It does not react N.R.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "It does not react N.R."

Transcription

1 Benzene versus yclohexene versus yclohexadiene 1 l l cyclohexene l l cyclohexadiene l Expect this to react similarly "cyclohexatriene" It does not react l N.R. benzene Benzene is resonance stabilized, making it less reactive.

2 Benzene: Aromaticity 2 87A 87B Examination of 87 shows that all six carbons of benzene are sp 2 hybridized, which means each carbon has trigonal planar geometry (see 87A) and a p- orbital that is perpendicular to the plane of the carbon atoms as represented by 87B. Each of the six π-orbitals contain a π-electron. Six contiguous carbons with π-orbitals (every carbon with a π-orbital is adjacent to another carbon with a π-orbital) in a ring share electron density as indicated in 87B. The six π-electrons are delocalized on the 6 π-orbitals. This delocalization in a cyclic π-system is resonance, and when confined to a ring in this manner, this type of resonance is known as aromaticity. 87

3 Benzene: Resonance Structures 3 87A 87D 94 If benzene is drawn with the π-bonds "localized" as in 87A, there is no indication of electron delocalization and this single structure does not adequately represent the structure of benzene. If the double bonds are "moved" from their position in 87A to give 87D, 87D is also inadequate since all the "double bonds" in 87A are single bonds in 87D, and vice-versa. The actual structure of benzene is not 87A or 87D, but the actual structure can be represented by both structures, called resonance contributors. A double-headed arrow relates the resonance structures, and the actual structure of benzene is represented by both 87A and 87D. Structure 94 is inadequate for most of the chemical reactions of benzene because chemical reactions are usually viewed in terms of electron transfer. The movement of pairs of electrons cannot be represented with 94, so the use of this representation is discouraged.

4 Phenyl Substituent 4 Ph Ph 3 95 l 96 A benzene substituent has the formula 6 5 and it is attached to the carbon chain by a carbon-carbon bond. The 6 5 unit is called phenyl, and the name of 95 is 5- phenyloctan-2-one. Drawing a benzene ring occupies a lot of space so a shorthand representation is used in many structures. In 96, the shorthand symbol "Ph" is used to represent a phenyl substituent. The Ph representation will be used often in this book, ompound 96 is named 5-chloro-2,6-diphenyloct-2-ene.

5 5 hapter 6. Acids, Bases, Nucleophiles and Electrophiles It is important to modify views of acids to include very weak acids. The functional groups introduced in chapter 5 must be considered as weak acids, including alcohols, ketones, terminal alkynes, and even primary and secondary amines. If these functional groups are weak acids, then an acid-base reaction requires the use of a powerful base to generate the corresponding conjugate base.

6 To begin, you should know: 6 ovalent σ-bonds. (chapter 3, section 3.3) Polarized covalent bonding between carbon and heteroatoms and hydrogen and a heteroatom. (chapter 3, section 3.7) π-bonds (chapter 5, sections 5.1, 5.2, and 5.9) Factors that influence bond strength. (chapter 3, sectin3.6 and chapter 5, section 5.4) What is K a and pk a? (chapter 2, section 2.4) What factors influence the equilibrium constant K a in an acid-base reaction? (chapter 2, section 2.4) What constitutes a strong acid or a strong base? What constitutes a weak acid or a weak base? (chapter 2, section 2.4) What is electron release and electron donation? (chapter 3, section 3.7) What is an inductive effect? (chapter 3, section 3.7) The definition of a Lewis acid and a Lewis base. (chapter 2, section 2.5) Structures and names of functional groups. (chapter 4, and chapter 5, sections 5.6 and 5.9) Acid-base properties of functional groups. (chapter 5, section 5.7) What is resonance? (chapter 5, section 5.9.)

7 When completed, you should know: 7 ommon organic acids are carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and alcohols. arboxylic acids are more acidic than alcohols, but sulfonic acids are more acidic than carboxylic acids. The equilibrium constant for an acid-base reaction that involves organic acids is the same as any other acid-base reaction, K a, where K a = products/reactants, and pk a = log K a. The relative strength of an acid depends on the strength of the base it reacts with. The free energy of reaction is indicative of the spontaneity of that reaction (endothermic or exothermic), and the activation energy is a measure of the transition state energy. ΔG = Δ TΔS. Stability of a conjugate base is linked to its reactivity, and greater stability can result from charge dispersal due to increased size of that species or resonance stability. In both cases, K a is larger. Inductive effects are very important for determining the variations in pk a with structural changes in carboxylic acids. As electron-withdrawing substituents are positioned further away from the carboxyl group, the effect diminishes. An electron-withdrawing group attached to oxygen in an unit makes the hydrogen more acidic, and an electron-releasing group attached to oxygen in an unit makes the hydrogen less acidic.

8 When completed, you should know: 8 The solvent can play a significant role in determining K a for an acid, particularly when comparing polar ionizing solvents with nonpolar solvents. ompounds that behave as an acid in the presence of a strong base and a base in the presence of a strong acid are called amphoteric compounds. Alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, and alkenes are Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis bases. ommon organic bases includes amines, phosphines and alkoxide anions. The basicity of an amine is measured using pk B. The basicity of amines is influenced by both the electron releasing effects of alkyl groups attached to nitrogen as well as by the steric hindrance imposed by those alkyl groups to anything approaching the nitrogen. An electronwithdrawing group on the nitrogen of an amine will diminish its basicity. Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors and Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Electrophiles are carbon molecules that react with electron donating compounds. Nucleophiles are molecules that donate electrons to carbon.

