Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

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1 Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a cycle diagram that shows the events in the cell cycle, including the phases of mitosis. Write each event in a separate circle. The Cell Cycle Cell grows and makes a copy of DNA.

2 Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division (continued) Stage 1: Interphase 1. The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo is called the. 2. List three things that the cell is doing during interphase. a. _ b. _ c. _ 3. Circle the letter of the specific process during which the cell copies its DNA. a. interphase b. cytokinesis c. replication d. division Stage 2: Mitosis 4. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mitosis. a. The cell makes a copy of its DNA. b. The cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell. c. The cell s nucleus divides into two new nuclei. d. One copy of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell. Match the phases of mitosis with the events that occur in each. Event Phase 5. The centromeres split and the a. prophase chromatids separate. b. metaphase 6. The chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. c. anaphase 7. A new nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes. d. telophase 8. The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.

3 Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study 9. Label the parts of the structure in the diagram below. Stage 3: Cytokinesis 10. During cytokinesis the divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells. 11. Is the following sentence true or false? During cytokinesis in plant cells, the new cell membrane forms before the new cell wall does. Structure and Replication of DNA 12. Why does a cell make a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs? 13. Circle the letter of each molecule that makes up the sides of the DNA ladder. a. deoxyribose b. glucose c. phosphate d. oxygen

4 Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division (continued) 14. Name the nitrogen bases that pair up to make up the rungs of the DNA ladder. a. pairs with. b. pairs with. 15. Complete the flowchart to show what happens during DNA replication. DNA Replication The two sides of the DNA molecule and. Nitrogen bases floating in the nucleus pair up with the on each half of the DNA molecule. When the new bases are attached, two new are formed.

5 Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Review and Reinforce Cell Division Understanding Main Ideas Fill in the blanks in the table below. Then answer the questions that follow in the spaces provided. Phases of Mitosis Phase Prophase Event Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers Anaphase New nuclear envelope forms 5. Which stage of the cell cycle usually lasts longest? 6. During which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? 7. During which stage of the cell cycle does the cell membrane pinch the cell in two? Building Vocabulary Match each term with its definition by writing the correct letter in the blank. 8. Regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo 9. First stage of the cell cycle 10. Process in which DNA is copied 11. Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell s nucleus divides 12. Doubled rod of condensed chromatin 13. Final stage of the cell cycle a. interphase b. mitosis c. cell cycle d. cytokinesis e. replication f. chromosome

6 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Mendel s Work This section describes how Gregor Mendel identified the method by which characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, complete the outline about Mendel s work. Use the red headings for the main idea and the blue headings for the supporting ideas. I. Mendel s experiments A. crossing pea plants B. C. D. II. A. B. C. D. Introduction 1. Gregor Mendel experimented with hundreds of pea plants to understand the process of. Match the term with its definition. Term 2. heredity 3. genetics 4. traits Definition a. The scientific study of heredity b. Physical characteristics c. The passing of traits from parents to offspring Mendel s Experiments 5. In a flower, the female sex cells, or eggs, are produced by the. Pollen, which contains the male sex cells, is produced by the. 6. What are purebred organisms?

7 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Mendel s Work (continued) 7. Complete the flowchart below, which summarizes Mendel's first experiment with pea plants. Mendel's Experiment Purebred tall plants are crossed with purebred plants. F 1 offspring are all. F 1 offspring are allowed to self-pollinate. F 2 offspring are and. 8. Circle the letter of other traits in garden peas that Mendel studied. a. seed size, seed shape, seed color b. seed color, pod color, flower shape c. flower size, pod shape, seed coat color d. pod color, seed shape, flower position 9. Two forms of the trait of seed shape in pea plants are and. Dominant and Recessive Alleles 10. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about alleles. a. Recessive alleles are never present when dominant alleles are present. b. Alleles are different forms of a gene. c. Dominant alleles always show up in the organism when the allele is present. d. Recessive alleles hide dominant alleles. 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Only pea plants that have two recessive alleles for short stems will be short.

