Benzene/Toluene 98/99-6

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1 Benzene/Toluene 98/99-6 April 1999

2 - 1 - TABLE OF CONTENTS I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 A. INTRODUCTION 1 B. AROMATICS EXTRACTION 2 C. DEALKYLATION PROCESSES 3 D. PRODUCTION FROM REFORMATE 6 E. PRODUCTION FROM PYROLYSIS GASOLINE 8 F. PRODUCTION OF AROMATICS VIA NONCONVENTIONAL ROUTES 9 G. ECONOMICS 14 H. COMMERCIAL ANALYSIS 17 II CURRENT COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGY 19 A. INTRODUCTION 19 B. AROMATICS EXTRACTION Introduction BTX Extraction Processes Single Aromatics Extraction Processes 34 C. DEALKYLATION PROCESSES Introduction Hydrodealkyation 37 (a) Detol Process 39 (1) Catalytic Reactor Section 39 (2) High Pressure Gas Treatment 41 (3) Stabilization and Clay Treatment 41 (4) Product Recovery 42 (5) Catalyst Regeneration 42 (b) Litol Process 42 (c) Pyrotol Toluene Disproportionation 45 D. PRODUCTION FROM REFORMATE 48 E. PRODUCTION FROM PYROLYSIS GASOLINE 50 F. PRODUCTION FROM COKE OVEN LIGHT OIL 53 G. PRODUCTION OF AROMATICS VIA NONCONVEN- TIONAL ROUTES Asahi Chemicals Alpha Process 55

3 - 2 - TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) (a) Chemistry 55 (b) Process Description BP/UOP s Cyclar Process Chevron s Aromax Process UOP s RZ Platforming Summary of Nonconventional Routes 67 H. ECONOMICS Basis 69 (a) Pricing Basis 69 (b) Investment Basis 70 (c) Production Cost Basis Production Cost 72 (a) Feedstocks 72 (b) Benzene/Toluene Sensitivity 93 (a) Toluene Price 93 (b) Xylenes Byproduct Price 93 III DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGIES 96 A. INTRODUCTION 96 B. AMOCO: AROMATIZATION OF C 3 -C 6 ALKANES 96 C. MOBIL REFORMATE UPGRADING (MRU) PROCESS 98 D. PHILLIPS: INCREASING BTX YIELDS VIA TWO DIFFERENT ROUTES 99 E. TRANSALKYLATION PATENTS 101 F. UOP Catalytic Reforming/Isomerization Combination Process Integrated Catalytic Reformer/Hydrodealkylation 102 IV MARKET ANALYSIS 104 A. BENZENE Applications 104 (a) Introduction 104

4 - 3 - TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) (b) Ethylbenzene/Styrene 104 (c) Cumene/Phenol 105 (d) Cyclohexane 107 (e) Nitrobenzene 107 (f) Chlorobenzene 108 (g) Alkylbenzene 109 (h) Maleic Anhydride 110 (i) Other Demand Supply Supply/Demand Balance 118 B. TOLUENE Applications 120 (a) Introduction 120 (b) Solvents 120 (c) Toluene Diisocyanate 120 (d) Phenol 121 (e) Caprolactam 121 (f) Other Supply and Demand Capacity 122 REFERENCES 125 APPENDIX I: SPECIFICATIONS AND COST ESTIMATES 127 APPENDIX II: ELEMENTS OF CHEM SYSTEMS CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES 131 PERP TITLE INDEX 136

