Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes

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1 Keystone Biology Exam Information: Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Basic Biological Principles- Day 1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Describe and interpret relationships between structure and function at various levels of biological organization

2 The Chemical Basis for Life- Day 1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on earth. Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in organisms. Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules. Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers. Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction. Explain how factors such as ph, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function

3 Homeostasis and Transport- Day 1 Describe how the structure of the plasma membrane allows it to function as a regulatory structure and/or protective barrier for a cell. Compare the mechanisms that transport materials across the plasma membrane. (passive transport- diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion; and active transport- pumps, endocytosis, exocytosis). Describe how membrane-bound cellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) facilitate the transport of materials within a cell. Explain how organisms maintain homeostasis. (eg. Thermoregulation, water regulation, oxygen regulation)

4 Module B: Continuity and Unity of Life Cell Growth and Reproduction- Day 2 Describe the events that occur during the cell cycle: interphase, nuclear division (mitosis, meiosis), cytokinesis. Compare the processes and outcomes of mitosis and meiotic nuclear divisions. Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and /or conservation of genetic information. Explain the functional relationships between DNA, genes, alleles, and chromosomes and their role in inheritance

5 Genetics- Day 3 Describe and/or predict observed patterns of inheritance (dominance, recessive, codominance, incomplete dominance, sex-linked, polygenic and multiple alleles). Describe the processes that can alter composition or number of chromosomes (crossingover, nondisjunction, duplication, translocation, deletion, insertion and inversion). Describe how the processes of transcription and translation are similar in all organisms. Describe the role of ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Gogi apparatus and the nucleus in the production of specific types of proteins. Describe how genetic mutations alter the DNA sequence and may or may not affect phenotype (silent, nonsense, and frame-shift). Explain how genetic engineering has impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture (selective breeding, gene-splicing, cloning, genetically modified organisms, gene therapy)

6 Theory of Evolution- Day 4 (Which includes the Scientific Method Explain how natural selection can impact allele frequencies of a population. Describe the factors that can contribute to the development of new species (isolating mechanisms, genetic drift, founder effect, migration). Explain how genetic mutations may result in genotypic and phenotypic variations within a population. Interpret evidence supporting the theory of evolution (fossil, anatomical, physiological, embryological, biochemical and universal genetic code). Distinguish between the scientific terms: hypothesis, inference, law, theory, principle, fact, and observation

7 Ecology- Day 5 Describe the levels of ecological organization (organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, and biosphere). Describe characteristic biotic and abiotic components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem (food chains, food webs, energy pyramids). Describe biotic interactions in an ecosystem (competition, predation, symbiosis). Describe how matter recycles through an ecosystem (water cycle, carbon cycle, oxygen cycle and nitrogen cycle). Describe how ecosystems change in response to natural and human disturbances (climate changes, introduction of nonnative species, pollution, fires). Describe the effects of limiting factors on population dynamics and potential species extinction

8 Module A: Cell and Cell Processes Bioenergetics Day 5 Describe the fundamental roles of plastids (chloroplasts) and mitochondria in energy transformations. Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions

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