The Great Patriotic War. THE U.S. in WORLD WAR II

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1 The Great Patriotic War THE U.S. in WORLD WAR II

2 Georgia Standards SSUSH19 The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. a. Explain A. Philip Randolph s proposed march on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt s response. b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. c. Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries. e. Describe the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb. f. Compare the geographic locations of the European Theater and the Pacific Theater and the difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons, food, and medical supplies to troops.

3 A Date That Will Live in Infamy December 7, 1941 About 8 AM on Sunday morning the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, HI in order to cripple the US Pacific Fleet The attack lasted about 2 hours and the Japanese managed to destroy 20 ships, more than 300 war planes, kill 2000 Americans and wound 1000 more Despite the heavy losses the US Pacific Fleet was NOT crippled or destroyed (most had been out on maneuvers during the attack) The very next day Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war Legend says that after ultimately failing to destroy the Pacific Fleet Japanese Naval Commander Yamamoto said, I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.

4 PEARL HARBOR: THEN & NOW

5 Mobilizing Industry From the start, FDR knew that American production would help the Allies win the war. (Lend-Lease Act) Empty factories shut down by the Depression were reopened and began to produce war time supplies (called war time conversion) Flatware manufactures began making weapons Automobile manufacturers began making tanks and planes New factories opened around the country (Bell Bomber Plant in Marietta, GA produced B-29 Superfortress bombers US Government began allocating and rationing resources to save for the war effort Rationing giving only a fixed amount per person to in order to save for other uses Rationing books were issued to the American public limiting the amount of a certain good someone could get at a certain time Metal, rubber, plastics, food, even water was rationed to support the war effort

6 European Theater of Operations (ETO) Allies set their sights on the defeat of Germany before Japan (they saw Hitler as a greater threat) FDR wanted unconditional surrender from Hitler. Fighting stretched over most of the Eastern Hemisphere from Great Britain to North Africa to Russia. The major push toward Germany began on June 6, 1944 with the Normandy Invasion Codenamed D-Day it would be a combined American, British, Canadian, and French assault to invade Europe and push toward Berlin (the German capital) US Commander in Europe: Dwight D. Eisenhower British, American, and French forces all pushed east toward German while Russian forces pushed west in a move that would defeat Italy and pin Germany in the middle of the Allied advance Major battles included: Normandy (D-Day) Stalingrad Anzio The Bulge Berlin

7 Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) Japan was the major aggressor in the Pacific The United States used a tactic known as island hopping Fighting from island to island in the Pacific gradually moving closer and closer toward Japan Fighting began in 1942 with the Battle of Guadalcanal and stretched throughout the Pacific islands and southeast Asia (this theater saw much more unconventional style warfare) The US was the dominate force opposing Japan in the Pacific but the British and Australians were also involved US Commander in Pacific: Douglas MacArthur Major battles in the PTO included: Saipan Leyte Gulf Philippines Guam Iwo Jima Okinawa

8 Turning Point in the PTO Battle of Midway Japanese planned an attack on a forward operating American naval and air base in central Pacific in June Midway Island was a staging point for American bombers to target the Japanese mainland US intercepted Japanese messages and were able to prepare for the attack American victory at Midway stopped Japanese aggression in Pacific; Japan was now fighting a defensive war

9 The Home Front: Women With the men away at war, many women stepped up to work in factories and other male-dominated jobs. Rosie the Riveter character used to promote female equality in society and the workforce during World War II For the first time in American history, women were working outside the home, making their own money, and taking on many of the traditional male roles in American society Many assumed once war was over, women would return to their domestic roles.

10 The Home Front: Women Women also took roles serving in the military. So many women volunteered for military service in fact that the military created their own femalespecific branches Army: Women s Army Corps (WACs) Navy: Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) Air Force: Women Air Force Reserve Pilots (WASPs) Marine Corps: Marine Corps Women s Reserve (MCWR) Coast Guard: Women Semper Paratus, Always Ready (SPARS) These serving women carried out many of the non-combat duties that men did including logistical operations (truck driving, flying airplanes, etc.), medical operations, experimental operations, and other duties as needed

11 The Home Front: African Americans African Americans hoped the war would create economic opportunities. A. Philip Randolph labor leader that planned a march on Washington to demand equality for black workers FDR feared protest would lead to racial unrest; so he issued an executive order that would ensure fair hiring practices in government positions for African Americans.

12 Xenophobia Sweeps the Nation Americans of German and Italian descent faced harsh discrimination and threat of deportation. Xenophobia - an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange. Due to Japan s attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans were viewed as a threat to many communities on the West Coast because they may have links to Imperial Japan. FDR issued an executive order that ultimately forced the internment of over 100,000 Japanese Americans in holding camps beginning in Seen as a dark moment in US History.

13 D-Day: The Allied Invasion of Europe Stalin (Soviet Union), FDR (United States) and Churchill (Britain) agreed that the invasion of Europe was essential to defeating Germany. They determined they needed to break through Hitler s Atlantic Wall General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned D-Day invasion of Normandy (a region of Northern France controlled by the Nazis) Attack was to be amphibious: by water and then by land. June 6, 1944 Allied invasion begins.

