Wired LANs: Ethernet

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1 Chapter 13 Wired LANs: Ethernet Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking IEEE STANDARDS In 1985, the Computer Society of the IEEE started a project, called Project 802, to set standards to enable intercommunication among equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project 802 is a way of specifying functions of the physical layer and the data link layer of major LAN protocols. Topics discussed in this section: Data Link Layer Physical Layer Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 2 1

2 IEEE standard for LANs IEEE divided the Data link layer into two sublayer : upper layer :logical link control (LLC); flow and error control. Lower sublayer : Multiple access (MAC); media access control. Multiple access (MAC) for resolving access to the shared media. If channel is dedicated ( point to point) we do not need the (MAC); sublayer. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 3 IEEE standard for LANs CSMA/CD Token passing Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 4 2

3 LLC (Logical link control) and MAC (Media Access Control) In IEEE project 802, flow control, error control, and part of the framing duties are collected into one sublayer called the logical link control (LLC ) LLC provides one single data link control for all IEEE LANs. IEEE project 802 has created a sublayer MAC that defines the specific access method for each LAN. In contrast to the LLC, MAC contains a number of distinct modules: each defines the access method and the framing format specific to the corresponding LAN protocol For example: CSMA/CD as media access method for Ethernet LANs. Token passing method for Token Ring and Token Bus LANs. Framing is handled in both the LLC and MAC sublayer. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 5 Physical layer Physical layer is dependent on the implementation and type of the physical media used. IEEE define detailed specifications for each LAN implementation. For example, although there is only one MAC sublayer for Standard Ethernet( CSMA/CD), there is a different physical layer specifications for each Ethernet implementations. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 6 3

4 IEEE 802 Series of LAN Standards Name IEEE Description Ethernet IEEE Token bus IEEE IEEE a/b/g/n Token Ring Wireless LAN IEEE Bluetooth Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 7 ETHERNET IEEE It is the dominant LAN technology. Cheap First widely used LAN technology Simpler and cheaper than token LANs Kept up with speed race: 10, 100, 1000 Mbps Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 8 4

5 ETHERNET Evolution The original Ethernet was created in 1976 at Xerox s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Since then, it has gone through four generations. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 9 ETHERNET MAC Sublayer The MAC sublayer governs the operation of the random access method Standard Ethernet uses CSMA/CD with 1-persistent Ethernet dose not provide any mechanism for acknowledging received frames( unreliable medium). Acknowledgments must be implemented at the higher layer. It also frames data received from the upper layer and passes them to the physical layer. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 10 5

6 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) MAC frame The Ethernet frame contains seven fields: Preamble: 7bytes (56 bits); Alternating 0s and 1s, used for synchronizing Start Frame Delimiter (SFD): indicates the start of the frame. Last two bits (11) alerts that the next field is destination address. preamble and SFD are added at the physical layer and is not formally part of the frame Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 11 Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) MAC frame DA : Destination address: SA: Source Address: Length/Type: Define the upper-layer protocol using the MAC frame. OR define the number of bytes in the data filed. Data: minumum: 46 and maximum : 1500 bytes CRC: error detection information:crc-32 Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 12 6

7 Note Frame length: Minimum: 64 bytes (512 bits) Maximum: 1518 bytes (12,144 bits) Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 13 Minimum and maximum frame lengths Minimum frame length restriction (64 bytes) is required for the correct operation of CSMA/CD. Min data length =64-18 ( ) = 46 bytes If the upper- layer packet is less than 46 bytes, padding is added to make up the difference. Maximum length restriction; two historical reasons: Memory was very expensive when Ethernet was designed. Prevents one station from monopolizing the shared medium, blocking other stations that have data to sent. Max data length = = 1500 bytes. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 14 7

