Other Planetary Systems

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1 Other Planetary Systems

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13 Other Planetary Systems Learning goals How do we detect planets around other stars? What have other planetary systems taught us about our own?

14 Extrasolar planet search techniques Doppler Spectroscopy Look for the doppler shift in the stellar spectral lines from the wobble of the star as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Astrometry Observe the position shift of the star (wrt distant background stars) as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Planet Transit Photometry Measure reduction in light flux from star as the planet passes in front of (transits) the stellar disk Direct Imaging Gravitational Microlensing (more on this later when we get into gravitational lensing)

15 Extrasolar planet search techniques Doppler Spectroscopy Look for the doppler shift in the stellar spectral lines from the wobble of the star as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Astrometry Observe the position shift of the star (wrt distant background stars) as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Planet Transit Photometry Measure reduction in light flux from star as the planet passes in front of (transits) the stellar disk Direct Imaging Gravitational Microlensing (more on this later when we get into gravitational lensing)

16 Doppler shift due to stellar wobble from an unseen planet

17 Doppler shift due to stellar wobble from an unseen planet

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19 How do we find planets around other stars? We detect planets around other stars by looking for a periodic motion of the stars they orbit ( wobbling ). We measure the motion through the Doppler shift of the star s spectrum.

20 How do we find planets around other stars? The size of the wobble tells us the planet s mass. (Newton s law of gravity) The period of the wobble tells us the radius of its orbit. (Kepler s 3rd law) Current searches have a velocity sensitivity of ~2 meters/sec!!

21 How do we find planets around other stars? The amplitude (size) of the wobbling tells us the planet s mass. More massive planets induce a larger wobbling. The period of the wobbling tells us the orbital distance of the planet from its star. Current searches have a velocity sensitivity of ~2 meters/sec!!

22 Discovery of extrasolar planets 1995: Planet found around a nearby star (51 Peg) through radial velocity measurements. Mass of 0.5 M Jupiter Distance of 0.1 AU. VERY exciting discovery, and also VERY unexpected.

23 The massive planet around 51 Peg (relative planet sizes are shown correctly below, but relative spacings between orbits are not) Jupiter + Earth Orbital distance of 51 Peg B (0.05 AU)

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25 Over 170 known extrasolar planets (almost all found by RV method) About 10% of nearby stars have massive planets. Most are more massive than Jupiter and closer to their star than Earth is to Sun: unlike our own solar system. Revisions to theory needed: Massive planets can migrate inward from their birthplaces.

26 Known extrasolar planets have very different properties than planets in our solar system

27 Known extrasolar planets have very different properties than planets in our solar system

28 Known extrasolar planets have very different properties than planets in our solar system Elliptical orbits Circular orbits

29 Over known extrasolar planets (almost all found by RV method) About 10% of stars have massive planets at <4 AU. Most are more massive than Jupiter and closer to their star than Earth is to Sun: unlike our own solar system. Revisions to theory needed: Massive planets can migrate inward from their birthplaces.

30 What is the typical planetary system? Known extrasolar planets have very different properties than planets in our Solar System Masses of ~1-15 Jupiter masses Orbital separations as close as 0.05 AU Many elliptical orbits However, current planet searches are biased Only able to detect planets with masses comparable or larger than Jupiter. Only sensitive thus far to planets at <~4 AU Unable to detect terrestrial-mass planets. 90% of stars could have solar systems very similar to our own 5 AU).

31 Extrasolar planet search techniques Doppler Spectroscopy Look for the doppler shift in the stellar spectral lines from the wobble of the star as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Astrometry Observe the position shift of the star (wrt distant background stars) as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Planet Transit Photometry Measure reduction in light flux from star as the planet passes in front of (transits) the stellar disk Direct Imaging Gravitational Microlensing (more on this later when we get into gravitational lensing)

32 Extrasolar planet search techniques Doppler Spectroscopy Look for the doppler shift in the stellar spectral lines from the wobble of the star as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Astrometry Observe the position shift of the star (wrt distant background stars) as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Planet Transit Photometry Measure reduction in light flux from star as the planet passes in front of (transits) the stellar disk Direct Imaging Gravitational Microlensing (more on this later when we get into gravitational lensing)

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34 Transit of Mercury across face of the sun (occurs 13 times each century)

35 Disk of planet blocks a tiny fraction of star s light

36 HD : First known transiting extrasolar planet

37 Searching for other Earths Kepler (Feb 2009 launch): will monitor 100,000 stars for 4 years to search for transits of Earths around other stars.

38 Extrasolar planet search techniques Doppler Spectroscopy Look for the doppler shift in the stellar spectral lines from the wobble of the star as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Astrometry Observe the position shift of the star (wrt distant background stars) as it orbits around the center of mass of the star-planet system Planet Transit Photometry Measure reduction in light flux from star as the planet passes in front of (transits) the stellar disk Direct Imaging Gravitational Microlensing (more on this later when we get into gravitational lensing)

39 Can we take a direct image of an extrasolar planet? Radial velocity method is indirect. Measure minimum mass for planet. Only sensitive to inner planets (<~5 AU) Direct imaging would be very desirable Sensitive to planets at larger separations Measure properties of planet (e.g. temperature) Fundamental human appeal

40 Can we take a direct image of an extrasolar planet? VERY difficult Planets have very small separations from their stars Ex: if the distance to the nearest star is here to California, Jupiter would be a 80 meters from the star Reflected light (visible wavelengths) of the planet is extremely faint: factor of ~1 billion Emitted light (infrared wavelengths) of the planet is still very faint: factor of ~1 million Imaging of planets around Sun-like stars is currently not possible. Several ground-based and space-based projects in near future are tackling this goal.

41 Can we take a direct image of an extrasolar planet? May be much easier by looking around young stars (few Myr old). Newly formed planets could be hot & bright.

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43 Is the Earth Unusual? We don t know, since Earth-like planets cannot be found yet around other stars. Current methods can only detect massive (Jupiter-like) planets. Theoretical models aren t good enough to tell if terrestrial planets are common or rare.

44 Could life exist on any of the known extrasolar planetary systems? Highly unlikely: all known extrasolar planets are likely to be gas giant planets However, life might be able to reside on moons around these planets. Also, the presence of Jupiter-mass planets may be an indirect sign that formation of terrestrial-mass planets is likely.

45 Discovery of Planetary System around Red Dwarf Gliese 581 Nearby (50 LY) red dwarf star. 3 planets known: One 2x Earth size (5 times as massive). One 8x Earth mass. One Neptune sized. Earth-sized planets reside in habitable zone where liquid water is possible.

46 Discovery of Planetary System around Red Dwarf Gliese 581

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