US Conflict with Japan

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1 World War II

2 US Conflict with Japan SWBAT: explain events that led to conflict between Japan and the US Do Now: What is the difference between isolationism and neutrality?

3 Japan & US Conflict How did the US practice discriminatory immigration policies toward Japan? The US also implemented state & local restrictions against Japanese Americans

4 Japan & US Conflict Japan s ambitions led to an invasion of China in 1937, violating the Open Door Policy

5 Japan & US Conflict The Panay Incident, Japanese planes bombed & sank American gunboat, Panay, stationed in China - several Americans killed - Japan apologized & paid damages, but hostility grew

6 Japan & US Conflict Japan allied with Germany & Italy in AKA Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

7 Japan & US Conflict Japan annexed French Indo-China (Vietnam) in 1940

8 Japan & US Conflict Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 a day that would live in infamy - FDR

9 Timeline Cash-and-Carry - Congress prevented any loans to nations at war; sale of any goods were on a cash-and-carry basis

10 Timeline : US passed Neutrality Acts - US would withhold weapons, loans, and $ from any nation at war (what idea does this exhibit?) - US citizens traveling on ships belonging to nations at war, did so at their own risk!

11 Timeline % of population wanted to remain neutral 1939 (start of WWII)- Americans had 3 different views: 1. US should fight with allies 2. US should provide aid, NOT soldiers to allies 3. US should remain strictly neutral

12 Timeline American Government began to quietly prepare: 1. Built more planes 2. More $ to Navy 3. Began Manhattan Projectdevelopment of the atomic bomb

13 Timeline Peacetime enlistment- men had to register for 1 year of military service FDR wins 3 rd term as President

14 Timeline - FDR proposed (Congress passed 1941) the Lend-Lease Act: The President has the power to sell, transfer, lend, lease arms & equipment to any country whose defense the President deems vital to the US Britain & China; also placed an embargo (bans) & sanctions on the sale of oil, gasoline & scrap iron to Japan US became Arsenal of Democracy

15 Timeline Germany began attacking American vessels - Regardless, Americans wanted to avoid war - 12/7/41: Japan bombed Pearl Harbor - FDR declared war the following day - 3 days later Italy & Germany declared war on the United States

16 Knowledge Check What event in the nation s history caused the government to be wary of America s involvement in ocean trade & travel?

17 Four Freedoms FDR, now opposed to isolationism more than ever, explained the four freedoms of mankind, which became the justification behind US participation in WWII

18 Wrap Up In what sense was the United States involved in World War II before the Pearl Harbor attack and the Congressional declaration of war in December 1941?

19 WWII: Home Front SWBAT: Explain moral issues that grew from minorities' wartime experiences

20 Do Now What groups found themselves in completely different roles once the US entered WWII?

21 Minorities on the Home Front WOMEN - Served roles in the military at home bases, WAC- Women s Army Corps - Filled industry positions men had before going to war - Rosie the Riveter Trend in women working outside the home -Happy to work, gained confidence, created new opportunities to earn $ & independence -Had to leave jobs for returning veterans Rosie the Riveter Song

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24 Minorities on the Home Front AFRICAN AMERICANS - Great Migration met discrimination & inequality in the North Double V - Increase in membership of civil rights organizations - Employment in war industries (Exec. Order 8802) - Limited to support roles in segregated military units Tuskegee Airmen, few integrated units

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26 Minorities on the Home Front MEXICAN AMERICANS -Bracero program- Mexicans to work on US farms discriminated against & faced inequalities, but had equal rights under the law -Zoot Suit Riots- sailors & police looked for & attacked Mexican-American youths in LA -Good enough to defend the country, but not good enough to live here

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28 Minorities on the Home Front NATIVE AMERICANS - Brought closer to mainstream American life - Served as code-talkers to transmit messages: Japanese could not decipher NA s language - Employed in war industries, many chose not to return to their reservation when the war ended -Code Talkers Documentary I (9 min)