9 Acid-Base Equilibrium 9 K! a!! A- :B B- :A acid base conjugate acid! conjugate base A classical acid-base reaction reacts an acid (A:) with a base (B:) to give a conjugate acid (B:) and a conjugate base (A:) as the products. This is an equilibrium reaction and the equilibrium constant K is given the special designator K a. If K a is used for this reaction, then pk a = log K a In this reaction, K a = and K a = [B][A:] / [A][B:] and pk a = log K a Note that pk a and K a are inversely proportional and K a = 10 pka

10 Acid-Base Equilibrium 10 K! a!! A- :B B- :A acid base conjugate acid! conjugate base Assume that the larger the value of K a (the smaller the pk a ) will correlate with a stronger acid. If K a is small (large pk a ), the equilibrium lies to the left, which essentially means that A: does not react with the base. The term weaker acid is a relative term, but a smaller K a (a larger pk a ) will correlate with a weaker acid.

11 Acid-Base Equilibrium: Reverse Reaction 11 K! a!! A- :B B- :A acid base conjugate acid! conjugate base The reverse reaction B: A: to give A: B: is also an acid-base reaction where B: is the acid (labeled conjugate acid) and A: is the base (labeled conjugate base). If the pk a of A: is 2.5 and the pk a of B: is 12.1, then the equilibrium constant is relatively large for the "forward" reaction and the reaction proceeds to the right. If the pk a of A: is 4.6 and the pk a of B: is 4.7, then K a is close to unity and there will be a mixture of both acids and both bases.

12 What is a Brønsted-Lowry Acid? 12 Normally, a generic acid is written as. This is simply a proton, of course, which is a hydrogen atom with no electrons and a formal charge of 1. If is taken to be an acid, then any hydrogen atom that is polarized δ should be acidic to some degree. This positive polarization is most often observed when hydrogen is attached to a heteroatom, particularly or S, and to a lesser extent N. Alcohols and carboxylic acids are defined as functional groups that have an - unit. These are - acids. Amines may have a N- unit, which is a N- acid.

13 - Acids: Alcohols The - unit in an alcohol is polarized as shown in 1, and that proton is acidic. Most alcohols, which have pk a values of 16-18, but there is a notable exception. Methanol (1) has a pk a of 15.2 whereas water has a pk a of The conjugate base of this reaction is an alkoxide, R, 2 The base that reacts with the alcohol should generate a conjugate acid with a pk a that is greater than acid conjugate base Na N 2 N 2 Na 1 base conjugate acid 2 13

14 - Acids: Alcohols The hydronium ion is a quite potent acid, much stronger than methanol, and the equilibrium is shifted to the left, which means that K a is much smaller. If water is a weak base relative to sodium amide, then K a is large for the reaction with sodium amide and small for the reaction with water. The strength of the acid depends on the strength of the base. Methanol is a very weak acid when water is the base but it is a stronger acid when sodium amide is the base. acid 1 conjugate base base 2 14 conjugate acid 3

15 - Acids: arboxylic Acids & Sulfonic Acids arboxylic acids (4) and sulfonic acids (5) have pk a values generally in the range of 1 5, depending on the nature of the "R" group. In 5 the polarized S= unit leads to a larger δ oxygen in the unit, which makes the attached hydrogen more positive, which makes 5 slightly more acidic. Sufonic acids are 3-5 units more acidic - mostly due to increased stability of the conjugate base. R R S

16 The onjugate Bases 16 R R R R S R S R S R S The sulfonate anion has more resonance contributors: more charge dispersal and less reactive, so Ka for the sulfonic acid is larger - i.e., more acidic

17 - Acids: Formic Acid versus Methanol Formic acid (,) is a specific example of a carboxylic acid, with a pk a of Methanol has a pk a value of about When formic acid reacts with sodium amide (the base), removal of the proton leads to the formate anion (50) as the conjugate base. whereas similar reaction of methanol ( 3 ) gives methoxide ( 3, 60). The resonance stability of 50 makes that K a larger and the lack of charge dispersal for methoxide, 60, makes K a smaller. 17 Na Na N 2 50 N Na Na N 2 60 N 2 methoxide formate anion formate anion

18 Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid 18 Stability of the onjugate Base The size of the conjugate base and whether or not it is stabilized by resonance are two important factors that influence charge dispersal. If the charge of a conjugate base is dispersed over a greater area, it is more stable (lower reactivity). The resonance stability of an ion is determined by the extent of delocalization. The size of the anion is important, as when two different size conjugate bases are compared: iodide from I versus fluoride from F. In general, anything that leads to a more stable product will shift the equilibrium to products and a larger K a.