8 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Match the pea plant with its combination of alleles. Pea Plant 12. purebred short 13. purebred tall 14. hybrid tall Combination of Alleles a. Two alleles for tall stems b. One allele for tall stems and one allele for short stems c. Two alleles for short stems 15. A dominant allele is represented by a(n) letter. 16. A recessive allele is represented by a(n) letter. 17. How would a geneticist write the alleles to show that a tall pea plant has one allele for tall stems and one allele for short stems? 18. Is the following sentence true or false? Some scientists during Mendel's time thought Mendel should be called the Father of Genetics.

9 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Review and Reinforce Mendel s Work Understanding Main Ideas Study the diagram. Then answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation 1. What trait in pea plants is being studied in the cross above? 2. What are the two alleles of this trait? 3. Which allele is the dominant allele? Explain how you know. 4. Which allele is the recessive allele? Explain. 5. What alleles do the F 1 offspring have? Explain which allele was inherited from which parent. Building Vocabulary Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct definition on the line beside the term. 6. genetics 7. alleles 8. traits 9. recessive allele 10. genes 11. hybrid 12. heredity 13. dominant allele a. the passing of traits from parents to offspring b. an organism with two different alleles for a trait c. factors that control traits d. physical characteristics of organisms e. an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism f. the different forms of a gene g. the scientific study of heredity h. an allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele

10 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Probability and Heredity This section explains what probability is and how the laws of probability can be used in the study of genetics. Use Target Reading Skills After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Principles of Probability 1. A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur is called. 2. Circle the letter of each answer that equals the probability that a tossed coin will land heads up. a. 1 in 2 b. 1/2 c. 50 percent d. 20 percent 3. Is the following sentence true or false? When you toss a coin 20 times, you will always get 10 heads and 10 tails. 4. If you toss a coin five times and it lands heads up each time, can you expect the coin to land heads up on the sixth toss? Explain.

11 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Probability and Heredity (continued) Probability and Genetics 5. When Mendel crossed two hybrid plants for stem height (Tt), what results did he always get? 6. Mendel realized that the principles of probability could be used to the results of genetic crosses. 7. A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross is called a(n). 8. Write in the alleles of the parents and the possible allele combinations of the offspring in the Punnett square below.

12 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study Phenotypes and Genotypes Match the term with its definition. Term 9. phenotype 10. genotype 11. homozygous 12. heterozygous Definition a. Describes an organism with two identical alleles for a trait b. An organism s physical appearance, or visible traits c. An organism s genetic makeup, or allele combinations d. Describes an organism that has two different alleles for a trait 13. Mendel used the term to describe heterozygous pea plants. Codominance 14. Is the following sentence true or false? In codominance, the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. 15. In cattle, red hair and white hair are codominant. Cattle with both white hair and red hair are.

13 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Review and Reinforce Probability and Heredity Understanding Main Ideas Complete the two Punnett squares below, and then answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Punnett Square A: 2. Punnett Square B: B b B Bb bb b Bb bb 3. In the cross between two black guinea pigs shown in Punnett Square A, what is the probability that an offspring will be black? White? 4. Is it possible that the cross between two black guinea pigs in Punnett Square A would not produce a white guinea pig? Explain. 5. What color are the guinea pig parents in the cross shown in Punnett Square B? 6. Which guinea pig parent(s) in Punnett Square B is homozygous? Which is heterozygous? Explain how you know. 7. Calculate the probability that an offspring will be black in the cross in Punnett Square B. What is the probability that an offspring will be white? Building Vocabulary Match each term with its definition by writing the letter of the correct definition on the line beside the term. 8. heterozygous 9. Punnett square 10. genotype 11. codominance 12. probability 13. homozygous 14. phenotype a. a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross b. a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur c. an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait d. an organism s physical appearance e. an organism s genetic makeup, or allele combinations f. an organism that has two different alleles for a trait g. inheritance pattern in which the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive

14 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study The Cell and Inheritance This section describes how one set of chromosomes from each parent is passed on to the offspring. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, identify the evidence that supports the hypothesis that genes are found on chromosomes. Write the evidence in the graphic organizer below. Evidence Hypothesis Grasshoppers: 24 chromosomes in body cells, 12 in sex cells Chromosomes are important in inheritance. Chromosomes and Inheritance 1. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about what Sutton observed about chromosome number. a. Grasshopper sex cells have half the number of chromosomes as body cells. b. Grasshopper body cells have half the number of chromosomes as sex cells. c. Grasshopper body cells and sex cells have the same number of chromosomes. d. When grasshopper sex cells join, the fertilized egg has the same number of chromosomes as the body cells of the parents. 2. What is the chromosome theory of inheritance? Meiosis 3. What is meiosis?

15 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study The Cell and Inheritance (continued) 4. Complete the cycle diagram, which describes the events that occur during meiosis. Parent cell has four chromosomes arranged in pairs. Sex cells combine to produce offspring. Each offspring has chromosomes, one pair from each parent. Chromosome pairs and are distributed to sex cells. Each sex cell has chromosomes. 5. A Punnett square is a shorthand way to show the events that occur during. 6. Is the following sentence true or false? During meiosis, the two alleles for each gene stay together. 7. If the male parent cell is heterozygous for a trait, Tt, what alleles could the sperm cells possibly have? A Lineup of Genes 8. How many pairs of chromosomes do human body cells contain? 9. How are the genes lined up in a pair of chromosomes?

16 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Review and Reinforce The Cell and Inheritance Understanding Main Ideas Complete the table below by filling in the spaces with the correct stage of meiosis Beginning, Meiosis I, Meiosis II, End. Event The double-stranded chromosomes move to the center of the cell. The centromeres separate. Two cells form, each with half the number of chromosomes. Each chromosome still has two chromatids. Four sex cells form with half the number of chromosomes as the parental cells. The chromosomes are copied. Stage in Meiosis Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. 5. What is the chromosome theory of inheritance? 6. Why is it important that sex cells have half the number of chromosomes as body cells? Building Vocabulary Fill in the blank to complete the statement. 7. The process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells is called.

17 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study The DNA Connection This section tells how the DNA molecule is related to genes, chromosomes, and the inheritance of traits. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, complete the flowchart below to show protein synthesis. Put the steps of the process in separate boxes in the flowchart in the order in which they occur. Protein Synthesis DNA provides code to form messenger RNA. Messenger RNA attaches to ribosome. The Genetic Code 1. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about genes, chromosomes, and proteins. a. Genes control the production of proteins in an organism s cells. b. Proteins help determine the size, shape, and other traits of an organism. c. Chromosomes are made up mostly of proteins. d. A single gene on a chromosome contains only one pair of nitrogen bases. 2. A DNA molecule is made up of these four nitrogen bases. a. b. c. d.

18 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study The DNA Connection (continued) 3. What is the genetic code? 4. One group of three nitrogen bases codes for one. How Cells Make Proteins 5. During protein synthesis, the cell uses information from a on a chromosome to produce a specific. 6. Proteins are made on in the cytoplasm of the cell. 7. Complete this Venn diagram to show some of the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA. Tell where each nucleic acid is located and what bases it contains. DNA RNA Stays inside the nucleus Adenine Guanine

19 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study 8. List the two kinds of RNA and tell their jobs. a. _ b. _ 9. Circle the letter of the first step in protein synthesis. a. Transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosome. b. The ribosome releases the completed protein chain. c. Messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome. d. DNA unzips to direct the production of a strand of messenger RNA. 10. Circle the letter of the last step in protein synthesis. a. Transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosome. b. The protein chain grows longer as each transfer RNA molecule adds an amino acid. c. Messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome. d. DNA unzips to direct the production of a strand of messenger RNA. Mutations 11. What is a mutation? 12. How can mutations affect protein synthesis in cells?

