Forage Quality. Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

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1 Forage Quality Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

2 Forage Quality and Pasture Nutrition Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

3 Intensive Grazing vs MiG

4 Is This High Quality Forage?

5 Is This High Quality Forage?

6 Is This High Quality Forage?

7 Is This High Quality Forage?

8 Is This High Quality Forage?

9 Is This High Quality Forage?

10 Is This High Quality Forage?

11 Is This High Quality Forage?

12 Conventional Nutrition Ration Balancing Forage(s) Grain(s) Oilseed Meal(s) ByProduct(s) Mineral(s) Vitamin(s) Animal Needs Protein Energy Lipids (fats) Minerals Vitamins

13 Pasture Nutrition Ration Balancing Pasture Animal Needs Protein Energy Lipids (fats) Minerals Vitamins

14 Pasture Nutrition Relative cost per unit of energy to ruminants Pasture 100 Alfalfa hay 152 Grass hay 162 Corn silage 195 Dehydrated forage 320 Grains 457

15 Pasture Nutrition Relative cost per unit of energy to ruminants Pasture DM 100 Alfalfa hay 1376 Grass hay 1160 Corn silage 210 Dehydrated forage 568 Grains 217 Lick 843

16 What is the key indicator of profit? There are a number of factors we can measure to evaluate our grazing/livestock operation which is the best indicator of profit?

17

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19 Forage Quality

20 Plant cell with forage quality components of the cell wall.

21 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER Are All Forages Created Equally?

22 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER CELL CONTENTS Highly Digestible Are All Forages Created Equally? Sugars Starches Some proteins Other carbohydrates NPN Fats

23 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER CELL CONTENTS Highly Digestible Are All Forages Created Equally? Sugars Starches Some proteins Other carbohydrates NPN Fats CELL WALLS or NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER (NDF) Roughage, or bulk, Intake decreases as this component increases.

24 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER CELL CONTENTS Highly Digestible Are All Forages Created Equally? Sugars Starches Some proteins Other carbohydrates NPN Fats CELL WALLS or NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER (NDF) Roughage, or bulk, Intake decreases as this component increases. CELL WALL SOLUBLES Digestible Hemicellulose

25 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER CELL CONTENTS Highly Digestible Are All Forages Created Equally? Sugars Starches Some proteins Other carbohydrates NPN Fats CELL WALLS or NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER (NDF) Roughage, or bulk, Intake decreases as this component increases. ACID DETERGENT FIBER (ADF) CELL WALL SOLUBLES Digestible Hemicellulose Slowly digestible, energy decreases as this component increases. Cellulose Slowly digestible

26 FORAGE as harvested DRY MATTER WATER CELL CONTENTS Highly Digestible Are All Forages Created Equally? Sugars Starches Some proteins Other carbohydrates NPN Fats CELL WALLS or NEUTRAL DETERGENT FIBER (NDF) Roughage, or bulk, Intake decreases as this component increases. ACID DETERGENT FIBER (ADF) Lignin Not digestible CELL WALL SOLUBLES Digestible Hemicellulose Slowly digestible, energy decreases as this component increases. Cellulose Slowly digestible

27 DMI X Forage Digestible Nutrient Content = Total Usable Nutrient Intake

28 DMI X Forage Digestible Nutrient Content = Total Usable Nutrient Intake Production Meat Milk

29 Pasture Nutrition Animal performance is related to: Intake 75% Quality (digestibility) 25%

30 Cell Wall & Quality Cell Solubles Cell Wall Cell Wall - 40% Cell Wall - 65% TDN - 73% TDN 50% Quality - HIGH Quality - LOW A B

31 Relative Feed Value RFV = DDM X DMI 1.29 DDM Digestible Dry Matter DMI Dry Matter Intake

32 Relative Feed Value RFV = DDM X DMI 1.29 DDM = 88.9 (.779 X %ADF) DMI (% of BW) = 120 / %NDF DDM Digestible Dry Matter DMI Dry Matter Intake

33

34 Stage of Growth Affects Quality

35 Vegetative grass tiller

36

37 Pasture yield Productivity - sigmoid growth curve Slow growth due to shading and decay Rapid growth due to adequate leaf area Leaf stage 4 Leaf stage 5 Leaf Slow growth due to reliance on energy reserves Leaf stage 2 Leaf stage 3 Leaf stage 1 Time

38 Pasture Nutrition INTAKE INTAKE INTAKE

39 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake

40 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake

41 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake

42 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake How much does a 1,000 lb Cow eat?