19 Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid Solvent Effects: In Water Typical pk a values are based on their reaction in water, which means that water is the base in those reactions. If a different solvent is used, the pk a is different. If another base is added to the water solution, the pk a may be different. Remember that acid strength depends on the strength of the base, which influences the position of the equilibrium and K a. In the reaction of acetic acid (ethanoic acid, 18) and water, the conjugate acid is 3 and the conjugate base is the acetate anion (24): water reacts as the base, but water is also the solvent and it has a profound effect on the course of the reaction

20 Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid Water is a very polar molecule, and it is capable of solvating and separating ions. nce the reaction begins, water will solvate the acetate ion (24) and the hydronium ion ( 3 ), which serves to separate the developing ions. Solvation means that solvent surrounds each ion. Separation of the ions pushes the reaction to the right since it facilitates formation of the products (higher concentration of products and larger K a ). The net result is that acetic acid is a stronger acid in water than in a solvent that cannot generate a polarized transition state to assist the ionization

21 Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid 21 Solvent Effects: In ether If one molar equivalent of water is used as a base in a reaction with 18, but diethyl ether is used as a solvent, acetic acid is a weaker acid. As a solvent, ether does not separate ions, so ionization of 23 to form 24 and the hydronium ion will be slower than in water. Because the solvent does not facilitate charge separation nor stabilize the ionic products, acetic acid is a weaker acid (smaller K a, larger pk a ) in ether than in the water solvent. Water facilitates ionization and charge separation more efficiently than other solvents and acetic acid is a stronger acid in water than in diethyl ether. 18 Et Et Et Et Et Et

22 Structure and Acidity of arboxylic Acids 22 l pk a = 2.87 pk a = 3.75 pk a = 4.76 electron withdrawing l makes the acid more acidic electron releasing alkyl group makes the acid less acidic

Benzene benzene aromatic hydrocarbons aromatic not not

Benzene benzene aromatic hydrocarbons aromatic not not Benzene 1 NT 87 90 ompound 87 has the formula 6 6, is known as benzene, and it is a hydrocarbon derived from petroleum distillates. Benzene is the parent compound for a class of compounds known as aromatic

More information

Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid

Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid Factors That Influence the Strength of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid 1 Stability of the Conjugate Base The size of the conjugate base and whether or not it is stabilized by resonance are two important factors

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 1 According to Brønsted and Lowry, an acid-base reaction is defined in terms of a proton transfer. By this definition, the reaction of Cl in water is: Cl(aq) + Cl (aq) +

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars

Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars Acid-Base Chemistry of Sugars Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors while Lewis bases are electron pair donors. Last time we saw that sugar molecules have a carbonyl carbon that acts as a Lewis acid

More information

Chapter 4: Acids & Bases

Chapter 4: Acids & Bases Chapter 4 utline: Acids & Bases 1. What are acids & bases? 2. How are acid dissociation constants? 3. How does one define relative strengths of acids (pka)? 4. How does one determine equilibria in acid-base

More information

Polarity and its Consequences

Polarity and its Consequences Chapter 2, Part I: Polarity, Formal Charge and Resonance I. Bond Polarity Polarity and its Consequences Polar bonds can be identified as covalent bonds in which the atoms involved have significantly different

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases In 1884, Svante A. Arrhenius (Sweden, 1859-1927) defined an acid as a material that can release a proton or hydrogen ion ( + ). Cl in water. A base (then called an alkali)

More information

Chapter 3: Acids & Bases

Chapter 3: Acids & Bases Chapter 3 utline: Acids & Bases 1. What are acids & bases? 2. ow are acid dissociation constants? 3. ow does one define relative strengths of acids (pka)? 4. ow does one determine equilibria in acid base

More information

Structure and Reactivity: Acidity and Basicity

Structure and Reactivity: Acidity and Basicity Structure and Reactivity: Acidity and Basicity In this section we will analyze how structure affects acidity and basicity. Acids and bases are vital to many chemical reactions and we need to understand

More information

Electron Withdrawing Groups

Electron Withdrawing Groups Electron Withdrawing Groups If an α-carbon has more than one electron withdrawing group, the α-proton becomes increasingly acidic as the number of groups attached to the carbonyl increases. The pk a of

More information

Chapter 8 Nucleophilic Substitution

Chapter 8 Nucleophilic Substitution . 8 hapter 8 Nucleophilic ubstitution In this chapter we re-examine nucleophilic substitution reactions in more detail, paying particular attention to stereochemistry and other details of the reaction

More information

1 Lecture 5 Resonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital

1 Lecture 5 Resonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital 1 Lecture 5 esonance 1. Lone pair next to empty 2p orbital sp 2 + is more common sp + is less common + needs electrons, has to overlap with a. an adjacent 2p lone pair with electrons b. an adjacent pi

More information

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions, Course Notes Archive, 1 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions An organic reaction in which an electrophile substitutes a hydrogen atom in an aromatic

More information

RESONANCE, USING CURVED ARROWS AND ACID-BASE REACTIONS

RESONANCE, USING CURVED ARROWS AND ACID-BASE REACTIONS RESONANCE, USING CURVED ARROWS AND ACID-BASE REACTIONS A STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Properly use curved arrows to draw resonance structures: the tail and the head of every arrow must be drawn in exactly

More information

1) Lewis Structures 2) Representing Organic Structures 3) Geometry and Hybridization 4) Electronegativities and Dipoles 5) Resonance Structures (a)

1) Lewis Structures 2) Representing Organic Structures 3) Geometry and Hybridization 4) Electronegativities and Dipoles 5) Resonance Structures (a) Chapter 1 Introduction 1) Lewis Structures 2) Representing Organic Structures 3) Geometry and Hybridization 4) Electronegativities and Dipoles 5) Resonance Structures (a) Drawing Them (b) Rules for Resonance

More information

2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition

2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition. Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition 2.7 Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry Definition Two frequently used definitions of acidity The Brønsted-Lowry definition Lewis definition Brønsted-Lowry acid A substance that donates a hydrogen ion

