8. The Commission considered the use of a control channel or beacon as a method for granting access to unused TV channels. The use of a beacon signal as a means to control unlicensed devices seems to be a simple and effective technique to deploy. NPSTC feels that global positioning system (GPS technology can compliment the control channel. GPS augmentation can be used to disable a device that travels beyond some designated operating range. The GPS could act as a fail safe means to shut down devices that have become errant. IV. THE RULES FOR UNLICENSED DEVICES USING VACANT TV CHANNELS MUST INCORPORATE SECURITY TO PREVENT HARMFUL INTERFERENCE 9. NPSTC applauds the Commission for taking up the issue of security for unlicensed devices on vacant TV channels. In addition NPSTC agrees with the Commission s proposal to not allow any party but a professional installer from making transmit channel or output power adjustments. NPSTC also concurs with the Commission requiring manufactures to take steps to ensure that only the software approved with a device can be loaded into a device, and prohibit a user from operating a device outside of approved parameters. NPSTC agrees with the use of proposed anti-tamper measures to prevent a device from operating. Lastly, NPSTC agrees that manufactures should be required to detail a device s security features in the application for equipment authorization. 5

6 V. THE COMMISSION SHOULD PROMOTE VOLUNTARY STANDARDS TO FACILITATE INTEROPERABILTY FOR PUBLIC SAFETY 10. One of the Commission sought comment was if there is a need for voluntary standards to facilitate sharing between unlicensed users in the TV bands 8. NPSTC feels that voluntary standards will be most beneficial to public safety. NPSTC believes standards based solutions will spur the public safety market place to develop technologies that will provide greater interoperability and competitive prices on products. Competition will also provide cost effective solutions over proprietary devices for capital starved public safety agencies. 11. NPSTC believes a partnership between industry and standards bodies is the best way to ensure innovation. The Commission should be involved as an advisor to facilitate ease of navigating through bureaucratic obstacles to getting products to the market place. The Commission can also play a beneficial role in guaranteeing that products will not be put into the field that are capable of producing harmful interference. VI. CONCLUSION 12. NPSTC commends the Commission for taking bold steps in advancing new technologies that promise to provide public safety with greater operational capabilities, facilitate interoperability in fighting crime, and protecting homeland security. The increased coverage afforded by the lower frequencies used by TV channels over typical wireless network devices in the microwave bands is far superior. Foliage penetration performance of lower frequencies will be beneficial to search and rescue (SAR teams. However, we must temper our exuberance since at the same time we feel the issue of interference protection must be ensured to provide protection to incumbent public safety service 6

7 sharing some of the same bands. We believe the measure of success by which this proceeding will be judged hinges upon the degree to which the rights of licensees are protected from harmful interference. NPSTC respectfully urges the Commission to prudently approach the deployment of unlicensed devices in vacant TV channels. Respectfully Submitted, NPSTC [INSERT WHO, WHAT, etc.] July 22, Ibid Paragraph 47, page 22. 7

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Innovation in the Broadcast Television Bands: Allocations, Channel Sharing and Improvements to VHF ET Docket No. 10-235

More information

PUBLIC NOTICE Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th St., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20554

PUBLIC NOTICE Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th St., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20554 PUBLIC NOTICE Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th St., S.W. Washington, D.C. 20554 News Media Information 202 / 418-0500 Internet: http://www.fcc.gov TTY: 1-888-835-5322 DA 10-39 Released: January

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: August 20, 2012 Released: August 20, 2012

Before the Federal Communications Commission WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: August 20, 2012 Released: August 20, 2012 Before the Federal Communications Commission WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of STATE OF MARYLAND Request for Waiver of 47 CFR 90.531(b(7 to permit operation of Air-to-Ground radio equipment on 700

More information

FCC Rules from the Code of Federal Regulations, June 15, 2015, Edition

FCC Rules from the Code of Federal Regulations, June 15, 2015, Edition FCC Rules from the Code of Federal Regulations, June 15, 2015, Edition Part 90.242,.405,.407 &.425 - Private Land Mobile Radio Services 90.242 Travelers' information stations. (a) The frequencies 530 through

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Amendment of Part 15 of the Commission s Rules Regarding Unlicensed Personal Communications Services in the 1920-1930