5 - 4 - TABLES Table I.A.1 Typical BTX Composition from Pygas and Reformate 2 Table I.C.1 Hydrodealkylation Processes 4 Table I.D.1 Reformer Yield from Medium Quality Full Range Naphtha 8 Table I.E.1 Pyrolysis Gasoline and Aromatics Yield in Steam Crackers 9 Table I.H.1 Global Benzene Demand by Region, Table I.H.2 Global Benzene Capacity by Region, Table II.A.1 Typical BTX Compositions from Pygas and Reformate 20 Table II.B.1 Extractive Distillation: Effect of N-Formylmorphine Solvent on Boiling Temperatures at 1 Atmosphere 22 Table II.B.2 Properties of Extractive Distillation Solvents 23 Table II.B.3 BTX Recovery Material Balance, pygas 30 Table II.B.4 BTX Recovery Material Balance, reformate 31 Table II.B.5 U.S.G.C. BTX Recovery ISBL, fourth quarter Table II.B.6 Benzene Product Quality from the Octene Process 37 Table II.C.1 Hydrodealkylation Processes 38 Table II.D.1 Reformer Yield from Medium Quality Full Range Naphtha 50 Table II.E.1 Pyrolysis Gasoline and Aromatics Yield in Steam Crackers 51 Table II.E.2 Effect of Cracking Severity with Full Range Naphtha Feed on Pyrolysis Gasoline and Aromatics Yield 52 Table II.E.3 Pyrolysis Gasoline Analysis Table II.F.1 Typical Composition of Benzole 54 Table II.G.1 Aromax Reforming Design Parameters 64 Table II.G.2 Aromax Product Mix versus Feed Cut Point 64 Table II.H.1 U.S.G.C. Price and Utility Basis 70 Table II.H.2 Cost Estimate of Reformate Production via Continuous Catalyst Regeneration Reformer, including hydrotreater 73 Table II.H.3 Cost Estimate of Reformate Production via Alpha Process 74 Table II.H.4 Cost Estimate of Reformate Production via Cyclar Process 75 Table II.H.5 Cost Estimate of Reformate Production via RX Platforming 76 Table II.H.6 Cost Estimate of Reformate Production via Aromax Process 77 Table II.H.7 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Reformate Extraction (Sulfolane) plus BTX Distillation 84

6 - 5 - TABLES (Continued) Table II.H.8 Table II.H.9 Table II.H.10 Table II.H.11 Table II.H.12 Table II.H.13 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Solvent Extraction of Pygas 85 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Extractive Distillation of Pygas 86 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Bulk Dealkylation of Pygas 87 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Litol from Coke Oven Light Oil 88 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Toluene Hydrodealkylation 90 Cost Estimate of Benzene Production via Conventional Toluene Disproportionation 91 Table III.B.1 Amoco Aromatization Selectivity 97 Table III.B.2 Comparison of Amoco Patent with UOP s Cyclar Technology 98 Table III.C.1 Typical MRU Yield Shift at 100 Octane 99 Table III.D.1 Phillips s Improved Reformer Yield 100 Table III.D.2 Phillips s Two Stage Process Material Balance 101 Table III.F.1 Combination Unit versus Conventional Reformer 103 Table IV.A.1 Global Benzene Demand by Region, Table IV.A.2 Global Benzene Capacity by Region, Table IV.A.3 U.S. Benzene Capacity, Table IV.A.4 West European Benzene Capacity, Table IV.B.1 U.S. Toluene Capacity by Production, Table IV.B.2 West European Toluene Extraction Capacity, Appendix Tables Table A1 Depentanizer Equipment Specifications and Cost Estimate 128 Table A2 BTX Fractionation Equipment Specifications and Cost Estimate 129 Table A3 Benzene and Toluene Product Specifications 130

7 - 6 - FIGURES Figure I.F.1 Aromatics Distribution 13 Figure I.G.1 C6+ Aromatics Production Costs plus 10% ROI 15 Figure I.G.2 Benzene Production Cash Costs 16 Figure II.B.1 Shell/UOP Sulfolane Process 26 Figure II.B.2 Aromatics Fractionation Section 28 Figure II.B.3 BTX Recovery Block Flow Diagram 29 Figure II.B.4 BTX Recovery Section Investment (ISBL) versus Capacity 33 Figure II.B.5 Morphylane Extractive Distillation Process Flow Diagram 36 Figure II.C.1 Detol Unit Simplified Flowsheet 40 Figure II.C.2 Litol Unit Simplified Flowsheet 43 Figure II.C.3 Toluene Disproportionation Typical Flowsheet 47 Figure II.G.1 Alpha Process Flow Diagram 56 Figure II.G.2 UOP/BP Cyclar Aromatization Process Flow Diagram 59 Figure II.G.3 Aromax (Chevron) Paraffins to BTX Process Flow Diagram 62 Figure II.G.4 UOP RZ Platforming Process Flow Diagram 65 Figure II.G.5 Aromatics Distribution 68 Figure II.H.1 C6+ Aromatics Cash Costs 78 Figure II.H.2 C6+ Aromatics Production Costs plus 10% ROI 79 Figure II.H.3 Naphtha and LPG Price History 80 Figure II.H.4 CCR versus Cyclar Costs 81 Figure II.H.5 C6+ Aromatics Production Cash Costs 83 Figure II.H.6 Benzene Production Cash Costs 92 Figure II.H.7 Sensitivity of THDA and TDP to Toluene Prices 94 Figure II.H.8 Sensitivity of TDP Process to Xylene Prices 95 Figure IV.A.1 Benzene Demand by Region, Figure IV.A.2 Benzene Capacity by Region, Figure IV.A.3 Global Benzene Trade 119

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