More information

Acids and Bases. Curved Arrow Formalism or Pushing Electrons

Acids and Bases. Curved Arrow Formalism or Pushing Electrons all 2004 Supplemental notes Acids and Bases Curved Arrow ormalism or Pushing Electrons Carbon and other second row elements such as B,,, and follow the octet rule, i.e. they try to have the sum of bonding

More information

Many non-systematic names: Table 20.1

Many non-systematic names: Table 20.1 hapter 20: arboxylic Acids and itriles 20.1 aming arboxylic Acids (please read) In general, the same for alkanes; replace the terminal -e of the alkane name with -oic acid The carboxyl carbon atom is 1

More information

The dipolar nature of acids

The dipolar nature of acids I. Introduction arboxylic Acid Structure and hemistry: Part 1 Jack Deuiter arboxylic acids are hydrocarbon derivatives containing a carboxyl () moiety. ecall that carbon has four valence electrons and

More information

Chapter 1. Covalent Bonding and Shape of Molecules

Chapter 1. Covalent Bonding and Shape of Molecules Learning objectives: hapter 1. ovalent Bonding and Shape of Molecules 1. Write the ground-state electron configuration. 2. Draw Lewis structure. 3. Use electronegativity to predict polarized and non-polarized

More information

Reactions and Mechanisms. Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions: Acids and Bases

Reactions and Mechanisms. Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions: Acids and Bases Reactions and Mechanisms Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions: Acids and Bases Cl (aq) + NaO (aq) 2 O (aq) + NaCl (aq) In typical inorganic reactions involving ions, little focus on how reaction

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity

Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity Acids and Bases: Molecular Structure and Acidity Review the Acids and Bases Vocabulary List as needed. Tutorial Contents A. Introduction B. Resonance C. Atomic Radius D. Electronegativity E. Inductive

More information

RESONANCE AND INDUCTION TUTORIAL. Jack DeRuiter

RESONANCE AND INDUCTION TUTORIAL. Jack DeRuiter ESAE AD IDUTI TUTIAL Jack Deuiter The terms "resonance" and "induction" refer to the electronic effects that atoms or functional groups may have within a compound. These effects are defined below and are

More information

Organic Chemistry CHM 314 Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Cal Poly Pomona Structure & Shape of Organic Molecules - Chapter 1 (Wade)

Organic Chemistry CHM 314 Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, Cal Poly Pomona Structure & Shape of Organic Molecules - Chapter 1 (Wade) rganic hemistry M 314 Dr. Laurie S. Starkey, al Poly Pomona Structure & Shape of rganic Molecules - hapter 1 (Wade) rganic (living things, chemistry of carbon) Examples of rganic ompounds: Inorganic (rocks,

More information

Organic Chemistry I Dr Alex Roche Organic chemistry is the chemistry of Carbon and its compounds. Organic molecules constitute the essence of life (fats, sugars, proteins, DNA), and also permeate our everyday

More information

Conjugate Acid Base Pairs. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted Lowry Acids & Bases HA + B: A - + BH + Chapter 2

Conjugate Acid Base Pairs. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted Lowry Acids & Bases HA + B: A - + BH + Chapter 2 Brønsted Lowry Acids & Bases Acid-Base Chemistry & Organic Compounds Brønsted-Lowry Acid: Proton (H + ) Donor Brønsted-Lowry Base: Proton (H + ) Acceptor General reaction: HA + B: A - + BH + Chapter 2

More information

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example

methyl RX example primary RX example secondary RX example secondary RX example tertiary RX example ucleophilic Substitution & Elimination hemistry 1 eginning patterns to knowfor S and E eactions - horizontal and vertical templates for practice Example 1 - two possible perspectives (deuterium and tritium

More information

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition

12. Alcohols and Phenols. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition 12. Alcohols and Phenols Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols contain an OH group connected to a saturated C (sp 3 ) They are important solvents and synthesis

More information

Carbonyl Chemistry - Fundamentals

Carbonyl Chemistry - Fundamentals Carbonyl Chemistry - Fundamentals Images and Information from: Bruice, P. Organic Chemistry, Pearsons Prentice Hall. 2004 Hardinger, S. Chemistry 14D: Thinkbook. 2006. Lecture Supplement: Carbonyl Chemistry

More information

Chapter 18. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Chapter 18. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones hapter 18. Reactions of 1 Aldehydes and Ketones Reaction of a nucleophile with an aldehyde or ketone gives an alkoxide, and subsequent hydrolysis leads to an alcohol. This chapter will define differences

More information

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation

ALCOHOLS: Properties & Preparation ALLS: Properties & Preparation General formula: R-, where R is alkyl or substitued alkyl. Ar-: phenol - different properties. Nomenclature 1. ommon names: Name of alkyl group, followed by word alcohol.

More information

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H

Protonation. favored H 3 O + R O O H arboxylic Acids arboxylic acids have one property that distinguishes them from most other organic compounds they re acidic. Now not as acidic as fuming sulfuric acid, but still pretty darned acidic. The

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bond Covalent bond in which the electron pairs are not shared equally.