More information

BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554

BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 BEFORE THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of ) ) Commission Seeks ) Public Comment on ) ET Docket No. 02-135 Spectrum Policy Task Force ) Report ) ) COMMENTS OF

More information

Understanding TV White Spaces

Understanding TV White Spaces Understanding TV White Spaces On December 6, 2010, the Federal Communications Commission finalized the rules and regulations that will allow the unused spectrum in the TV bands to be available for unlicensed

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: June 9, 2014 Released: June 10, 2014

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: June 9, 2014 Released: June 10, 2014 Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Amendment of the Commission s Part 90 Rules in the 904-909.75 and 919.75-928 MHz Bands WT Docket No. 06-49 (Terminated

More information

TESTIMONY OF DENNIS A ROBERSON VICE PROVOST FOR RESEARCH ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OE TECHNOLOGY. and

TESTIMONY OF DENNIS A ROBERSON VICE PROVOST FOR RESEARCH ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OE TECHNOLOGY. and TESTIMONY OF DENNIS A ROBERSON VICE PROVOST FOR RESEARCH ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OE TECHNOLOGY and PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER ROBERSON AND ASSOCIATES, LLC Introduction Good morning Chairman Walden,

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: September 17, 2015 Released: September 17, 2015

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: September 17, 2015 Released: September 17, 2015 Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of STATE OF MICHIGAN Request for Waiver of Section 90.179(a of the Commission s Rules ORDER Adopted: September 17, 2015

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 MOTION TO ACCEPT LATE-FILED COMMENTS

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 MOTION TO ACCEPT LATE-FILED COMMENTS Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of ) ) Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed ) ET Docket No. 02-380 Below 900 MHz and in the 3 GHz Band ) ) To: The Commission

More information

Overview of FCC s New Rules for TV White Space Devices and database updates

Overview of FCC s New Rules for TV White Space Devices and database updates ITU-R SG 1/WP 1B WORKSHOP: SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT ISSUES ON THE USE OF WHITE SPACES BY COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEMS (Geneva, 20 January 2014) Overview of FCC s New Rules for TV White Space Devices and database

More information

SECTION B-2 PUBLIC SAFETY SPECTRUM NEEDS

SECTION B-2 PUBLIC SAFETY SPECTRUM NEEDS SECTION B-2 PUBLIC SAFETY SPECTRUM NEEDS STATE AND LOCAL PUBLIC SAFETY SPECTRUM NEEDS INTRODUCTION When the President initiated the Spectrum Policy Reform Initiative in June 2003, he requested the Secretary

More information

DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology. Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch

DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology. Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch Agenda Radio Frequency Overview Frequency Selection Signals Methods Modulation Methods

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: October 2, 2015 Released: October 2, 2015

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER. Adopted: October 2, 2015 Released: October 2, 2015 Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of DENVER, CITY AND COUNTY OF Request for Waiver of Inter-Category Sharing Freeze in the 800 MHz Frequency Band ORDER File

More information

Submission on TV White Space Licensing Rules. September 2014

Submission on TV White Space Licensing Rules. September 2014 Submission on TV White Space Licensing Rules September 2014 1. Summary We thank the Ministry for the opportunity to comment on the draft TV White Space (TVWS) licensing rules. We make the following comments:

More information

700 MHz TV Clearing, its Impact on TV Viewership, and Options for Accelerating Public Safety Access. Motorola, Inc.

700 MHz TV Clearing, its Impact on TV Viewership, and Options for Accelerating Public Safety Access. Motorola, Inc. 700 MHz TV Clearing, its Impact on TV Viewership, and Options for Accelerating Public Safety Access by Motorola, Inc. February 2, 2004 1 700 MHz TV Clearing, its Impact on TV Viewership, and Options for

More information

TV White Space and Super WiFi

TV White Space and Super WiFi TUCAC Paper No. 4/2014 TV White Space and Super WiFi Telecommunications Users and Consumers Advisory Committee 4 December 2014 1 TV White Space (TVWS) In traditional radio planning, coverage areas of cochannel

More information

Spectrum Use and the Transition to Digital TV

Spectrum Use and the Transition to Digital TV Order Code RS22218 Updated August 1, 2007 Spectrum Use and the Transition to Digital TV Summary Linda K. Moore Analyst in Telecommunications Policy Resources, Science, and Industry The United States, like