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30 Minorities on the Home Front JAPANESE AMERICANS - Faced anti-japanese sentiment - Japanese on West Coast forced to leave homes imprisoned in US military zones guarded by troops (Exec. Order 9066) - Korematsu v. US: US Supreme Court upheld forced evacuation as reasonable in wartime -Nisei Soldiers fought honorably for the US in WWII given payment for losses during internment

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33 Your Task What moral/ethical issues grew from minorities' wartime experiences? How did WWII alter lives of women on the Home Front? How do FDR s Four Freedoms contrast to the treatment of minorities during WWII? How would you explain why membership of the NAACP grew during the war years? How did the US defend its internment of Japanese Americans? Explain another example of internment of a minority group in history. Give an example in in world history, when rights of citizens have been restricted in wartime. 4 Corners: MUST be able to defend your answer. - How do you feel about FDR s decision to intern Japanese Americans during WWII? - How do you feel about the government s decision to force women from their jobs to make room for men who returned from war?

34 Why Were Japanese Americans Interned During WWII?

35 SWBAT Explain why Japanese-Americans were interned during WWII Do Now: Review your homework and timeline with your partner & discuss What were some reasons for internment offered in the newsreel? How does the newsreel portray internment? positive or negative? Who do you think the audience was for this newsreel?

36 Activity In pairs, read the documents and complete the corresponding sections of the Graphic Organizer Wrap Up: Complete the questions at the bottom of your Graphic Organizer when you are finished *Use evidence from the documents to support your responses!*

37 Japanese Internment Read the Notice to Japanese Americans & answer the questions that follow with a partner

38 HOMEWORK Read Women in the Wartime Workplace & Mother, when will you stay home again? complete all questions on a SEPARATE piece of paper

39 Saturday Evening Post, 1944 Questions: 1. What role does the child play in the advertisement? 2. What purposes are served by placing the father/husband in the military? 3. How would the wartime experience of the mother/wife contribute to her postwar life according to the ad?

40 Your Task Japanese Relocation & answer the questions that follow Read Korematsu v. United States, 1944 & complete questions 1-5

41 Mobilization for War SWBAT: Explain how the U.S. mobilized for WWII

42 Do Now Explain a current moral issue that has arisen within our military: - killing civilians in an enemy nation - use of drones - how to treat detained POWs - benefits offered to veterans of war - don t ask, don t tell (DADT) - women in direct military combat

43 Mobilization for War War Productions Board- converted peacetime industries to war good industries Ex- Typewriting Machine Guns Cars Bombers

44 Mobilization for War Office of War Mobilization & Office of Price Administration - Both regulated labor, fix wages, prices, manufacturing quotas, shipping industry, & rationing

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46 Mobilizing for War Liberty Ships Higher taxes War Bond Campaign

47 Europe During WWII

48 Europe During WWII

49 Allied vs Axis Powers Allied Powers Great Britain France Soviet Union Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan U.S.

50 Allied vs Axis Powers How did the Allies defeat the Axis Powers? - New weapon emerged which ended the war changing warfare & global politics forever

51 European Front

52 Operation Overlord American & British troops would cross the English Channel & invade France In 1943, Allied leaders open a second front in the war in Europe The operation was code-named Operation Overlord General Dwight Eisenhower was the mission commander

53 Operation Overlord Involved an elaborate hoax to fool the enemy about where troops would land On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies landed at Normandy

54 Operation Overlord Allies captured the beaches & within a month; 1 million troops landed in France

55 Battle of the Bulge Hitler launched a counterattack, creating a bulge in the American lines Americans pushed back, forcing German retreat

56 World War II in Europe,

57 V-E Day Allies surrounded Berlin, preparing for assault on Hitler s capital Hitler fell into madness, giving orders that weren t obeyed & planning attacks that weren t carried out April 1945, Hitler committed suicide Germany surrendered

