Photogrammetry: DTM Extraction & Editing

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1 Photogrammetry: DTM Extraction & Editing How can one determine the x, y, and z of a location? Approaches to DTM Extraction Ground surveying Digitized topographic maps Traditional photogrammetry Hardcopy vs. softcopy approach Radar LIDAR 1

2 Photogrammetry The science of making reliable measurements by the use of photographs and especially aerial photographs. Challenges: Geometric distortions Relief displacement Obscured targets Geometric Distortions External errors Altitude changes Attitude changes (roll, pitch, and yaw) Internal errors e.g., lens distortion, earth rotation 2

3 Methods of Correcting Geometric Distortion Affine Transformation (aka linear or first-order transformation) Higher order polynomial transformation 3

4 How to tell if triangles are similar AAA are congruent SSS in same proportion SAS (proportional sides next to congruent angle) Known: x 0, y 0, x 1, y 1, and x Find: y 4

5 Relief Displacement RD changes the measured distances and angles on photos. Basic Aerial Photography Geometry Fiducial marks Principal point 5

6 Geometric Components of Relief Displacement d = rh H h = dh r 1 S = f H d = relief displacement h = object height r = radial distance between location and PP on photo H = flying height Correcting for Relief Displacement: Orthorectification d = rh H d = relief displacement h = object height r = radial distance between location and PP on photo H = flying height 6

7 Image Parallax the apparent displacement or the difference in apparent direction of an object as seen from two different points not on a straight line with the object. p a = x a x a p a = parallax of point A x a = x coor of a on left photo x a = x coor of a on right photo Calculating Object Height & Location from Parallax Parallax Equations: h A B f = H p x X A = B p y Y A = B p p a = parallax of A x a = x coor of A on left photo X A = ground coor of A h A = height of A B = air base H = flying height a a a a a 7

8 Measuring Parallax Based on a stereopair of photos Floating half marks Parallax wedge Digital Photogrammetry: Softcopy Photogrammetric Systems Scanned stereopair photos Interior and exterior orientations Camera & photo parameters Flight parameters GCPs Image matching Tie points Algorithms Generate DEM and orthophotos 8

9 Collinearity Condition & Equations If collinearity condition is achieved on both photos in a stereopair then the ground X, Y, Z can be computed from x and y within the image coordinate system on both photos. Six exterior orientation parameters Collinearity equations can be derived using GCPs. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) Leica Geosystems Based on ERDAS Imagine LPS (Version 9.0) Project Manager LPS Automatic Terrain Extraction (ATE) Project Manager & ATE were called OrthoBASE in Version 8.X LPS Terrain Editor Imagine VirtualGIS 9

10 LPS Block Files (.blk) A block must be created to to performing any photogrammetric tasks in LPS A block contains information including: Projection, spheroid, and datum information Imagery used within a project Camera or sensor model information associated with the imagery GCPs and their measured image positions geometric relationships between the imagery in a project and the ground Coordinate Systems in Digital Photogrammetry Pixel coordinates (rc) Image coordinates (xy) Image space coordinates (xyz) Ground space coordinates (XYZ) 10

11 Interior Orientation Interior orientation defines the internal geometry of a camera or sensor as it existed at the time of data capture. It defines image space coordinates based on pixel and image coordinates and camera parameters (e.g., f and lens distortion model). Exterior Orientation Exterior orientation defines the position and angular orientation associated with the camera to achieve collinearity condition. It defines ground space coordinates based on image space coordinates and flight information (e.g., flying altitude and attitude). 11

12 What DPI should I use? Dots per inch (DPI) e.g., 200 DPI = 200 dots/inch = 200 dots/2.54 cm = 2.54/200 cm/dot = cm/dot = 127 microns/dot e.g., scan a 1:4000 photo at 200 DPI 127 microns/dot (map) = 127 x 4000 microns/dot (ground) = microns/dot = 50.8 cm/dot = 0.5 meters/dot Redundancy (DF) of Forming Collinearity Eqs. Degree of Freedom (DF) = # Observation Eqs - # Unknown 1 GCP provides 2 obser. eqs. on one image 1 tie point provides 2 obser. eqs. on one image 1 photo has 6 unknown (X, Y, Z, ω, ρ, κ) 1 tie point has 3 unknown (X, Y, Z) 12

13 GCPs: How many do you need? 3 for single frame. 2 on every third image of a strip 1 on every third image of a block Photogrammetry vs. Conventional Geometric Correction Photogrammetry Bundle block adjustment (Relies on image models, GCPs, and block triangulation) A minimum of 3 GCPs to achieve high accuracy. GCPs can be shared by the entire block of photos. Minimize errors for the entire block of photos. Ideal for photomosaicking. Allow the correction of relief displacement and the generation of DEM when stereopairs are used. Transformation Single photo adjustment (Relies on GCPs and polynomial equations) More GCPs are required to achieve satisfactory accuracy. GCPS are not shared. Minimize errors within a single photo. Unable to do orthorectification 13

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