More information

Re: TV White Spaces Proceeding, ET Docket Nos ,

Re: TV White Spaces Proceeding, ET Docket Nos , July 11, 2007 Via Hand Delivery Chairman Kevin J. Martin Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th Street, SW Room 8-B201 Washington, DC 20554 Re: TV White Spaces Proceeding, ET Docket Nos. 04-186, 02-380

More information

SPECTRUM SHARING OUTLINE FOR CSMAC

SPECTRUM SHARING OUTLINE FOR CSMAC SPECTRUM SHARING OUTLINE FOR CSMAC Disclaimer: This document is a preliminary and for discussion purposes only. None of the material here is a final recommendation or conclusion from the sub-committee

More information

Mission Critical Voice Communications Requirements for Public Safety National Public Safety Telecommunications Council Broadband Working Group

Mission Critical Voice Communications Requirements for Public Safety National Public Safety Telecommunications Council Broadband Working Group Mission Critical Voice Communications Requirements for Public Safety National Public Safety Telecommunications Council Broadband Working Group Executive Summary The term mission critical voice has been

More information

TECHNICAL INFORMATION FOR FREQUENCY PLANNING IN-BUILDING COAXIAL CABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (IBCCDS)

TECHNICAL INFORMATION FOR FREQUENCY PLANNING IN-BUILDING COAXIAL CABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (IBCCDS) HKTA 1105 ISSUE 5 TECHNICAL INFORMATION FOR FREQUENCY PLANNING OF IN-BUILDING COAXIAL CABLE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (IBCCDS) TELECOMMUNICATIONS AUTHORITY HONG KONG FOREWORD 1. This document intends to provide

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band Development of Operational,

More information

BAY OF PLENTY COUNCILS BROADBAND BUSINESS CASE STUDY SPECTRUM AUCTION REVIEW. April 2007

BAY OF PLENTY COUNCILS BROADBAND BUSINESS CASE STUDY SPECTRUM AUCTION REVIEW. April 2007 BAY OF PLENTY COUNCILS BROADBAND BUSINESS CASE STUDY SPECTRUM AUCTION REVIEW April 2007 GDI Ground Floor, 201 Wickham Terrace PO Box 782 Spring Hill, Qld 4004. Telephone: +61(7) 3832 1222 Facsimile: +61(7)

More information

Radiocommunications (Digital Radio Channels Queensland) Plan 2007

Radiocommunications (Digital Radio Channels Queensland) Plan 2007 Radiocommunications (Digital Radio Channels as amended made under subsection 44A (1) of the Radiocommunications Act 1992 This compilation was prepared on 29 June 2015 taking into account amendments up

More information

FY 2006 Annual Performance Plan National Telecommunications and Information Administration

FY 2006 Annual Performance Plan National Telecommunications and Information Administration Exhibit 3A FY 2006 Annual Performance Plan National Telecommunications and Information Administration The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) serves as the President's principal

More information

Ministry of Technology, Communication and Innovation

Ministry of Technology, Communication and Innovation Ministry of Technology, Communication and Innovation Expression of Interest for a Market Sounding Exercise For the deployment of White Space Technology in Mauritius Introduction In line with the vision

More information

Cognitive Radio Use Cases and Spectrum Policy Issues for Public Safety and State and Local Government

Cognitive Radio Use Cases and Spectrum Policy Issues for Public Safety and State and Local Government Cognitive Radio Use Cases and Spectrum Policy Issues for Public Safety and State and Local Government Nancy Jesuale NetCity Inc. 1844 SW Troy St. Portland, Oregon 97219 011.503.936.2202 njesuale@netcityengineering.com

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.1 What is the purpose of this chapter? 2.2 What is the scope of this chapter?

TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.1 What is the purpose of this chapter? 2.2 What is the scope of this chapter? Overview, Authorities, and Responsibilities Planning for Radio Systems Getting Radio Frequency Authorizations (RFAs) and Using Them General Radio System Use and Requirements Buying Radio Equipment and

More information

Federal Communications Commission FCC Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Federal Communications Commission FCC Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Revisions to Broadcast Auxiliary Service Rules in Part 74 and Conforming Technical Rules for Broadcast Auxiliary Service,

More information

TV White Space: Is the Picture Becoming Clearer? Mark Messer Technical Solutions Manager

TV White Space: Is the Picture Becoming Clearer? Mark Messer Technical Solutions Manager TV White Space: Is the Picture Becoming Clearer? Mark Messer Technical Solutions Manager What is TV White Space? Simply stated, TV White Spaces (TVWS) are vacant VHF and UHF frequencies made available

More information

Western Washington Amateur Relay Association

Western Washington Amateur Relay Association WWARA BAND PLANS NOTE: This document has exactly the same content as the Western Washington Amateur Relay Association Coordination Policies (Adopted June 3, 2004) but is easier to read. It was written

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554 Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554 In the Matter of ) ) Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast ) ET Docket No. 04-186 Bands ) ) Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices

More information

LTE-Advanced in White Space A Complementary Technology

LTE-Advanced in White Space A Complementary Technology White Paper December 2011 LTE-Advanced in White Space A Complementary Technology By: Purnima Surampudi, Lead Engineer and Sony Mohanty, Engineer Overview Long Term Evolution (LTE), the leading candidate

More information

Joint response to Ofcom s consultation on cognitive access to the interleaved spectrum

Joint response to Ofcom s consultation on cognitive access to the interleaved spectrum Joint response to Ofcom s consultation on cognitive access to the interleaved spectrum 1st May 2009 Introduction This response presents the shared views of Dell, Google, Microsoft and Philips. We welcome

More information

Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) for Economical Rural Broadband Internet

Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) for Economical Rural Broadband Internet Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) for Economical Rural Broadband Internet Version 1.3 August 2009 Prepared by: Shared Spectrum Company 1595 Spring Hill Road, Suite 110 Vienna, VA 22182-2228 www.sharedspectrum.com

More information

Information Paper. FDMA and TDMA Narrowband Digital Systems

Information Paper. FDMA and TDMA Narrowband Digital Systems Information Paper FDMA and TDMA Narrowband Digital Systems Disclaimer Icom Inc. intends the information presented here to be for clarification and/or information purposes only, and care has been taken

More information

Radio Frequency (RF) Interference from Energy-Efficient Lighting Final Report June 30, 2015

Radio Frequency (RF) Interference from Energy-Efficient Lighting Final Report June 30, 2015 FINAL REPORT June 30, 2015 Radio Frequency (RF) Interference from Energy-Efficient Lighting Final Report June 30, 2015 Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 required improvements

More information

TCB Workshop. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices (U-NII)/Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)

TCB Workshop. Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices (U-NII)/Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) 1 TCB Workshop Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices (U-NII)/Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Andrew Leimer Office of Engineering and Technology/Equipment Authorization Branch FCC Laboratory

More information

An overview of the IEEE 802.22 Standard

An overview of the IEEE 802.22 Standard An overview of the IEEE 802.22 Standard P.Rastegari M.S student of the communication engineering The Electrical & Computer Department of Isfahan University of Technology, IUT E-Mail : P.Rastegari@ec.iut.ac.ir

More information

FSCJ Spectrum Information Memorandum Page 7 of 11 Attachment 1 to FSCJ ITN #2014-33 EDUCATIONAL BROADBAND SERVICE SPECTRUM INFORMATION MEMORANDUM: JACKSONVILLE, FL AND ENVIRONS April 30, 2014 Robert Finch

More information

April 24, 2015 BY ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION

April 24, 2015 BY ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION April 24, 2015 BY ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION Docket Operations, M-30 U.S. Department of Transportation 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE Room W12-140 West Building Ground Floor Washington, D.C. 20590-0001 RE: Federal

More information

PSWN. Public Safety Radio Frequency Spectrum: Highlighting Current and Future Needs. January 2000. Public Safety Wireless Network.