58 V-E Day With the German surrender, the Allies celebrated V-E Day FDR did not live to see the celebrations. He died a few weeks earlier. New President Harry S. Truman

59 Allied & Axis Powers, Atomic Bomb SWBAT: Explain why the dropping of the atomic bomb was a controversial decision

60 Pacific Front

61 War in the Pacific War still raged in the Pacific, where the Allies were fighting their way toward Japan Battles during the island-hopping campaign were fierce, with high casualties on both sides Kamikazes crashed into American ships Japanese troops fought to the death An intense bombing campaign leveled much of Tokyo Still, Japan refused to surrender

62 War in the Pacific FDR authorized scientists to develop an atomic bomb Top secret program, codenamed the Manhattan Project The bomb tested successfully in N.M., in July 1945 Days later Allies warn Japan to surrender or face utter destruction (Up to Truman to decide if & when to use the bomb)

63 War in the Pacific Japanese refused to surrender An invasion of Japan could cost up to 1,000,000 American lives Truman s priority was to save American lives

64 Atomic Bomb Alternatives were considered before dropping the bombs The final decision was to drop the atomic bombs to end the war quickly and avoid more American casualties of war Why is the decision still discussed & debated today?

65 August 6, 1945, U.S. pilots dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima 3 days later, they dropped a second bomb on Nagasaki On August 10, Emperor Hirohito surrendered

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67 HIROSHIMA: AFTER THE BOMB Model from the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

68 Atomic Bomb Hiroshima Nagasaki Pre-bomb Population 255, ,000 Dead 66,000 39,000 Injured 69,000 25,000 Total Casualties 135,000 64,000

69 Atomic Bomb Distance From X (In Feet) Percent Mortality % % % % % % % % % ,000 0%

70 Atomic Bomb Atomic Bomb Damage Radius The world had entered the Atomic Age! Complete the DBQs, Summary, and Wrap Up Questions

71 Atomic Bomb The Allies celebrated V-J Day, marking victory in Japan US occupied Japan under leadership of Gen. Douglas MacArthur as a democracy The most costly war in history was finally over

72 Wartime Diplomacy Review of WWII Conferences & complete Interpreting Events questions with a partner

73 Wartime Diplomacy Casablanca, Roosevelt met with Churchill to discuss victory on all fronts & unconditional surrender

74 Wartime Diplomacy Tehran Conference, Roosevelt & Churchill meet with Stalin to discuss war strategy and postwar world

75 Wartime Diplomacy Yalta, Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin plan division of Germany, & trials of war criminals; Stalin promises to enter war against Japan

76 Wartime Diplomacy Potsdam, Allied leaders (Truman took Roosevelt s place) warned Japan to surrender to prevent utter destruction of Japan

77 Domestic Post-War Policies Fair Deal- Truman s program to promote employment, higher min. wage, more unemployment compensation, & housing assistance

78 Domestic Post-War Policies GI Bill of Rights- billions of dollars to pay for veteran s benefits (college education, med. treatment, unemployment ins., home & business loans) End to price controls increase in prices inflation

79 Domestic Post-War Policies Council of Economic Advisors was established Taft-Hartley Act- a set-back for organized labor/unions - workers wages couldn t keep up with inflation post-wwii strike - gave president power to stop any strike in an industry deemed important to nation s health or safety

80 Domestic Post-War Policies National Security Act est. current day Department of Defense & CIA Truman banned discrimination in the armed forces Many voters dissatisfied with Truman b/c of inflation, strikes, actions toward civil rights, & developing cold war Truman pulls off upset victory over Gov. Thomas Dewey (NY) in 1948 Presidential Election

81 What s wrong with this picture?

82 Wrap Up In what sense was the United States involved in World War II before the Pearl Harbor attack and the Congressional declaration of war in December 1941? How was the US fighting a 2 Front war? How did Truman enhance the civil rights of African-Americans? Compare the role of the President in planning the peace after WWI and WWII. There were several moral issues that grew out of the war experience. List and Explain 3:

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