Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

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1 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. All the following equations involve redox reactions except (a) CaO H 2 O Ca(OH) 2. (b) 2SO 2 O 2 2SO 3. (c) 2HgO 2Hg O 2. (d) SnCl 4 2FeCl 2 2FeCl 3 SnCl Assign the correct oxidation number to the individual atom or ion below. a. Mn in MnO 2 b. S in S 8 c. Cl in CaCl 2 d. I in IO 3 e. C in HCO 3 f. Fe in Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 g. S in Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3. In each of the following half-reactions, determine the value of x. a. S 6 xe S 2 b. 2Br x Br 2 2e c. Sn 4 2e Sn x d. Which of the above half-reactions represent reduction processes? 4. Give examples, other than those listed in Table 1 on page 631 of the text, for the following: a. a compound containing H in a 1 oxidation state b. a peroxide c. a polyatomic ion in which the oxidation number for S is 4 d. a substance in which the oxidation number for F is not 1 MODERN CHEMISTRY OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS 153

2 SECTION 1 continued 5. OILRIG is a mnemonic device often used by students to help them understand redox reactions. Oxidation is loss, reduction is gain. Explain what that phrase means loss and gain of what? 6. For each of the reactions described by the following equations, state whether or not any oxidation and reduction is occurring, and write the oxidation-reduction half-reactions for those cases in which redox does occur. a. Ca(OH) 2 (aq) 2HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) 2H 2 O(l ) b. CH 4 (g) 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) 2H 2 O(g) c. 2Al(s) 3CuCl 2 (aq) 2AlCl 3 (aq) 3Cu(s) 7. I is converted into I 2 by the addition of an aqueous solution of KMnO4 to an aqueous solution of KI. a. What is the oxidation number assigned to I 2? b. The conversion of I to I 2 is a(n) reaction. c. How many electrons are lost when 1 mol of I 2 is formed from I? 154 OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS MODERN CHEMISTRY

3 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 2 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. All of the following should be done in the process of balancing redox equations except (a) adjusting coefficients to balance atoms. (b) adjusting coefficients in electron equations to balance numbers of electrons lost and gained. (c) adjusting subscripts to balance atoms. (d) writing two separate electron equations. 2. MnO 4 can be reduced to MnO 2. a. Assign the oxidation number to Mn in these two species. b. How many electrons are gained per Mn atom in this reduction? c. If 0.50 mol of MnO 4 is reduced, how many electrons are gained? 3. Iodide ions can be oxidized to form iodine. Write the balanced oxidation half-reaction for the oxidation of iodide to iodine. 4. Some bleaches contain aqueous chlorine as the active ingredient. Aqueous chlorine is made by dissolving chlorine gas in water. Aqueous chlorine is capable of oxidizing iron(ii) ions to iron(iii) ions. When iron(ii) ions are oxidized, chloride ions are formed. a. Write equations for the two half-reactions involved. Label them oxidation or reduction. b. Write the balanced ionic equation for the redox reaction between aqueous chlorine and iron(ii). c. Show that the equation in part b is balanced by charge. MODERN CHEMISTRY OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS 155

4 SECTION 2 continued 5. Write the equations for the oxidation and reduction half-reactions for the redox reactions below, and then balance the reaction equations. a. MnO 2 (s) HCl(aq) MnCl 2 (aq) Cl 2 (g) H 2 O(l ) b. S(s) HNO 3 (aq) SO 3 (g) H 2 O(l ) NO 2 (g) c. H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) K 2 CrO 4 (aq) HCl(aq) CrCl 3 (aq) KCl(aq) H 2 O(l ) CO 2 (g) 156 OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS MODERN CHEMISTRY

5 CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 3 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. For each of the following, identify the stronger oxidizing or reducing agent. (Refer to Table 3 on page 643 of the text.) a. Ca or Cu as a reducing agent b. Ag or Na as an oxidizing agent c. Fe 3 or Fe 2 as an oxidizing agent 2. For each of the following incomplete equations, state whether a redox reaction is likely to occur. (Refer to Table 3 on page 643 of the text.) a. Mg Sn 2 b. Ag Cu 2 c. Br 2 I 3. Label each of the following statements about redox as True or False. a. A strong oxidizing agent is itself readily reduced. b. In disproportionation, one chemical acts as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent in the same process. c. The number of moles of chemical oxidized must equal the number of moles of chemical reduced. 4. Solutions of Fe 2 are fairly unstable, in part because they can undergo disproportionation, as shown by the following unbalanced equation: a. Balance the above equation. Fe 2 Fe 3 Fe b. If the reaction described above produces mol of Fe, how many moles of Fe 3 will form? MODERN CHEMISTRY OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS 157

6 + WS 11.1 REDOX Review: Determine the oxidation #'s of each element for the following: (see ans bank) 1. SO2 2. CO K2SO4 4. P2O5 5. NH Na2Cr2O7 Ans (IRO): Write out the following reactions: 7. Sulfur undergoes a 2 electron reduction: 8. Sodium undergoes a 1 electron oxidation: S + 2e - ---> S 2-9. Iron undergoes a 3 electron oxidation: 10. Mn +4 undergoes a 2 electron reduction: Identify what is oxidized, what is reduced, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent for each: (oxidized) (reduced) 11. Mg + S ---> MgS (reducing agent) (oxidizing agent) 12. Fe + CuCl2 ---> Cu + FeCl2 13. Al + O2 ---> Al2O3 14. Cl2 + HBr ---> HCl + Br2 15. Zn + MnO2 + NH4Cl ---> ZnCl2 + Mn2O3 + NH3 + H2O 16. PbCl2 + K2SO4 ---> KCl + PbSO4 17. K + H2O ---> KOH + H2 18. Cl2 + HBr ---> HCl + Br2 19. H2CO3 ---> CO2 + H2O 20. NH4NO2 ---> N2 + H2O

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