PSWN. Public Safety Radio Frequency Spectrum: Highlighting Current and Future Needs. January 2000. Public Safety Wireless Network. PSWN Public Safety Wireless Network Public Safety Radio Frequency Spectrum: Highlighting Current and Future Needs Final INTRODUCTION To protect life and property, public safety agencies must be able to

More information

A NPSTC Public Safety Communications Report. T-Band Report. March 15, 2013

A NPSTC Public Safety Communications Report. T-Band Report. March 15, 2013 A NPSTC Public Safety Communications Report The National Public Safety Telecommunications Council is a federation of organizations whose mission is to improve public safety communications and interoperability

More information

Wireless Public Address Systems (WPAS) Licensing. Information Briefing Westbury Hotel, Dublin 26 th July 2006

Wireless Public Address Systems (WPAS) Licensing. Information Briefing Westbury Hotel, Dublin 26 th July 2006 Wireless Public Address Systems (WPAS) Licensing Information Briefing Westbury Hotel, Dublin 26 th July 2006 27/07/2006 2 Agenda WPAS: Wireless Public Address System 1. Background to WPAS Licensing Scheme

More information

Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago TATT 2/3/31/1

Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago TATT 2/3/31/1 Spectrum Plan for the Accommodation of Radio and Television Broadcast Auxiliary Services Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago TATT 2/3/31/1 Maintenance History Date Change Details Version

More information

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT

EXPLANATORY STATEMENT Purpose EXPLANATORY STATEMENT Issued by the Australian Communications and Media Authority Radiocommunications (Citizen Band Radio Stations) Class Licence Variation 2011 (No. 1) Radiocommunications Act

More information

CRS Report for Congress

CRS Report for Congress Order Code RS20993 Updated February 24, 2006 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Wireless Technology and Spectrum Demand: Advanced Wireless Services Summary Linda K. Moore Analyst in Telecommunications

More information

MIDDLE CLASS TAX RELIEF AND JOB CREATION ACT OF 2012

MIDDLE CLASS TAX RELIEF AND JOB CREATION ACT OF 2012 MIDDLE CLASS TAX RELIEF AND JOB CREATION ACT OF 2012 VerDate Nov 24 2008 07:10 Mar 19, 2012 Jkt 019139 PO 00096 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL096.112 PUBL096 126 STAT. 222 PUBLIC LAW 112 96

More information

WikiLeaks Document Release

WikiLeaks Document Release WikiLeaks Document Release February 2, 2009 Congressional Research Service Report RS20993 Wireless Technology and Spectrum Demand: Advanced Wireless Services Linda K. Moore, Resources, Science, and Industry

More information

FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California

FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California MASTER PLAN FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California PROPERTY OWNER: Coast Community College District 1370 Adams Avenue Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Attn: Richard

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) ) NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULE MAKING

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) ) NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULE MAKING Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices Below 900 MHz and in the 3

More information

Small Entity Compliance Guide

Small Entity Compliance Guide Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 April 18, 2013 DA 13-791 Small Entity Compliance Guide Operation of Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices in the 1920-1930 MHz Band

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) )

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C ) ) ) ) ) ) Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Protecting the Privacy of Customers of Broadband and Other Telecommunications Services WC Docket No. 16-106 FCC 16-39

More information

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source.

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) consist of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together at the speed of light and sometimes is referred as electromagnetic field (EMF) They are basically two forms

More information

Standards Development for Wireless Communications for Urban Search and Rescue Robots*

Standards Development for Wireless Communications for Urban Search and Rescue Robots* Standards Development for Wireless Communications for Urban Search and Rescue Robots* Kate A. Remley 1, Galen Koepke, Elena Messina, Adam Jacoff National Institute of Standards and Techlogy 1. Corresponding

More information

MHz Scanner Users By Bill Kelsey, W6QC

MHz Scanner Users By Bill Kelsey, W6QC 470-471 MHz Scanner Users By Bill Kelsey, W6QC www.scrrba.org Do you utilize a scanner to listen to frequencies or channels in the 470-471 Megahertz (MHz) band? Do you now hear amateur radio conversations

More information

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network

communication over wireless link handling mobile user who changes point of attachment to network Wireless Networks Background: # wireless (mobile) phone subscribers now exceeds # wired phone subscribers! computer nets: laptops, palmtops, PDAs, Internet-enabled phone promise anytime untethered Internet

More information

Licensed 700 MHz Spectrum for UAS and Critical Infrastructure. Access Spectrum, LLC Q3 2015

Licensed 700 MHz Spectrum for UAS and Critical Infrastructure. Access Spectrum, LLC Q3 2015 Licensed 700 MHz Spectrum for UAS and Critical Infrastructure Access Spectrum, LLC Q3 2015 Overview Business opportunities for licensed spectrum Commercial Unmanned Vehicle Systems Command (Land, Sea,

