Processing Information. Curves & Hills

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1 Mod 5 Processing Information Intersections Curves & Hills Passing

2 DRIVER REQUIREMENTS Processing Information Basic Requirements for Driving VISIBILITY... SPACE... TIME... SPACE... TRACTION TO MANEUVER SAFELY Drivers need visibility, space, and time AND Vehicles require time, space, and traction VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS

3 Good searching technique How, When, Where & What to search for

4 Field of Vision Area a Driver Can See While Looking Straight Ahead Viewing Path of Travel Central Vision Focus Vision Targeting (Reading Signs) Peripheral Vision Motion & Color Changes **90 percent of driving decisions are based on information gathered with the eyes.

5 Searching Looking for Clues from Other Drivers Actions of the Driver Distractions t ti Lost Cell Phone Passengers Impaired Vehicle Signals Turning Backing Hazard Lights Hand Signals Headlights Horn Brake Lights The brain must be programmed as to what to look for, identifying potential hazards. Position of Vehicle Speed of Vehicle

6 Managing Visual Searches 4- to 8-Second Search Area Immediate Path of Travel Direct Response Area Stopping Zone and Following Interval 20- to 30-sec. 12- to 15-sec. 4- to 8-sec. 1-2 Seconds is INADEQUATE!

7 Managing Visual Searches 12- to 15-Second Search ha Area Search for Closed or Changing Path of Travel Identify an Alternate Path of Travel or a Safe Stopping Zone Evaluate Open Zones to the Sides and Rear 20- to 30-sec. 12- to 15-sec. 4- to 8- sec.

8 Managing Visual Searches 20- to 30-Second Search Area Search far ahead to identify potential conflicts Objects in Path of Travel Limitations to Line of Sight Target Area 20- to 30-sec. 12- to 15-sec. 4- to 8- sec.

9 Processing Highway Conditions Roadway Structure Width Curbing Curves Slopes Roadway Surface Roughness Slick Wet Leaves Mud Sand Highway Conditions Atmosphere Illumination Glare Precipitation Wind/Noise Intersections Roadway Features Shoulders Affixed Objects Adjacent Buildings

10 Processing TRAFFIC CONTROL Devices Signs Regulatory Warning Guide RR Sensory Input to the Brain Interchanges Signals Stop/Go Lane Usage Flashing Roadway Markings Passing Traffic Flow Crosswalks Unmarked Intersections

11 Type Automobile SUV Camper Pick Pick-up Motor Home Motorcycle y Farm Machines Tractor-TrailerTrailer Motor Vehicles Drivers must understand the handling characteristics ti of other motor vehicles sharing the roadway. Road Handling Characteristics

12 Non-Motorized Users present special processing challenges Bicycles Animals In-Line Skates, Skateboards Pedestrians KIND AND SIZE NUMBERS AGE OF RIDER ACTIVITY RIDER ABILITY

13 Intersections Check left & right for traffic & pedestrians. Check ahead for oncoming traffic turning left. Count to 3 to allow other vehicles to clear. Crossing a two lane road takes about 6 sec.

14 Gaps in traffic If a vehicle is approaching at 30 MPH (45 FPS), you will need a gap of 270 FT to safely cross the intersection. If a vehicle is approaching at 50 MPH (75 FPS), you a e c e s app oac g at 50 ( 5 S), you will need a gap of 450 FT to safely cross the intersection

15 Understanding Lane Markings Shared Left Turn Lane Shared Left Turn Lane Drivers traveling in either direction may use this lane for making left turns. Drivers may not travel further than 150 feet in this shared lane. Driver may use the shared left turn lane to enter a street from a driveway.

16 Always turn from the lane that you are in to the lane that corresponds to that lane. Inside to inside Outside to outside What s wrong with this picture?

