Why Does the US Enter World War II? Road to US Entry to 1941 Look at slides and answer questions in RED

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1 Why Does the US Enter World War II? Road to US Entry to 1941 Look at slides and answer questions in RED Photograph above is FDR addressing a join session of Congress on December 8, 1941 What is purpose of speech? Watch at home (2:53-3:15)

2 Rise of Fascist Totalitarianism in the 1930 s Italy (Mussolini), Germany (Hitler) & Japan (Tojo) Common traits of future Axis powers: * Rallies support of people with appeals to extreme nationalism * Authoritarian rule eliminates domestic opposition * Expansionist foreign policy justified by claims of racial supremacy The 1930 s US Foreign Policy is basically to condemn these dictators, but maintain neutrality & isolationism and avoid collective security actions. WHY?

3 Japan expands in Asia during the 1930 s and earlier US & Europe Appease.WHY?

4 Mussolini threatens expansion in Balkans & East Africa - League of Nations appeases WHY?

5 France, England & USSR appease WHY? Hitler Expands German Territory in Violation of Versailles Treaty Rhineland (1936); Sudetenland (1937) Austria (1938); Poland (1939)

6 FDR Attempts to Sway American Public Ex: Quarantine Speech Oct FDR was an internationalist influenced by Woodrow Wilson s foreign policy philosophy. How was the Quarantine Speech similar to Wilson 1919 national speech tour?

7 Congress Reacts Ex: Nye Committee & Neutrality Acts How does the picture and the actions of Congress illustrate the isolationism of the American public in the 1930s?

8 Differing US opinions on isolationism in late 30 s Which cartoon has an isolationist POV and which has an internationalist POV? Why?

9 WWII Officially Begins: 9/1/39 with Nazi Blitzkrieg US Remains Neutral - WHY?

10 Churchill secretly reaches out to FDR for aid during Battle of Britain in 1940 Why does Churchill communicate secretly?

11 The America First Committee Campaigns Against US Involvement in Foreign Affairs as FDR seeks an unprecedented 3 rd Term as president in 1940 Which cartoon has an isolationist POV and which has an internationalist POV? Why?

12 FDR wins 3 rd Term What did FDR tell the public about his foreign policy plans during 1940 election campaign? Why might his tone change after election?

13 In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression-- everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way--everywhere in the world. FDR s Inaugural Four Freedom s Speech January, 1941 How does speech illustrate internationalist views? The third is freedom from want--which, translated into universal terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants--everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor-- anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.

14 FDR Uses Political Maneuvering to undo Neutrality Acts when Cash & Carry ( 37) is replaced by Lend-Lease Act ( Spring 41) Why do many historians argue that the passing of the Lend Lease Act signaled the real US entry into World War II?

15 FDR signs Atlantic Charter agreement with Churchill in Summer, 1941 The Atlantic Charter was an initially secret agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill which set goals for the postwar world but was not a formal military alliance. It stated that US & UK (and any nation that chose to sign the agreement) would not seek territorial gain from any war & that war was only justified to safeguard "the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live", and the signers of the charter (initially the US & UK) agree to promote "a permanent system of general security later called the United Nations Why was this agreement a Triumph of Internationalism?

16 Tensions with Germany Grow - Sept/Oct 1941 USS Greer, USS Reuben James and other ships come under German attack while escorting Lend-Lease convoys to UK War with Germany seems imminent What is the purpose behind FDR public denunciation of Germany following these events?

17 Meanwhile US places embargo on oil and scrap metal to Japan in mid 1941 Japanese response is a surprise attack on US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (Dec. 7 th, 1941) Congress Votes to enter WWII the next day Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? Why does this event unite isolationist and internationalists?

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