More information

Introduction t o to Wireless Wireless Communication

Introduction t o to Wireless Wireless Communication Introduction to Wireless Communication History of wireless communication Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in analog signal Sent

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554 Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, DC 20554 In the Matter of ) ) MULTILINE TELEPHONE SYSTEMS ) DA 12-798, CC No. Docket 94-102, WC Docket AND NEXT GENERATION 9-1-1 ) No. 05-196, PS

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) Reply Comments of ACUTA

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) Reply Comments of ACUTA Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Petitions Regarding the Use of Signal Boosters and Other Signal Amplification Techniques Used with Wireless Services

More information

July 22, 2015 VIA ELECTRONIC FILING. Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th Street, SW Washington, DC 20554

July 22, 2015 VIA ELECTRONIC FILING. Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th Street, SW Washington, DC 20554 July 22, 2015 VIA ELECTRONIC FILING Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary Federal Communications Commission 445 12 th Street, SW Washington, DC 20554 Re: Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum

More information

ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks.

ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local exchange networks. Glossary of Telecommunications Terms (Source: Federal Communications Commission) ACCESS CHARGE A fee charged subscribers or other telephone companies by a local exchange carrier for the use of its local

More information

Coopers Gap CCC Meeting. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Coopers Gap CCC Meeting. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Coopers Gap CCC Meeting Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Overview What is electromagnetic interference (EMI)? How can wind turbines cause EMI? What services can be affected by EMI from wind turbines?

More information

Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago. Draft Consultative Document

Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago. Draft Consultative Document Draft Consultative Document TATT 2/3/50 Maintenance History Date Change Details Version 28 th April, 2014 First draft for the first round of public consultation. 0.1 i Table of Contents MAINTENANCE HISTORY...

More information

FCC ACTS TO PRESERVE INTERNET FREEDOM AND OPENNESS Action Helps Ensure Robust Internet for Consumers, Innovation, Investment, Economic Prosperity

FCC ACTS TO PRESERVE INTERNET FREEDOM AND OPENNESS Action Helps Ensure Robust Internet for Consumers, Innovation, Investment, Economic Prosperity FCC ACTS TO PRESERVE INTERNET FREEDOM AND OPENNESS Action Helps Ensure Robust Internet for Consumers, Innovation, Investment, Economic Prosperity Washington, D.C. The Federal Communications Commission

More information

A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE

A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE AVOIDING INTERFERENCE BETWEEN PUBLIC SAFETY WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AND COMMERCIAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS AT 800 MHZ A BEST PRACTICES GUIDE Note: This Guide was compiled by a working group

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF AT&T CORP.

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF AT&T CORP. Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of Additional Spectrum for Unlicensed Devices Below 900 MHz and in the 3 GHz Band ET Docket No. 02-380 COMMENTS OF AT&T

More information

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554

Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of ) ) Model City for Demonstrating and ) Evaluating Advanced Sharing ) ET Docket No. 14-99 Technologies ) ) COMMENTS OF

More information

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) COMMENTS OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of In the Matter of Wireless E911 Location Accuracy Requirements E911 Requirements for IP-Enabled Service Providers PS

More information

The main purpose of the study was to answer the three following questions:

The main purpose of the study was to answer the three following questions: MEETING DATE: March 19, 2003 SUBJECT: Cellular Phones In The Subway RECOMMENDATION It is recommended that: 1. the Commission authorize staff to issue a Request for Expression of Interest (REOI) to determine

More information

United States Government Accountability Office February 2012 GAO-12-343

United States Government Accountability Office February 2012 GAO-12-343 GAO United States Government Accountability Office Report to Congressional Requesters February 2012 EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS Various Challenges Likely to Slow Implementation of a Public Safety Broadband

More information

CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 9 AIR SPACE AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SERIES 'D' PART VI

CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 9 AIR SPACE AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SERIES 'D' PART VI GOVERNMENT OF INDIA OFFICE OF DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION TECHNICAL CENTRE, OPP SAFDARJANG AIRPORT, NEW DELHI CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 9 AIR SPACE AND AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SERIES 'D'

More information

Broadband What is it?