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bond Covalent bond in which the electron pairs are not shared equally. hapter 2 Polar ovalent Bond ovalent bond in which the electron pairs are not shared equally. Pure ovalent Bond (non-polar) increasing bond polarity Ionic Bond X X X Y X + Y - Electronegativity, c ability

More information

Dienes & Polyenes: An overview and some key reactions (Ch )

Dienes & Polyenes: An overview and some key reactions (Ch ) Dienes & Polyenes: An overview and some key reactions (h. 14.1-14.5) Polyenes contain more than one double bond and are very common in natural products (ex: carotene). Diene chemistry applies to trienes,

More information

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation

Chapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes. Degree of unsaturation hapter 4: Alkenes and Alkynes Unsaturated ydrocarbon: ontains one or more carbon-carbon double or triple bonds or benzene-like rings. Alkene: contains a carbon-carbon double bond and has the general formula

More information

Principles of Drug Action 1, Spring 2005, Ethers ETHERS AND THIOETHERS. Jack DeRuiter. CH 3 CH 2 O CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 N CH 3 Ether

Principles of Drug Action 1, Spring 2005, Ethers ETHERS AND THIOETHERS. Jack DeRuiter. CH 3 CH 2 O CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 N CH 3 Ether ETES AND TIETES Jack Deuiter I. Introduction s are hydrocarbon derivatives containing a carbon-oxygen-carbon (C--C) fragment. ecall that carbon has a valence of four and thus requires four electrons or

More information

Richard F. Daley and Sally J. Daley Organic Chemistry. Chapter 5. Acid-Base Theory

Richard F. Daley and Sally J. Daley  Organic Chemistry. Chapter 5. Acid-Base Theory Richard F. Daley and Sally J. Daley www.ochem4free.com rganic Chemistry Chapter 5 Acid-Base Theory 5.1 Acids and Bases 209 5.2 Acid and Base Strength 215 5.3 ard and Soft Acids and Bases 222 5.4 rganic

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

More information

Enolates, Enols and Enamines

Enolates, Enols and Enamines Enolates, Enols and Enamines Structure, Reactivity, General formation Enolate Enolate = negative charge on oxygen with adjacent C-C double bond Enamine Enamine = NR 2 group adjacent C-C double bond Reacts

More information

3.4 BRØNSTED LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES

3.4 BRØNSTED LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES 96 CAPTER 3 ACIDS AND BASES. TE CURVED-ARROW NOTATION and that the unshared electron pair (and negative charge) is shared equally by the two terminal carbons. C L C A C 1 allyl anion (c) Using the curved-arrow

More information

MCAT Organic Chemistry - Problem Drill 20: Mechanisms of Organic Reactions

MCAT Organic Chemistry - Problem Drill 20: Mechanisms of Organic Reactions MCAT rganic Chemistry - Problem Drill 20: Mechanisms of rganic Reactions Question No. 1 of 10 Question 1. What does the arrow shown indicate in a mechanism? Question #01 (A) Movement of a pair of electrons

More information

ACID and BASES - a Summary

ACID and BASES - a Summary AID and BASES - a Summary Stefan Svensson 2004 Brönsted-Lowry : Acids donate protons Lewis -acid : Electron pair acceptor Bases accept protons Lewis-base: Electron pair donator. Acetic acid ättiksyra 3

More information

partial positive an acid is a hydrogen ion donor, or proton donor base is a hydrogen ion acceptor, or proton acceptor acidic protons acid base

partial positive an acid is a hydrogen ion donor, or proton donor base is a hydrogen ion acceptor, or proton acceptor acidic protons acid base INTRDUCTIN T INIC MECANISMS PART I: FUNDAMENTALS F BRNSTED-LWRY ACID-BASE CEMISTRY YDRGEN ATMS AND PRTNS IN RGANIC MLECULES - A hydrogen atom that has lost its only electron is sometimes referred to as

More information

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules

Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry. 25.1 Some General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Chapter 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Chemistry general characteristics of organic molecules introduction to hydrocarbons alkanes unsaturated hydrocarbons functional groups: alcohols and ethers compounds

More information

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives.

Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Organic Chemistry II / CHEM 252 Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Bela Torok Department of Chemistry University of Massachusetts Boston Boston, MA 1 Introduction The carboxyl group (-CO

More information

Chapter 9 Alkynes. Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon triple bond. They have the formula C n H 2n-2. C C CH 3

Chapter 9 Alkynes. Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon triple bond. They have the formula C n H 2n-2. C C CH 3 . 9 hapter 9 Alkynes Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain a carbon-carbon triple bond. They have the formula n 2n-2. Nomenclature: The parent is the longest chain that contains the triple bond. hange

More information

an aldehyde a carboxylic acid

an aldehyde a carboxylic acid An Introduction to Functional Groups in rganic hemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples 3 an aldehyde 3 a carboxylic acid eactivity

More information

Chapter 9 The Chemistry of Alkyl Halides

Chapter 9 The Chemistry of Alkyl Halides Instructor Supplemental Solutions to Problems 2010 Roberts and Company Publishers Chapter 9 The Chemistry of Alkyl Halides 9.1 (b) The product is ethylammonium iodide. Solutions to In-Text Problems 9.2

More information

VIII Functional Groups 2

VIII Functional Groups 2 VIII Functional Groups 2 8.1 Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acid: Functional group in which OH is attached to carbon-oxygen double bond Representations of Carboxylic Acids: Functional Groups in Carboxylic

More information

CHEM 263 Oct 14, 2010

CHEM 263 Oct 14, 2010 CHEM 263 Oct 14, 2010 eactions of Substituted Benzene Continued How can Basic Brown be synthesized from toluene? (The process of figuring out what starting materials could be used to synthesize a target

More information

Esters of Carboxylic Acids These are derivatives of carboxylic acids where the hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkoxy group.

