Billy Cohen April 18, 2010 Smith-3 rd Period SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1

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1 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 In what ways did American expansionism in the 1830 s and 1840 s both transform the West and create sectional issues that would eventually lead to the dissolution of the Union? The 8-9 Essay Has a well-developed thesis that fully examines the multiple ways in which the West was altered in the appropriate time period and why this created sectional tension within the Union Contains effective and in-depth analysis of expansionism during the 1830 s and 1840 s and its effects, both positive and negative, on the unity of the nation Effectively uses an appropriate number of documents Supports thesis with credible and substantial outside information that is relevant to the time period Contains minor errors Has clear organization and flows well The 5-7 Essay Has a thesis that addresses the new West and the sectional issues that arose during this period Has limited analysis of expansionism and its effects during this time period, may not address why this specifically connects to the sectional issues that arise Effectively uses some documents Supports thesis with relevant outside information Shows acceptable organization and flow; language errors do not interfere with the overall comprehension of the paper The 2-4 Essay Has a limited or undeveloped thesis Over-simplifies the expansionist feelings during this period and their effect on the sectional issues that arise May address only the sectional issues that come out of expansionism, instead of describing the numerous quantities of land and transformations that impact the West Contains little or irrelevant outside information, information may be inaccurate Contains major errors in organization and style Does not flow as a whole, may be poorly organized and/or written The 0-1 Essay Contains no thesis, or a completely irrelevant thesis that does not answer the question in any way. Shows complete misunderstanding of the question/time period Has very little understanding of any of the documents, may not use them at all Major, glaring errors Very poor writing, inhibits understanding Blank or completely off topic

2 Manifest Destiny DBQ Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-H and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period. 1. In what ways did American expansionism from the 1830 s through the 1850 s both transform the West and create sectional issues that would eventually lead to the dissolution of the Union? Document A Source: John L. O Sullivan in "The Great Nation of Futurity," The United States Democratic Review, Volume 6, Issue 23, pp We point to the everlasting truth on the first page of our national declaration, and we proclaim to the millions of other lands, that "the gates of hell" -- the powers of aristocracy and monarchy -- "shall not prevail against it." Yes, we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement. Equality of rights is the cynosure of our union of States, the grand exemplar of the correlative equality of individuals; and while truth sheds its effulgence, we cannot retrograde, without dissolving the one and subverting the other. We must onward to the fulfillment of our mission -- to the entire development of the principle of our organization -- freedom of conscience, freedom of person, freedom of trade and business pursuits, universality of freedom and equality. Document B

3 Document C Source: Charles Sumner s Crime Against Kansas Speech They were left free to adopt slavery. And this was called Popular Sovereignty! Time does not allow, nor does the occasion require that I should stop to dwell on this transparent device to cover a transcendent wrong. Suffice it to say, that slavery is in itself an arrogant denial of human rights, and by no human reason can the power to establish such a wrong be placed among the attributes of any just sovereignty. In refusing it such a place, I do not deny popular rights, but uphold them; I do not restrain popular rights, but extend them. Document D Source: John Tyler s Annual Message to Congress, 1841 We are all called upon by the highest obligations of duty to renew our thanks and our devotion to our Heavenly Parent, who has continued to vouchsafe to us the eminent blessings which surround us and who has so signally crowned the year with His goodness. If we find ourselves increasing beyond example in numbers, in strength, in wealth, in knowledge, in everything which promotes human and social happiness, let us ever remember our dependence for all these on the protection and merciful dispensations of Divine Providence. Document E

4 Document F Source: Andrew Jackson s Annual Message to Congress, 1830 It is, therefore, a duty which this Government owes to the new States to extinguish as soon as possible the Indian title to all lands which Congress themselves have included within their limits may we not hope, therefore, that all good citizens, and none more zealously than those who think the Indians oppressed by subjection to the laws of the States, will unite in attempting to open the eyes of those children of the forest to their true condition, and by a speedy removal to relieve them from all the evils, real or imaginary, present or prospective, with which they may be supposed to be threatened. Source: Oregon Boundary Treaty Document G From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of the United States and those of her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, to the Pacific Ocean: Provided, however, That the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits, south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free and open to both parties. Source: Ralph Waldo Emerson Document H The United States will conquer Mexico, but it will be as the man swallows the arsenic Mexico will poison us.