Broadband What is it? What is it? FCC Definition 200 kbps is defined as Internet Access 200 kbps in at least one direction is defined as Hi Speed Access (1) 200 kbps in both directions is defined as Advanced Services (1) A

More information

COMMENTS OF THE SOCIETY OF BROADCAST ENGINEERS, INCORPORATED

COMMENTS OF THE SOCIETY OF BROADCAST ENGINEERS, INCORPORATED Before the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Washington, D.C. 20554 In the Matter of ) ) Amendment of Parts 1, 2, 15, 25, 27, 74, 78, 80, 87, ) ET Docket No. 12-338 90, 97 and 101 of the Commission s Rules

More information

WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS

WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS WIRELESS BROADBAND SOLUTIONS FOR CABLE OPERATORS ┬╗Wireless Broadband Solutions for Cable Operators Extending broadband coverage to reach new commercial and residential customers can pose major challenges.

More information

ENG Fixed & Mobile WiMAX: Planning, Design & Deployment

ENG Fixed & Mobile WiMAX: Planning, Design & Deployment ENG-507 - Fixed & Mobile WiMAX: Planning, Design & Deployment Description A 5-day Training Program to provide participants with a comprehensive wealth of knowledge on the subject of fixed and mobile WiMAX

More information

Wireless Facility Siting: Model Chapter Implementing Section 6409(a) and. Wireless Facility Siting: Section 6409(a) Checklist

Wireless Facility Siting: Model Chapter Implementing Section 6409(a) and. Wireless Facility Siting: Section 6409(a) Checklist Wireless Facility Siting: Model Chapter Implementing Section 6409(a) and Wireless Facility Siting: Section 6409(a) Checklist Section 6409(a) of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012

More information

H3G response to Ofcom Consultation Digital Dividend: clearing of the 800MHz band (published by Ofcom, 2 February 2009)

H3G response to Ofcom Consultation Digital Dividend: clearing of the 800MHz band (published by Ofcom, 2 February 2009) H3G response to Ofcom Consultation Digital Dividend: clearing of the 800MHz band (published by Ofcom, 2 February 2009) Summary of Key Points H3G agrees with Ofcom s proposal to harmonise the 800MHz band

More information

CRS Report for Congress

CRS Report for Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RS20993 Updated June 8, 2005 Wireless Technology and Spectrum Demand: Third Generation (3G) and Beyond Summary Linda K. Moore Analyst in

More information

RF Wireless Spectrum Update

RF Wireless Spectrum Update RF Wireless Spectrum Update Spectrum Repacking Here We Go Again: The FCC is reallocating 600 MHz Frequencies for Wireless Mics 30-45 MHz (8-m HF) 174-250 MHz (VHF) 450-960 MHz (UHF) 2400-2485 MHz (ISM)

More information

Site Survey Report MAH

Site Survey Report MAH Site Survey Report MAH Index 1. Introduction...3 1.1 Contact Information... 3 1.2 Scope of Survey and Spectrum... 3 1.3 Validity... 3 2. Report...4 2.1 Coverage... 4 2.1.1 Signal Strength vs. Signal to

More information

Television White Space devices certification and licensing rules

Television White Space devices certification and licensing rules November 2014 Television White Space devices certification and licensing rules ISSN 1175-6748 (PDF) Purpose This document describes an interim licencing arrangement for the use of white space devices in

More information

CONSULTATION PAPER ISSUED BY THE INFO-COMMUNICATIONS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE

CONSULTATION PAPER ISSUED BY THE INFO-COMMUNICATIONS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE CONSULTATION PAPER ISSUED BY THE INFO-COMMUNICATIONS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE PROPOSED REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR TV WHITE SPACE OPERATIONS IN THE VHF/UHF BANDS 17 June 2013 PART I: PART II: INTRODUCTION

More information

Office of the Regulator

Office of the Regulator Government of Samoa Office of the Regulator POLICY GUIDELINES ASSIGNMENT OF TV FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENTS IN SAMOA Prepared by: J. Morgan, Regulator Office of the Regulator 21 June 2008 Table of Contents 1

More information

Global Spectrum Management

Global Spectrum Management Global Spectrum Management Engineering Solutions Software Solutions Data Solutions Interactive Solutions Government Solutions CONTENTS Engineering Solutions 3 Proven Software Solutions 5 Custom Telecom