17 Limited Line of Sight Through Curves

18 Line of Sight Over Hill Line of Sight is Restricted Up and Down Car drifting over the center line, lane blocked Lane position 3 provides the best space cushion No escape routes

19 Curves & Hills Always slow down before the curve! Apex Begin accelerating at the APEX, which will help bring car out of the curve Must know what is behind you in case you must brake unexpectedly

20 Determining Passing Time/Space Needs Identifying a Safe and Legal Passing Zone Before you pass, you must determine: 1. if you are in a legal passing zone broken line = pass with caution solid line = no passing list other areas where passing is prohibited 2. the time you will need to pass safely 3. the space you will need to safely pass the other vehicle TRAVEL TIME = SPACE Formula Speed + ½ speed = feet per second (fps) traveled 60 mph = 90 fps

21 Determining Passing Time/Space Needs Judging Time and Space Needed to Pass Safely Distance traveled = speed + ½ speed in feet per second Time to pass = distance traveled to complete pass, divided by difference in distance traveled per second by each vehicle RED car traveling 40 mph = 60 fps (40 mph X 1.5 fps = 60 fps) BLUE car traveling 30 mph = 45 fps (30 mph X 1.5 fps = 45 fps) 60 ft - 45 ft = 15 ft. 2 sec. following distance = 120 ft. 1 car length = 15 ft. 1 sec. gap = 60 ft Total additional distance traveled = 195 ft. Time needed to pass: 195 ft. /15 ft. = 13 sec. Total distance traveled: 13 sec. X 60 fps. = 780 ft. Red car is traveling 15 fps faster than Blue car Total distance traveled: 13 sec. X 60 fps. = 780 ft. 2 Second Space 60 1 car length 1 Second Space fps X 2 = 120 ft. = 15 feet 60 fps x 1 = 60 ft

22 Passing Time/Space Needs Oncoming Vehicles Judging the Relative Speed and Distance of Oncoming Vehicles The example below is based on the approaching vehicle traveling at 40 mph. Red vehicle will need 780 feet to complete the pass Brown vehicle will travel 780 feet Allows a minimum 200 ft. space cushion To complete a pass safely you must take ALL factors into account Space Cushion 13 seconds / 780 ft. 13 seconds / 780 ft. 200 ft TOTAL distance required to pass safely is 1760 ft (30 seconds).

23 Passing Considerations Larger Vehicles Passing a 90-foot tractor trailer Would require an additional 5 seconds for the Red vehicle 90-foot truck + 15-foot car = 75 feet additional distance traveled = 5 seconds 18 seconds x 60 fps = 1080 feet needed by Red vehicle If there is an oncoming vehicle traveling 40 mph, the total clear distance needed to pass safely becomes 1360 feet (23 seconds) (space cushion) Daylight Headlight Use Enhances Safety an approaching vehicle without headlights becomes visible at about 2,200 to 2,500 feet an approaching vehicle with headlights becomes visible at distances up to 4500 feet Passing on Multi-lane Roadways safer than on two lane roadways head-on crashes are rare will not feel rushed into returning to the lane can safely pass larger vehicles that require more time and space to pass

24 Passing Procedures 2 3 Seconds Prepare to Pass: Position vehicle two to three seconds behind the vehicle to be passed. Check mirrors, blind spot and oncoming traffic. Check ahead for safe passing distance. Signal intention. Overtake the Ongoing Vehicle: Accelerate into passing lane. Accelerate quickly to a legal appropriate speed. Monitor the path ahead. Check the mirror for following vehicles. Return to Lane: Check rear-view mirror for the front of the vehicle being passed. Signal intention. Change lanes and maintain speed. Cancel turn signal.

25 5 Places Passing is NOT Permitted 1.Hills 2.Curves 3.RR crossings 4.Intersections 5.Solid yellow lines

26 Daytime Running Lights They increase the chance of others seeing you making your car more visible

27 Safe to return to your lane after a pass? When you can see the other vehicles headlights or grill in your rear view mirror.

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