43 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake How much does a 1,000 lb Cow eat? 1.25% BW NDF or 12.5#NDF If Grass is 50% NDF - 2.5% BW or about 25 lb DM

44 Effect of Forage Availability on Relative Forage Intake How much does a 1,000 lb Cow BW about 25lb DM With limited availability 19 lb DM

45 Factors Affecting Intake BITING BEHAVIOR

46 Factors Affecting Intake BITING BEHAVIOR Dry matter intake = Biting Rate x Biting (grazing) Time x Bite Size

47 Factors Affecting Intake Biting Rate Can increase for short periods Fatigue limits increase in intake Cattle average 50 bites per minute

48 Factors Affecting Intake Biting Rate Biting (Grazing) Time Cattle graze up to 10 hr (600 min) per day Rumination (cud chewing) up to 10 hr per day Time not biting or chewing Sleeping Only 24 hours in a day

49 Factors Affecting Intake Biting Rate Biting (Grazing) Time Bite Size Cattle average 0.3 g DM per bite Measured range of 0.07 to 0.59 g per bite Related to availability

50 Factors Affecting Intake Dry matter intake = 50 bites/min x 600 min/day x 0.3 g/bite = 9.0 kg or 19.8 lb DM intake per day

51 Factors Affecting Intake If bite size is only 0.07 g/bite 50 bites/min x 600 min/day x 0.07 g/bite = 2.1 kg or 4.6 lb DM intake per day If bite size is 0.59 g/bite 50 bites/min x 600 min/day x 0.59 g/bite = 17.7 kg or 38.9 lb DM intake per day

52 Grazing and Residual Heights

53 What is Residual Height?

54 Importance of Residual Heights Residual height influences Health of stand Stand density Productivity Forage quality

55 The fewer ungrazed plants or parts of plants that remain in a pasture post grazing, the higher will be the overall quality of the pasture at the next grazing and the greater the amount of forage utilized.

56 Forage Height (inches) The more ungrazed plants or parts of plants that remain in a pasture post grazing, the lower will be the overall quality of the pasture at the next grazing and the greater the amount of forage refusal.

57 Productivity of Perennial Ryegrass and Tall Fescue With Varying Residual Heights Residuals (inches)

58 Brome Fescue Increasing residual level accelerates plant regrowth following grazing. (Jim Gerrish, FSRC)

59 Steer gains fed endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue. PRIMARY RESEARCHERS HIGH ENDOPHYTE gain LOW ENDOPHYTE (lbs/day) FORAGE FED Read (Texas) Pasture Pedersen (Alabama) Pasture Steudemann (Georgia) Pasture Hoveland (Alabama) Pasture Garner (Missouri) Pasture Schmidt (Alabama) Seed Schmidt (Alabama) Hay

60 Pasture Nutrition Examples

61 Estimated Nutrient Content of Tall Fescue at Different Maturities NEm NEg NDF % ADF % CP % Mcal/lb Mcal/lb Vegetative Late boot Mature

62 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 1200 lb beef cow, superior milking ability, first 3-4 months post-partum Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement Vegetative Late boot Mature

63 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 1200 lb beef cow, superior milking ability, first 3-4 months post-partum Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement Vegetative Late boot Mature

64 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 1200 lb beef cow, superior milking ability, first 3-4 months post-partum Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement Vegetative Late boot Mature

65 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 1200 lb beef cow, superior milking ability, first 3-4 months post-partum Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement Vegetative Late boot Mature

66 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 600 lb beef steer, 2.0 lb ADG Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement ADG lb/day Vegetative Late boot Mature

67 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 600 lb beef steer, 2.0 lb ADG Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement ADG lb/day Vegetative Late boot Mature

68 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 600 lb beef steer, 2.0 lb ADG Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement ADG lb/day Vegetative Late boot Mature

69 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities 600 lb beef steer, 2.0 lb ADG Intake % bw Intake lb DM CP lb NEm Mcal Requirement ADG lb/day Vegetative Late boot Mature <0.5

70

71 Forage Quality Requirements By Class of Livestock Relative Feed Value

72 Animal Requirements vs Forage Quality at Different Maturities Can use different stages of quality to our advantage Adjust body condition score Creep grazing Leader Follower grazing

73 Mineral Needs on Pasture Salt Most forages are low in sodium (Na) Supplementing with common white or red salt (either loose or block) is cheap, easy insurance