More information

Delta College Frequently Asked Questions About The FCC Broadcast Spectrum Incentive Auction

Delta College Frequently Asked Questions About The FCC Broadcast Spectrum Incentive Auction Delta College Frequently Asked Questions About The FCC Broadcast Spectrum Incentive Auction 1. What is spectrum? The term spectrum refers to the frequencies over which signals can be transmitted for a

More information

HAM FOR HACKERS TAKE BACK THE AIRWAVES. JonM DEFCON 16

HAM FOR HACKERS TAKE BACK THE AIRWAVES. JonM DEFCON 16 HAM FOR HACKERS TAKE BACK THE AIRWAVES JonM DEFCON 16 JonM Licensed Amateur Extra the highest class of license in the US Operating since 2000 Radio is just one of my hobbies software security consulting

More information

900 MHz Private Enterprise Broadband Initiative (PEBB)

900 MHz Private Enterprise Broadband Initiative (PEBB) 900 MHz Private Enterprise Broadband Initiative (PEBB) 1 MARK CROSBY, PRESIDENT ENTERPRISE WIRELESS ALLIANCE ELIZABETH SACHS, ESQ., REGULATORY COUNSEL ENTERPRISE WIRELESS ALLIANCE MORGAN O BRIEN, VICE

More information

: The New Standard In Wireless Broadband

: The New Standard In Wireless Broadband : The New Standard In Wireless Broadband Cambium Networks epmp wireless broadband solutions are the first to bring field-proven reliability, GPS-sync-enabled scalability and high-quality service performance

More information

Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554

Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 Federal Communications Commission Washington, D.C. 20554 Brian W. Higgins Wilkinson Barker Knauer, LLP 2300 N Street, NW Washington, DC 20037-1128 DA No. 16-742 RE: National Railroad Passenger Corporation

More information

Report on Collective Use of Spectrum (CUS) and other spectrum sharing approaches

Report on Collective Use of Spectrum (CUS) and other spectrum sharing approaches RSPG11-392 Final RADIO SPECTRUM POLICY GROUP 2011 Report on Collective Use of Spectrum (CUS) and other spectrum sharing approaches November 2011 Executive summary Based on its work on Collective Use of

More information

Dynamic spectrum management in relation with cognitive radio technology

Dynamic spectrum management in relation with cognitive radio technology Dynamic spectrum management in relation with cognitive radio technology Y. Livran 1 ITU-D Regional Development Forum for the Arab Region: Access to spectrum, including broadcasting services trends and

More information

GSM frequency planning

GSM frequency planning GSM frequency planning Band : 890-915 and 935-960 MHz Channel spacing: 200 khz (but signal bandwidth = 400 khz) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) lower band: upper band: F l (n) = 890.2 +

More information

Spectrum Licence Wireless Cable Service

Spectrum Licence Wireless Cable Service Spectrum Licence Wireless Cable Service Licensee: Digital Mobile Television Limited Address: 4 Fort Hill Devonshire DV 02 Licence Number: 009-WCS-01 Issue Date: 30 October 2014 Expiry Date: 29 October

More information

Technician Licensing Class. Lesson 1. presented by the Arlington Radio Public Service Club Arlington County, Virginia

Technician Licensing Class. Lesson 1. presented by the Arlington Radio Public Service Club Arlington County, Virginia Technician Licensing Class Lesson 1 presented by the Arlington Radio Public Service Club Arlington County, Virginia 1 FCC Rules Sub element T1 2 Why Amateur Radio? The basis & purpose of the amateur service

More information

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz)

The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) 1 2 The range of RF spans 3 KHz (3000 Hz) to 300 GHz (300 million Hz) Frequencies of RF devices range from the low frequency AM broadcasts (80 MHz) to higher frequency mobile phones (1900 MHz) smart meters

More information

Please find attached the comments of ITI in the Broadband Opportunity Council Notice and Request for Comment.

Please find attached the comments of ITI in the Broadband Opportunity Council Notice and Request for Comment. From: To: Subject: Date: Attachments: Jesaitis, Vince BOCrfc2015 Broadband Opportunity Council Wednesday, June 10, 2015 4:11:49 PM NTIA_RUS_BBCouncil_10June2015.pdf Please find attached the comments of

More information