20 Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Guided Reading and Study The DNA Connection (continued) 13. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mutations. a. Cells with mutations will always make normal proteins. b. Some mutations occur when one nitrogen base is substituted for another. c. Some mutations occur when chromosomes don t separate correctly during meiosis. d. Mutations that occur in a body cell can be passed on to an offspring. 14. Mutations can be a source of genetic. 15. Is the following sentence true or false? All mutations are harmful. 16. Mutations that are improve an organism s chances for survival and reproduction. 17. Whether a mutation is harmful or helpful depends partly on an organism s.

21 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Name Date Class Genetics: The Science of Heredity Review and Reinforce The DNA Connection Understanding Main Ideas Complete the table below by stating whether each mutation is helpful, harmful, or neutral to the organism. Mutation White lemur (in a zoo) Cancer Antibiotic-resistant bacteria White lemur (in the wild) Effect Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 5. Describe what occurs during protein synthesis. 6. What is the genetic code? Building Vocabulary Fill in the blank to complete each statement. 7. A type of RNA that carries amino acids and adds them to the growing protein is called. 8. is RNA that copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.

22 Modern Genetics Name Date Class Modern Genetics Guided Reading and Study Human Inheritance This section explains some patterns of inheritance in humans. It also describes the functions of the sex chromosomes and the relationship between genes and the environment. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, write the main idea the biggest or most important idea in the graphic organizer below. Then write three supporting details that further explain the main idea. Main Idea Human traits are controlled by single genes with two alleles, single genes with... Detail Detail Detail a. b. c. Patterns of Human Inheritance 1. The probability that two heterozygous parents for widow s peak will have a child with a straight hairline is percent.

23 Name Date Class Modern Genetics Guided Reading and Study Human Inheritance (continued) 2. A gene with three or more alleles for a single trait has. 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Even though a gene has multiple alleles, a person can carry only two of those alleles. 4. Complete the table by writing all possible combinations of alleles for each blood type. Blood Types Blood Type Combination of Alleles A B AB O 5. Why do some human traits, such as height and skin color, show a large number of phenotypes? 6. Is the following sentence true or false? Skin color is controlled by more than one gene.

24 Modern Genetics Name Date Class Modern Genetics Guided Reading and Study The Sex Chromosomes 7. Is the following sentence true or false? Genes on chromosomes determine whether a baby is a boy or a girl. 8. Females have two chromosomes. Males have one chromosome and one chromosome. 9. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the sex chromosomes. a. All eggs have one X chromosome. b. Half of a male s sperm cells have an X chromosome. c. None of a male s sperm cells have a Y chromosome. d. The egg determines the sex of the child. 10. Genes on the X and Y chromosomes are called. 11. Why are males more likely than females to have a sex-linked trait that is recessive? 12. Is the following question true or false? A carrier for colorblindness is colorblind. 13. Why is a son who receives the allele for colorblindness from his mother always colorblind? The Effect of Environment 14. The effects of genes are often altered by the. 15. List one environmental factor that can affect a person s height.

25 Name Date Class Modern Genetics Review and Reinforce Human Inheritance Understanding Main Ideas Fill in the Punnett squares for dimples, a trait controlled by a dominant allele (A), and colorblindness, a trait controlled by a recessive sex-linked allele (B). Then answer the questions that follow. (The father s alleles are written across the top of the Punnett square. The mother s alleles are written on the left side.) d A: Dimples D d 5. Does either the mother or the father in A have dimples? d What percentage of children are likely to have dimples? X C X c B: Colorblindness X c Y Is either the mother or father in B colorblind? 12. What percentage of female children are likely to be colorblind? 13. What percentage of male children are likely to be colorblind? Building Vocabulary Fill in the blank to complete each statement. 14. Three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait are called. 15. have alleles that are passed from parent to child on a sex chromosome. 16. A(n) is a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele for the same trait. 17. carry genes that determine whether a person is male or female.

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