DO WE HAVE TO PROHIBIT GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING?

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1 EU SOCRATES/ ERASMUS PROGRAM IP PROJECT: BIOETHICS IN LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES APRIL 2008, PERUGIA DO WE HAVE TO PROHIBIT GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING? Sofia Tsaknaki Madalina Ecaterina Cucu Elene-Irina Stoica Agnieszka Gawrzak Kamila Przychodzka

2 SUMMARY distribution of GM products in European countries challenge for governments, especially in the areas of safety testing, regulation, international policy and food labeling market of GMO however, appears as one of the biggest markets worldwide issue of using genetic modifications in organic farming our concerns and ethical issue

3 Genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are generally known as recombinant DNA technology.

4 Methods of modification: export of selected genes from an organism and their artificial import in other completely different organisms GM organisms constitute new forms of life for example: scientists export a gene of fish and implant it in a strawberry creating a new organism possibility to use genes of animals, plants, even people

5 How did culture of GMO begin? The mass culture and creation of genetically modified organisms began in 1996 in special scientific laboratories in the United States of America free trading of genetically modified organisms in the EU was continued up to the year then the EU established european "moratorium"

6 What biotech crops are farmers planting these days? Herbicide resistant crops beet, canola, corn, cotton, flax, rice, soybeans Insect resistant crops corn, cotton, potato, tomato Virus resistant crops papaya, potato, squash, watermelon

7 ADVANTAGES: Pest resistance Herbicide tolerance Disease resistance Cold tolerance Drought tolerance Nutrition Pharmaceuticals

8 DISADVANTAGES In the safety: -dangers for the human health -loss of biodiversity -dangers for the environment -economic concerns In intellectual rights: -benefits of companies -increase of dependence -ethical concerns

9 Organic farming farming is a form of agriculture originating in British Imperialist, German Romantic ideologies. As far as possible, organic farmers rely on : crop rotation green manure compost biological pest contol mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity Approximately 310,000 square kilometres (75 million acres) worldwide are now farmed organically

10 A key characteristic of organic farming is rejection of genetically engineered products, including plants and animals. On October 19, 1998 more than 600 delegates from over 60 countries voted unanimously to exclude the use of genetically modified organisms in food production and agriculture. From this point, it became widely recognized that GMOs are categorically excluded from organic farming

11 IN POLAND: 3% IN GREECE: 2-3% IN ROUMANIA: 4.5%

12 LEGISLATION ON GM PRODUCTS the labeling GMO is important : the obligatory labeling of all products that contain GM components, even in the cases when the detection of GMO s protein or DNA is not feasible in the final product. limit of pollution has decreased in the 0,9% labeling GMO in forages

13 The co-existence problem has been noticed by European Comission.That s why EC laid down the law according to new strategies RECOMMENDATIONS: None kind of cultivation: traditional, ecologic or using GMO shouldn t t be excluded from UE The possibility of different production systems managing is condition to assure wide choice for consumer Co-existence GM, conventional and organic crops depends of farmers ability to make a choice between these production systems, including it s labeling and keeping tidy Right acting on co-existence of GM, conventional and organic crops, by paying attention to environmental and health protection Co-existence s s issue concerns to potential economic loss and influence of mixing GM and non-gm plants

14 LEGISLATION IN OUR COUNTRIES GMO LAW IN GREECE GMO prohibition

15 LEGISLATION IN ROMANIA Since becoming UE member there is GMO prohibition

16 LEGISLATION IN POLAND Untill now GMO was prohibited New law is going to be laid down in 2009, but there is no acceptance

17 QUESTIONS

18 1.CAN WE JUSTIFY GENETIC MODIFICATIONS IN ORDER TO INCREASE YIELDS AND FIGHT WITH HUNGER ALL OVER THE WORLD? 2.WHY DO WE HAVE TO INTRODUCE GMO IN ORGANIC FARMING? 3. IS GMO GOOD FOR FUTURE GENERATION? 4.DO WE HAVE ENOUGH INFORMATION ON GMO S S SUBJECT?

19 5.WHAT WILL BE CONSEQUENCES OF APPLYING GMO? 6. IS IT GOOD FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT? 7. RIGHT TO CHOOSE? RIGHT TO INFORMATION? 8. DO WE HAVE INFLUENCE ON DECISIONS ABOUT GMO? 9. IS THIS FOOD REALLY SAFE??

20 CONCLUSIONS: decreasing trend of accepting GMO, but also deficiency of reliable sources of information solution could be discussion we e cannot omit importance of application GMO, but we cannot forget about risks reasonable boundary We need to make sure we have done everything, to prevent all adverse effects we could predict, in aim to simplify our life and life of future generations.

21 THANK YOU! MULTUMIM! DZIĘKUJEMY! Ευχαριστώ!

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