Ohio Plants & Animals

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1 Ohio Plants & Animals GOAL: To study and observe local plants and animals in various life stages and habitats. Small Group Procedures Concept: A field experience is enhanced when students are able to focus and observe. Discuss how using multiple senses improves observation skills. Practice identifying key features on organisms. Concept: Living things have adaptations that help them survive in their habitats. Concept: Plants and animals have unique life cycles that are suited to their habitats. Find and examine organisms in their various life stages within each habitat. Compare and contrast adaptations of living things within each habitat. Observe and discuss the various features of each of three habitats: field, forest and pond. Find and examine animals and evidence of animals within each habitat. Find and examine plants within each habitat. This is not an all-inclusive list of activities for this lesson. Each field trip will vary slightly based on time available, weather, grade level, background knowledge of students, areas classroom teachers would like to focus, and interest levels of the students. Vocabulary ADAPTATION specific body parts or behaviors that help a living thing survive. AMPHIBIAN based on a Greek word for double life because most members of this class spend part of their life cycle on both land and in water. All amphibians have skin that must remain moist for them to breathe. Amphibians are cold-blooded. Examples include frogs, toads, and salamanders. BIRDS one of two classes of warm-blooded vertebrates. Birds have feathers and light bones to make flying easier. Each species has a beak and feet adapted for a special niche e.g. (talons on raptors, long bills on hummingbirds, bills that strain water and large webbed feet for swimming on waterfowl, etc.). ECOSYSTEM the living or once living (biotic) community in interaction with non-living (abiotic) components of the environment FISH cold-blooded, bony fish are a class of aquatic animal with a hard skeleton and backbone, fins, gills, and a swim bladder. HABITAT the natural home or environment of an animal, plant or other organism.

2 INSECT this class of animal has the greatest number of species. Insects are invertebrates and typically have three body parts (head, thorax, and abdomen) and six legs in their adult forms. LARVA (plurae: larvae) the immature stage of many insects after they have hatched from eggs and before they have developed into an adult form. Plural is larvae. LIFE CYCLE the series of changes or stages undergone by an organism from fertilization, to birth or hatching, to reproduction of the next generation. MAMMALS class of warm-blooded animals with mammary glands so mothers can nurse their young; have some form of hair; and mostly give birth to live young. METAMORPHOSIS transformation of an immature animal into an adult, or generally, change in form of an organ or structure. Insects may display complete or incomplete metamorphosis. COMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS- is demonstrated in a butterfly: egg, larva or caterpillar, pupa or chrysalis, adult butterfly. INCOMPLETE METAMORPHOSIS- is demonstrated in a praying mantis: egg, nymph that grows and molts many times and looks like a little adult without wings, adult capable of reproduction). MICROHABITAT a specific area with unique conditions within a larger habitat (under a log). NATIVE SPECIES (as they relate to this region) usually considered to have been in Ohio prior to European settlement. NICHE the functional role of a species; how an animal secures its life needs; how it fits in the community. ORGANISM an individual form of life, such as plant, animal, bacterium, protist or fungus PUPA (plural: pupae) the stationary life stage of some insects undergoing complete metamorphosis; follows the larval stage; usually attached to a rock, twig, etc., and sometimes has a hard protective coating. During the time of pupation, the adult structures of the insect develop as the larval structures are broken down. REPTILES class of cold-blooded animals (such as lizards and snakes); have scales covering much of their bodies which protect them from drying out; eggs encased in a hard shell and laid on land.

3 Ohio Revised Science Standards K-3 Grade Band Theme: Observations of the Environment This theme focuses on helping students develop the skills for systematic discovery to understand the science of the natural world around them in greater depth by using scientific inquiry. Grade K LS Statement: Living things are different from nonliving things. Grade K LS Statement: Living things have physical traits and behaviors, which influence their survival. Grade 1 LS Statement: Living things have basic needs, which are met by obtaining materials from the physical environment. Grade 1 LS Statement: Living things survive only in environments that meet their needs. Grade 2 LS Statement: Living things cause changes on Earth. Grade 3 LS Statement: Offspring resemble their parents and each other. Grade 3 LS Statement: Individuals of the same kind differ in their traits and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing. Grade 3 LS Statement: Plants and animals have life cycles that are part of their adaptations for survival in their natural environments. 4-5 Grade Band Theme: Interconnections within Systems This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using scientific inquiry. Grade 4 LS Statement: Changes in an organism s environment are sometimes beneficial to its survival and sometimes harmful. Grade 5 LS Statement: Organisms perform a variety of roles in an ecosystem.

4 Grade-Level Disciplinary Core Ideas Next Generation Science Standards K-LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms All animals need food in order to live and grow. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow. (K-LS1-1) 1-LS1.A: Structure and Function All organisms have external parts. Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water and air. Plants also have different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) that help them survive and grow. (1-LS1-1) 1-LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive. (1-LS1-2) 1-LS1.D: Information Processing Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs. (1-LS1-1) 1-LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits Young animals are very much, but not exactly like, their parents. Plants also are very much, but not exactly, like their parents. (1-LS3-1) 1-LS3.B: Variation of Traits Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways. (1-LS3-1) 2-LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems Plants depend on water and light to grow. (2-LS2-1) Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. (2-LS2-2) 2-LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans There are many different kinds of living things in any area, and they exist in different places on land and in water. (2-LS4-1) 3-LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms Reproduction is essential to the continued existence of every kind of organism. Plants and animals have unique and diverse life cycles. (3-LS1-1) 3-LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size. (3-LS2-1) 3-LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits Many characteristics of organisms are inherited from their parents. (3-LS3-1) Other characteristics result from individuals interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment. (3-LS3-2) 3-LS3.B: Variation of Traits Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited information. (3-LS3-1) The environment also affects the traits that an organism develops. (3-LS3-2) 4-LS4.B: Natural Selection

5 Sometimes the differences in characteristics between individuals of the same species provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing. (3-LS4-2) 4-LS4.C: Adaptation For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. (3-LS4-3) 4-LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there. (3-LS4-4) 4-LS1.A: Structure and Function Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. (4-LS1-1) 4-LS1.D: Information Processing Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal s brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. (4-LS1-2) 5-LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems The food of almost any kind of animal can be traced back to plants. Organisms are related in food webs in which some animals eat plants for food and other animals eat the animals that eat plants. Some organisms, such as fungi and bacteria, break down dead organisms (both plants or plants parts and animals) and therefore operate as decomposers. Decomposition eventually restores (recycles) some materials back to the soil. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their particular needs are met. A healthy ecosystem is one in which multiple species of different types are each able to meet their needs in a relatively stable web of life. Newly introduced species can damage the balance of an ecosystem. (5-LS2-1)

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