Esters of Carboxylic Acids These are derivatives of carboxylic acids where the hydroxyl group is replaced by an alkoxy group. Carboxylic acid Derivatives Carboxylic acid derivatives are described as compounds that can be converted to carboxylic acids via simple acidic or basic hydrolysis. The most important acid derivatives are

More information

Chem 350 Jasperse Ch. 2 Notes 1

Chem 350 Jasperse Ch. 2 Notes 1 hem 350 Jasperse h. 2 Notes 1 h 2 Structure and Properties of rganics 2.1-6 3-D Structure, ybridization, and rbitals 2.4,6 VSEPR and Molecular Shape: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion oncept: electron

More information

Part A: Basicity of Amines (Why is dimethyl amine a better nucleophile than methyl amine even though it's bulkier?)

Part A: Basicity of Amines (Why is dimethyl amine a better nucleophile than methyl amine even though it's bulkier?) ChemActivity 45 Amines and Amino Acids 1 ChemActivity 45 Part A: Basicity of Amines (Why is dimethyl amine a better nucleophile than methyl amine even though it's bulkier?) Model 1: pk a Values for Various

More information

Chapter 6 Ionic Reactions-Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides

Chapter 6 Ionic Reactions-Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides Chapter 6 Ionic Reactions-Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl alides Introduction The polarity of a carbon-halogen bond leads to the carbon having a partial positive charge In

More information

Problems for Chapter 1 & 2 ANSWERS 1. Draw an appropriate Lewis electron dot structure for the compound HONNH. H N N O H

Problems for Chapter 1 & 2 ANSWERS 1. Draw an appropriate Lewis electron dot structure for the compound HONNH. H N N O H Problems for hapter 1 & 2 ASWERS 1. Draw an appropriate Lewis electron dot structure for the compound. Valence electrons 2x = 2 2x = 10 = 6 TTAL = 18 2. Show the formal charge, if one exists, on each atom

More information

3.1 Acids and Bases. Brønsted Lowry definitions: Recall from general chemistry this classic example. Acids donate a proton. Bases accept a proton.

3.1 Acids and Bases. Brønsted Lowry definitions: Recall from general chemistry this classic example. Acids donate a proton. Bases accept a proton. 3.1 Acids and Bases Brønsted Lowry definitions: Acids donate a proton. Bases accept a proton. Recall from general chemistry this classic example. 3-1 3.1 Acids and Bases Conjugate Acids and Bases Brønsted

More information

Reactions of Nucleophiles and Bases. (b) at sp 2 centers (c) aromatic substitution

Reactions of Nucleophiles and Bases. (b) at sp 2 centers (c) aromatic substitution Chapter 3 Reactions of Nucleophiles and Bases 1) Nucleophilic substitution (a) at sp 3 2) Eliminations (a) E2 (b) Ei (b) at sp 2 centers (c) aromatic substitution 3) Nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds

More information

AMIDES AND RELATED FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. Jack DeRuiter

AMIDES AND RELATED FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. Jack DeRuiter I. Introduction Principles of Drug Action 1, pring 2005, Amides AMIDE AD ELATED FUTIAL GUP Jack Deuiter ecall that nitrogen has five valence electrons and therefore requires three electrons or bonds to

More information

Lecture Notes Chem 51A S. King. Chapter 3 Introduction to Organic Molecules and Functional Groups

Lecture Notes Chem 51A S. King. Chapter 3 Introduction to Organic Molecules and Functional Groups Lecture Notes hem 51A S. King hapter 3 Introduction to rganic Molecules and Functional Groups I. Functional Groups A functional group is an atom or group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical

More information

Carbocations Based on a Fall 2001 Chemistry 30BH Honors project by Patricia Young

Carbocations Based on a Fall 2001 Chemistry 30BH Honors project by Patricia Young arbocations Based on a Fall 2001 hemistry 30B onors project by Patricia Young Tutorial ontents A. Introduction B. arbocation lassification. arbocation Stability D. arbocation Formation E. Three Fates of

More information

Note that when two equivalents of HX are added to a terminal alkyne, both X s wind up on the same carbon!

Note that when two equivalents of HX are added to a terminal alkyne, both X s wind up on the same carbon! Reactions of Alkynes: 1. Addition of X (Addn of, X, where X = Cl, ) Markovnikov 1x or 2x Types of Alkynes Terminal one end is substituted with R and one has an. The end with the R is more substituted,

More information

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids.

Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. Carboxylic Acids When a carbonyl carbon also bears a hydroxyl group, then these compounds are appreciably acidic, and are called carboxylic acids. R Carboxylic acids are classified according to the substituent

More information

Chapter 15 Benzene and Aromaticity

Chapter 15 Benzene and Aromaticity John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 15 Benzene and Aromaticity Aromatic Compounds Aromatic was used to described some fragrant compounds in early 19 th century Not correct: later

More information

Chapter 15 HOMEWORK Benzene and Aromaticity

Chapter 15 HOMEWORK Benzene and Aromaticity Chapter 15 HOMEWORK Benzene and Aromaticity SHORT ANSWER Drawing Instructions: Draw structures corresponding to the given names. 1. Draw: m-fluoronitrobenzene 2. Draw: p-bromoaniline 3. Draw: o-chlorophenol

More information

Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Oxidation-Reduction and Organometallic Compounds

Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Oxidation-Reduction and Organometallic Compounds Chapter 12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds: Oxidation-Reduction and Organometallic Compounds Introduction Several functional groups contain the carbonyl group Carbonyl groups can be converted into alcohols

More information

Classification of oxo compounds, bonding system of oxo group, the stability of the C = O bond. Physical properties. The acid-base properties of

Classification of oxo compounds, bonding system of oxo group, the stability of the C = O bond. Physical properties. The acid-base properties of Classification of oxo compounds, bonding system of oxo group, the stability of the C = O bond. Physical properties. The acid-base properties of aldehydes and ketones, keto-enol tautomerism. Nucleophilic

More information

Everything You Need to Know About Mechanisms. First rule: Arrows are used to indicate movement of electrons

Everything You Need to Know About Mechanisms. First rule: Arrows are used to indicate movement of electrons Everything You eed to Know About Mechanisms A) The orrect Use of Arrows to Indicate Electron Movement The ability to write an organic reaction mechanism properly is key to success in organic chemistry

More information

Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds

Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds Andrew Rosen Chapter 2 - Families of Carbon Compounds 2.1 - Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds - Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon

More information

BRØNSTED - LOWRY ACIDS DONATE H + IONS BASES ACCEPT H + IONS. Chapter 17. A Review of Strong Electrolytes. A Review of Strong Electrolytes

BRØNSTED - LOWRY ACIDS DONATE H + IONS BASES ACCEPT H + IONS. Chapter 17. A Review of Strong Electrolytes. A Review of Strong Electrolytes Chapter 17 Ionic Equilibria: Acids and Bases A Review of Strong Electrolytes We must distinguish weak acids and bases from strong electrolytes. Weak acids and bases ionize or dissociate much less than

More information

7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions. 7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions. Reactions. 7.2 Alkyl Halides. Reactions

7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions. 7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions. Reactions. 7.2 Alkyl Halides. Reactions 7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions One group of atoms is replaced with another. Generic example: 7.1 Introduction to Substitution Reactions Which side do you think will be favored in the dynamic

More information

Carboxylic acid and derivatives (Part III)

Carboxylic acid and derivatives (Part III) Carboxylic acid and derivatives (Part III) Part 1. Substitution 1. Enol ann enolate 2. Reactivity of Enols 3. Alpha Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones 4. Alpha Bromination of Carboxylic Acids 5. Acidity

More information

4. Draw an acceptable line angle formula for the compound shown below.

4. Draw an acceptable line angle formula for the compound shown below. 4. Draw an acceptable line angle formula for the compound shown below. 5. Rank these compounds in order of increasing acidity (1 being least acidic, 3 being most acidic) N 3 F 2 6. Draw either a correct

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 16.

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 16. Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the

More information

Normal Bonds (Sections ) Summary of Normal, Ideal Bonding (No Formal Charge)

Normal Bonds (Sections ) Summary of Normal, Ideal Bonding (No Formal Charge) hem 350 Jasperse h. 1 Normal Bonding; Drawing Lewis Structures 1 Normal Bonds (Sections 1.2-1.5) Summary of Normal, Ideal Bonding (No Formal harge) Valence Electrons Valence Bonds Lone Pairs 4 4 0 N 5

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review, see also pp and pp Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 143. The H + Ion in Water Quiz number 5 will be given in recitation next week, Feb 26Mar 2 on the first part of Chapter 16, to be covered in lectures this week. 16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review 16.2 BronstedLowry Acids and

More information

Under acidic conditions, carbonyl compounds are protonated on O first, then weak base deprotonates at the α-c to give enol.

Under acidic conditions, carbonyl compounds are protonated on O first, then weak base deprotonates at the α-c to give enol. Substitution reactions of carbonyl compounds at the α-position Carbonyl compounds are acidic at α-c (e.g. C 2 C ); this is because of the electrophilic nature of carbonyl C= bond. The pka values of simple

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

Chem 316 Notes-2 H. D. Roth Resonance and Inductive Effects in Aromatic Compounds

Chem 316 Notes-2 H. D. Roth Resonance and Inductive Effects in Aromatic Compounds hem 316 otes-2. D. Roth Resonance and Inductive Effects in Aromatic ompounds In order to understand the patterns of aromatic substitution it is imperative to be familiar with the mechanisms by which substituents

More information

Chemistry 304B, Spring 99. More-or-less relevant supplementary problems for Exam 1 KEY 1

Chemistry 304B, Spring 99. More-or-less relevant supplementary problems for Exam 1 KEY 1 hemistry 304B, Spring 99. More-or-less relevant supplementary problems for Exam 1 KEY 1 1. emoglobin is the key molecule in biological oxygen transport, and the key part of hemoglobin is an Fe +3 ion as

More information

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules

Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Atomic Orbitals (2.1-2.5) Wave functions that represent the probability of finding electrons in a specific region of space s, p, d, f orbitals In

More information

27. How many valence electrons does each of the following atoms have? (a) oxygen, (b) magnesium, (c) fluorine

27. How many valence electrons does each of the following atoms have? (a) oxygen, (b) magnesium, (c) fluorine hem 226 Problem Set #1 Fundamentals of rganic hemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. hapter 1 27. ow many valence electrons does each of the following atoms have? (a) oxygen, (b) magnesium, (c) fluorine

More information

Slide Topics for Organic Chemistry 2443 Based on Smith: Organic Chemistry, an Acid-Base Approach