5 Document I

6 Document Information and Inferences Document A: John L. O Sullivan in The Great Nation of Futurity o John L. O Sullivan is important proponent behind Manifest Destiny o Shows a key motive behind expansion 1. Spreading the principle of democracy throughout the West o Compares monarchy and aristocracy to the gates of hell o Expansion also signifies upholding the Constitution by spreading our principles to the new lands o West experiences American democracy o Expansion is guided by God, develops the idea of divine expansion o Instills sense of pride among Americans, idea of superiority to Native Americans o Expansion leads to new lands, which leads to controversy over whether or not to admit these lands as slave or free states (Ex.=Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, etc.) Document B: Map of Western Expansion in the United States ( ) o Shows Westward expansion in nineteenth century America o Shows the Oregon boundary o Shows the land acquired before the 1830 s in the Louisiana Purchase under Jefferson The desire to expand westward was present in America long before Mexican cession resulted in massive additions of land Because land was added to America in segments at different times from different countries, the acquisition of these lands resulted in conflict and debate over the status of slavery in the West. Document C: Charles Sumner s Speech Kansas was put under popular sovereignty, in hopes of resolving the major issue of whether or not slavery would be allowed in the new Western states. Under popular sovereignty, there is still a possibility of slavery, which Sumner is adamantly against. The Kansas-Nebraska Act established popular sovereignty in Kansas, which allowed the settlers of the territory to determine if slavery would be allowed within their boundaries.

7 The establishment of popular sovereignty was not successful in eliminating the sectional tension brought about by the acquisition of Western states because it broke the Missouri Compromise by allowing the possibility of slavery to exist above the 3630 line. Document D: John Tyler s Annual Message to Congress, 1841 States another driving motive of Manifest Destiny: God Expanding westward under divine providence, spreading religion to the new territory. West is transformed through the desire to spread religion. God has destined America to expand its influence and power Results in ignorance and intolerance of Native American culture and religion by expelling them from their territories. Document E: Brooks-Sumner Cartoon Preston Brooks beats Senator Charles Sumner with his cane Pertains to the controversial admission of Kansas into the Union under popular sovereignty Shows intense sectional tension resulting from westward expansion and the issue of slavery. Brooks, like most pro-slavery candidates, wants Kansas to be admitted under popular sovereignty, but Sumner is against this because it nullifies the Missouri Compromise, which would make it another failed compromise in resolving sectional tension. This conflict over popular sovereignty would also lead to Bleeding Kansas, the mini civil war that took place in Kansas over the slavery issue. Document F: Andrew Jackson s Annual Message to Congress, 1830 Referring to the Indian Removal Act that Jackson enacted in 1830, this section of Jackson s speech shows the brutal removal of the Indians in the Western territories that Americans, and more specifically, Southerners strongly desired

8 The transformation of the West in regards to the demise of Indian culture in the 1830 s was significant, as they were removed from their land and often times forced to assimilate into White culture. The Trail of Tears was a result of the Indian Removal Act enacted by Jackson in While in this case, racism promotes Manifest Destiny, in that the Indians should be removed from America because they are inferior, racism often discouraged expansion, in the belief that we should not interfere or get involved with the Indian race so that America can be an all white country. Document G: Oregon Boundary Treaty The boundary dispute between Great Britain and the United States over the Pacific Northwest territory of America was resolved in the Oregon Boundary Treaty. This Treaty created the 49 th parallel compromise, in which the U.S. settled for this line as a boundary between British and U.S. territory. Americans wanted the Oregon country up to the parallel, earning the popular slogan or fight! under the idea of Manifest Destiny. However, Polk settled for the 49 th parallel compromise in order to avoid war with Great Britain. This compromise of the 1840 s showed how this boundary dispute in the West further asserted the American claim to Manifest Destiny, in that there was a huge thirst for land. This general desire for expansion, although calmed in this situation, would soon lead to war with Mexico. Document H: Emerson s Prediction Ralph Waldo Emerson predicts that we will be successful in conquering Mexico in war, but the land acquisitions and aftermath of the war will poison our country with conflict and sectional tension. Emerson s prediction was, in fact, correct. The lands ceded to us from Mexico resulted in sectional tension over the controversial issue of whether or not slavery would exist in these lands. This conflict, combined with unsuccessful compromises eventually led to the dissolution of the Union.

9 Document I: John Gast s Painting God sends an Angel to lead American expansion westward, with innovations like the railroad Under this divine providence, we are led in the light to expel the Native Americans from their lands The stark contrast in lighting implies that Whites are divinely guided to expand west and expel the primitive, dark Indians from their lands. Commonly Seen Relevant Outside Information Manifest Destiny or fight! Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Preston Brooks Charles Sumner Bleeding Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act James K. Polk From sea to shining sea Divine Providence Mexican-American War Nullification of Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Annexation of Texas Wilmot Proviso Free-Soil Party Continentalism John C. Calhoun Superiority of the Anglo-Saxon Race

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