14 U.S. Troops attacking the Normandy beachhead

15 The Push Toward Berlin After Normandy, Germany was forced to fight a defensive war on two fronts: US and Britain to the west and Soviet Union to the east. Battle of the Bulge Hitler s last attempt to counter-attack the oncoming Allied forces Spring 1945 Soviets advance on Berlin; Mussolini captured and killed; Hitler s time was running out May 7, 1945 Germany officially surrenders after Hitler commits suicide in his bunker.

16 The Red (Soviet) Army after the capture of Berlin

17 President Truman Takes the Reigns The war had taken a huge toll on FDR. April 1945: while vacationing in Warm Springs, GA Roosevelt dies of a brain hemorrhage That same month Adolf Hitler commits suicide in Berlin Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes President May 8, 1945 War in Europe ends with Germany s surrender, called V-E Day (Victory in Europe) Japan continues to fight on

18 The US mourns Roosevelt s death

19 Iconic Image from Iwo Jima (Winter 1945) After the defeat of Germany, fighting continued in the Pacific against Japan.

20 Atomic Bomb Ends the War Manhattan Project: code name for the US program that built the atomic bomb; operated out of Los Alamos, New Mexico Robert Oppenheimer physicist who lead research in the development of the bomb (along with Albert Einstein) Later in life he some regret for his work on the bomb saying: Now I am become Death, the destroyer of Worlds. July st test on bomb; shortly after a final warning is issued to Japan for unconditional surrender

21 Atomic Bomb Ends the War Fearing that a D-Day type invasion of Japan would result in the loss of an estimated 1 million US soldiers, Truman decides to use the atomic bomb. August 1945: 1 st bomb (codenamed Little Boy ) dropped at Hiroshima, 2 nd bomb (codenamed Fat Man ) dropped days later at Nagasaki After the Hiroshima bombing Japan still refused to surrender so the US decided to drop a second on Nagasaki (this would ultimately bring Japan to the surrender table)

22 Atomic Bomb Ends the War The Hiroshima Bomb (aka Little Boy ) Dropped August 6, 1945f Carried by the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay Estimated to have killed 100,000 Japanese citizens instantly (the heat within a 2 mile radius of the drop sight instantly vaporized everything, including people Total casualties numbered 140,000 The Nagasaki Bomb (aka Fat Man) Dropped August 9, 1945 Carried by the B-29 Superfortress Bockscar Total casualties numbered 80,000

23 The Atomic Bomb Ends the War September 2, 1945 Japanese leaders meet US General Douglas MacArthur on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Harbor, Japan to sign the formal surrender Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed the formal surrender to Gen. MacArthur It is said that when Shigemitsu extended his hand to shake the hand of MacArthur, MacArthur aggressively and firmly pointed down at the surrender papers in a gesture to SIGN IT AND END THIS! V-J Day is declared and celebrated (Victory over Japan) World War II (the most devastating war in human history) was officially over!!!

24 The Holocaust Ends As early as 1942, the Allies became aware of the Holocaust. Dubbed the Final Solution the Nazis systematically murdered more than 6 million people of Jewish descent Stalin didn t care; proposed to do nothing. Some effort was made by FDR to assist Jews in Europe, but strategically their efforts were focused on defeating Hitler. After the fall of Berlin, Allied troops began liberating concentration camps American troops liberated camps across western Europe Buchenwald Dora-Mittelbau Flossenburg Dachau Mauthausen American troops were horrified by the sights and smells of the concentration camps After the war, many high profile members of the Nazi party and leaders of the camps were arrested, tried, and convicted of war crimes during the Nuremburg Trials

25 Effects of the War Truman (United States), Churchill (Great Britain) and Stalin meet to decide the fate of post-war Europe. (Yalta and Potsdam Conferences) European Imperialism declines; many former colonies in Africa and Asia gain independence United Nations is formed in 1948 to promote cooperation between nations. Sought to succeed where League of Nations had failed.

26 Effects of the War With Europe in ruins, the US and the Soviet Union remain and become economic Superpowers. Superpower - an extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations. Former allies quickly become enemies. Beginnings of the Cold War nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States that would last until the Soviet s collapse in 1991.

27 Ticket Out the Door Imagine you are either an American soldier or a civilian in the U.S. during World War II. Write a letter to a loved one back home (mom, dad, wife/husband, girlfriend/boyfriend, brother/sister, etc) explaining your experiences with AT LEAST TWO of the following (Note: this will require additional research into your chosen topics): TWO PARAGRAPHS Pearl Harbor Rationing War-Time Conversion Battle of Midway D-Day Randolph s March on Washington Liberation of Dachau Concentration Camp Battle of Okinawa Battle of Iwo Jima Dropping of the atomic bombs FDR s death Japanese Internment Camps Manhattan Project V-E Day Surrender of the Japanese V-J Day

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