8 Ethernet address in hexadecimal notation Each station (PC or printer) has a network interface card (NIC) which provides the station with a 6-byte [48 bits] physical address (MAC adress) It is written in hexadecimal notation, with a colon between the bytes. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 15 Unicast and multicast addresses Source address is always a unicast address the frames comes from only one station. Destination address can be: unicast: defines only one recipient; one to one multicast: a group of addresses; one to many Broadcast: the recipients are all the stations on the LAN Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 16 8

9 Note The least significant bit of the first byte defines the type of address. If the bit is 0, the address is unicast; otherwise, it is multicast. The broadcast destination address is a special case of the multicast address in which all bits are 1s. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 17 Example 1 Define the type of the following destination addresses: a. 4A:30:10:21:10:1A b. 47:20:1B:2E:08:EE c. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF Solution To find the type of the address, we need to look at the second hexadecimal digit from the left. If it is even, the address is unicast. If it is odd, the address is multicast. If all digits are F s, the address is broadcast. Therefore, we have the following: a. This is a unicast address because A in binary is b. This is a multicast address because 7 in binary is c. This is a broadcast address because all digits are F s. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 18 9

10 Example 2 Show how the address 47:20:1B:2E:08:EE is sent out on line. Solution The address is sent left-to-right, byte by byte; for each byte, it is sent right-to-left( LSB first), bit by bit, as shown below: left-to-right : B 2E 08 EE 47 is right -to-left Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 19 Slot Time Slot time defined in bits: It is the time required for a station to send 512 bits (min frame size). Slot Time = round trip time + time required to send the jam sequence It depends on the data rate, for traditional 10-Mbps Ethernet it is 51.2 microseconds (512/10Mbps) The choice of 512-bit Slot Time to allow the proper function of CSMA/CD. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 20 10

11 Slot Time If the sender sends a frame larger than the minimum size ( 512 to 1518 bits) If the station has sent out the first 512 bits and has not heard a collision, it is guaranteed that the collision will never occur during the transmission of the frame. The reason is that all stations sensed the existence of the signal and refrained from sending. Collisions can only occur during the first half of the slot time (slot time/2), and if it dose, it can be sensed by the sender during the slot time. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 21 Slot Time and Maximum network length Slot time = 2 x Tp ( neglecting time required to send jam signal) = 2 x Max Length/propagation speed Max.Length = propagation speed x (SlotTime/2) Let propagation speed = 2x10 8 m/s Max.Length = (2 x 10 8 ) x (51.2 x10-6 /2) = 5120 m Consider the delay times in repeaters and interfaces, and the time required to send the jam sequence. Max.Length = 2500 m ( = 48 % of the theoretical) Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 22 11

12 Categories of Standard Ethernet The Standard Ethernet defines several physical layer implementation, four of the most common: Limitation of 10Base5 and 10Base2 is that communication is half-duplex. Why half deplux?? Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 23 Encoding in a Standard Ethernet implementation All standard implementations use digital signaling( baseband) at 10 Mbps. At the sender, data are converted to a digital signal using the Manchester scheme. At the receiver, the received signal is interpreted as Manchester and decoded into data. Uses CSMA/CD with 1-persistent Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 24 12

13 10Base5:Thick Ethernet (Thicknet) Uses coaxial cable and Bus topology With an external transceiver( transmitter/receiver) connected via a tap. Transceiver is responsible for: transmitting, receiving and detecting collisions. The length of each segment cannot exceed 500 m If cable > 500 m,degradation in the signal, using repeaters to connect multiple segments of cable. No two stations can be separated by more than 2500m( max length of the bus) and 4 repeaters. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 25 10Base2:Thin Ethernet (Cheapernet) Uses Bus topology with thinner and more flexible cables. Transceiver part of a NIC card The implementation is more cost effective than 10Base5 because: Thin coaxial cable is less expensive than the thick tee connections are cheaper than taps Installation is simpler because thin coaxial cable is very flexible. The length of each segment under 200 (cannot exceed 185 m) due to the high level of attenuation Repeaters are used to connect multiple segments Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 26 13