74 Mineral Needs on Pasture Salt Macro-minerals (Ca, P, K, Mg) Grasses are adequate source of P, not always so good for Ca & Mg Legumes are good source of Ca & Mg Mixed grass/legume pasture are complimentary and may meet most animal needs

75 Mineral Needs on Pasture Salt Macro-minerals Micro-minerals Copper Zinc Selenium

76 Mineral Needs on Pasture Keep it simple Don t supplement with things you don t need

77 Mineral Needs on Pasture Keep it simple Don t supplement with things you don t need On grass/legume pasture 1 part TM salt 1 part DiCal (22% Ca and 19% P)

78 Mineral Needs on Pasture Keep it simple Don t supplement with things you don t need On grass only pasture 1 part TM salt 1 part DiCal (22% Ca and 19% P) 1 part feed-grade limestone

79 Mineral Needs on Pasture Keep it simple Don t supplement with things you don t need On lush late-winter, early spring pasture Grass tetany (hypomagnesaemia) Caused by low Mg in pasture forage It is a seasonal problem Affects older cows during cold wet periods

80 Mineral Needs on Pasture Keep it simple Don t supplement with things you don t need On lush late-winter, early spring pasture 1 part TM salt 1 part DiCal (22% Ca and 19% P) 1 part Magnesium Oxide 1 part dried molasses or ground corn

81 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations In most situations, energy (not protein) is the most limiting nutrient A growing steer gaining 2.0 lb/day needs only 12-13% CP in the forage A lactating beef cow needs only 10-13% CP A dry beef cow needs only 2 lb CP per day; forages with 8-10% CP are usually adequate

82 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations In most situations, energy (not protein) is the most limiting nutrient Energy sources Grains (corn, milo, wheat, barley, etc) High in starch May result in acidosis 0.6% bw (and possibly as little as 0.2% bw) as corn can depress fiber digestion For a 500 lb steer or heifer, that only 1 lb!

83 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations In most situations, energy (not protein) is the most limiting nutrient Energy sources Grains (corn, milo, wheat, barley, etc) By-products (CGF, soy hulls, wheat midds, etc) Little or no starch High in energy, digestibility Do not inhibit fiber digestion like starch

84 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations In most situations, energy (not protein) is the most limiting nutrient Energy sources Grains (corn, milo, wheat, barley, etc) By-products (CGF, soy hulls, wheat midds, etc) Molasses (liquid or tub supplements) Convenient Expensive Intake may be insufficient to really do much

85 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations If protein is needed, Test forages to see what you actually need Feeding protein when it is not needed is expensive Not feeding protein when it is needed is expensive

86 Other Pasture Nutrition Considerations If protein is needed, Alfalfa hay Oil seed meals Non-protein nitrogen (urea) Must have a readily available source of energy (usually molasses) to utilize NPN

87 Conclusions The simpler, the better The more nutrition you can get from pasture, the less you have to purchase from outside Know what you re feeding Pasture nutrition doesn t just happen, manage to make livestock eat what you want them to eat

88 Meeting Nutritional Needs of Livestock from Pasture Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

89 Get the priorities right Feed Fine tuning System 80% of potential gain made by getting the system right

90

91

92

93 Meeting Nutritional Needs of Livestock from Pasture Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

94 Forage Quality Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

95 Vegetative grass tiller

96 Pasture yield Productivity - sigmoid growth curve Slow grow th due to shading and decay Rapid grow th due to adequate leaf area Leaf stage 4 Leaf stage 5 Leaf stage 6 Slow grow th due to reliance on energy reserves Leaf stage 2 Leaf stage 3 Leaf stage 1 Time

97 Cow Intake kg DM per cow Chris Glassey (Massey Univ Masters Thesis) Fig 2:Grazing Residual and Herbage Intake % Grazing residual kg DM per ha Ideal residual 400 kg cow 500 kg cow 5

98 OM Intake (lb/hd/day) Impact of Days on Paddock on Organic Matter Intake Days on Pasture

99 DM Available (lb/acre) Impact of Days on Paddock on Change in Sward Composition Days on Pasture Stem Leaf

100 DM Digestibility (%) Change in Quality of Orchardgrass Stem and Leaf Regrowth with Time Stem Leaf Days of regrowth

101

102 Brome Fescue Increasing residual level accelerates plant regrowth following grazing. (Jim Gerrish, FSRC)

103 Productivity of Perennial Ryegrass and Tall Fescue With Varying Residual Heights Residuals (inches)

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