Slide Topics for Organic Chemistry 2443 Based on Smith: Organic Chemistry, an Acid-Base Approach Slide Topics for Organic Chemistry 2443 Based on Smith: Organic Chemistry, an Acid-Base Approach Module 1. Introduction and Syllabus (chapter 1 in Smith) 001. What is Organic Chemistry 002. Vital Force

More information

Composition of Matter

Composition of Matter Matter The stuff that makes up the universe anything that takes up space States of matter Solid has definite shape and volume Liquid has definite volume, changeable shape Gas has changeable shape and volume

More information

ß-Effect. Synthesis of Organosilanes. Alkylsilanes

ß-Effect. Synthesis of Organosilanes. Alkylsilanes Silicon Silicon is located in the periodic table immediately below carbon. It is tetravalent and forms tetrahedral compounds. Unlike carbon silicon does not form double bonds. There are also some important

More information

The alcohol functional group is -O-H and its reactions involve cleavage of the O-H bond or the C-O bond

The alcohol functional group is -O-H and its reactions involve cleavage of the O-H bond or the C-O bond Alcohols: Reactions The alcohol functional group is -- and its reactions involve cleavage of the - bond or the - bond or In either case, there can be a subsequent substitution, or an elimination to form

More information

Substituted Alkanes. Alcohol Amine Ether Thiol

Substituted Alkanes. Alcohol Amine Ether Thiol Substituted Alkanes While alkanes have very few reactions that occur, combustion and some radical reactions, substituted alkanes display a variety of reactions and properties X ften the amount of information

More information

Chapter 14 Organometallic Chemistry. Organometallic compounds are those that have a carbon-metal bond such as sodium acetylide.

Chapter 14 Organometallic Chemistry. Organometallic compounds are those that have a carbon-metal bond such as sodium acetylide. hapter 14 rganometallic hemistry rganometallic compounds are those that have a carbon-metal bond such as sodium acetylide. : - Na + Nomenclature: name as a substituted derivative of a metal: yclopropyl

More information

Chapter 2 - Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 - Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Chapter 2 - Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases For questions 1-10 give the letter of the term that best matches the given definition. a. Brønsted-Lowry Acid f. Ionic Bond b. Brønsted-Lowry Base g. Covalent

More information

Q.1 Draw structures for all amines of molecular formula C 4 H 11 N. Classify them as primary, secondary or tertiary amines.

Q.1 Draw structures for all amines of molecular formula C 4 H 11 N. Classify them as primary, secondary or tertiary amines. 1 AMIES Structure lassification ontain the 2 group. primary (1 ) amines secondary (2 ) amines tertiary (3 ) amines quarternary (4 ) ammonium salts. 1 2 3 4 Aliphatic Aromatic methylamine, ethylamine, dimethylamine

More information

Chapter 16. Some Definitions. Some Definitions. What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? 27/07/2014. If it can be either HCO 3 HSO 4 H 2 O

Chapter 16. Some Definitions. Some Definitions. What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? 27/07/2014. If it can be either HCO 3 HSO 4 H 2 O Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten Some Definitions Chapter 16 AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre Mr. Gauthier Arrhenius

More information

R! +!- Enol/Enolate Alkylations. Enolization: O H H H + H R H

R! +!- Enol/Enolate Alkylations. Enolization: O H H H + H R H Enol/Enolate Alkylations. Enolization:! +!- 2 C ' You should remember this picture from previous notes. The slight positive charge which develops on the carbonyl carbon does more than make it a good electrophile

More information

1. Structure and Bonding. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 1

1. Structure and Bonding. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 1 1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 1 What is an Atom? Structure of an atom Positively charged nucleus (very dense, protons and neutrons) and small (10-15

More information

How well do you know your functional groups? Identify the functional group/class of compound for each structure! Alkyne Anhydride

How well do you know your functional groups? Identify the functional group/class of compound for each structure! Alkyne Anhydride How well do you know your functional groups? Identify the functional group/class of compound for each structure! Alcohol (1 o, 2 o or 3 o?) 1. H 2 l 2 2. NH 2 Aldehyde H H 3 Alkane 3. 4. Alkene H 3 H 3

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

EXAM ONE - ANSWER KEY. Organic Chemistry February 23, 2009 EXAM ONE - MAKE-UP 1 - ANSWER KEY. Xxxx / 100

EXAM ONE - ANSWER KEY. Organic Chemistry February 23, 2009 EXAM ONE - MAKE-UP 1 - ANSWER KEY. Xxxx / 100 EXAM NE - ANWER KEY rganic hemistry 2443-01 February 23, 2009 EXAM NE - MAKE-UP 1 - ANWER KEY Xxxx / 100 Question 1 1. (16 pts) Using the empirical formula 8 18, draw the structure of 4 (four) different

More information

Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Aromatic compounds are stabilized by this aromatic stabilization energy Due to this stabilization, normal S N 2 reactions observed with alkanes do not occur with aromatic

More information

Unit 7: Acids & Bases

Unit 7: Acids & Bases Definitions of Acids & Bases Unit 7: Acids & Bases Chapter 16 Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: Substance that, when dissolved

More information

Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions and Acid-Base Strength

Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions and Acid-Base Strength AcidBase Properties of Salt Solutions and AcidBase Strength A salt is simply another name for an ionic compound. Remember, that most salts are strong electrolytes that completely dissociate in solution.

More information