14 10 Base-T: Twisted-Pair Ethernet Physical star topology Stations are connected to a hub via two pairs of twisted cable( one for sending and one for receiving ). Any collisions happens in the hub Compared to others, the hub replaces the coaxial cable as far as a collision is concerned. Max length = 100 m to minimize attenuation. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 27 10Base-F: Fiber Ethernet Uses star topology to connect stations to a hub Stations is connected to the hub by using two pairs of fiber-optic cables. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 28 14

15 Summary of Standard Ethernet implementations 10Base 5 10Base2 10Base-T 10Base-F Media Maximum length Thick coaxial cable Thin coaxial cable Two UTP 2 Fiber 500 m 185 m 100 m 2000 m Topology Bus Bus Star star Data rate 10Mbps 10Mbps 10Mbps 10Mbps Line coding Manchester Manchester Manchester Manchester Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking CHANGES IN THE STANDARD The 10-Mbps Standard Ethernet has gone through several changes before moving to the higher data rates. These changes actually opened the road to the evolution of the Ethernet to become compatible with other high-data-rate LANs. Topics discussed in this section: Bridged Ethernet Switched Ethernet Full-Duplex Ethernet Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 30 15

16 Bridged Ethernet Have two effects on an Ethernet LAN: 1. They rise the bandwidth 2. They separate collision domains. Without bridges, all the stations share the bandwidth of the network. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 31 Bridged Ethernet: Raising the Bandwidth Bridges divide the network into two. Each network is independent. With bridges, 10 Mbps network is shared only by 6 [actually 7 as bridge acts as one station] stations. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 32 16

17 Bridged Ethernet: Separate Collision domains Using bridges: Collision domain becomes much smaller and the probability of collision is reduced Raising the B-W Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 33 Switched Ethernet A layer 2 switch is an N-port bridge with additional sophistication that allows faster handling of the packets. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 34 17

18 Full-duplex switched Ethernet In full duplex switch there are two links, one for sending and one for receiving, we don t need CSMA/CD here ( no collision). Increases the capacity of each domain from 10 to 20 Mbps. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 35 FAST ETHERNET Fast Ethernet was designed to compete with LAN protocols such as FDDI or Fiber Channel. IEEE created Fast Ethernet under the name 802.3u. Fast Ethernet is backward-compatiblecompatible with Standard Ethernet, but it can transmit data 10 times faster at a rate of 100 Mbps. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 36 18

19 MAC Sublayer Main consideration in the evolution of Ethernet from 10 to 100 Mbps was to keep the MAC sublayer untouched. Drop bus topologies and keep only the star topology. Why?? Star topology have two choices : Half-duplex approach: The stations are connected via a hub. The access method is CSMA/CD Full-duplex approach.(fast ) The connection is made via a switch with buffers at each port. No need for CSMA/CD Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 37 Fast Ethernet topology Topology: Two stations: point-to-point Three or more stations: star topology with a switch at the center Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 38 19

20 The goals of Fast Ethernet : 1. Upgrade the data rate to 100 Mbps 2. Make it compatible with Standard Ethernet 3. Keep the same frame format 4. Keep the same minimum and maximum frame length Autonegotiation: Allows two devices to negotiate the mode (half duplex or full duplex) or data rate of operation. Ex: Allow incompatible devices to connect to one another. A device with a maximum capacity of 10 Mbps can communicate with device with a 100 Mbps capacity (but can work at a lower rate) Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 39 Fast Ethernet implementations Can be categorized as Two wire: Category 5 UTP (100Base-TX) Fiber-optic cable(100base-fx) four wire: Category 3 or higher UTP( 100Base-T4) Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 40 20

21 Fast Ethernet implementations Encoding: Manchester encoding needs a 200- Mbaud bandwidth for a data rate of 100 Mbps.(unsuitable for a medium such as Twisted Pair cable). In Fast Ethernet, three different encoding schemes were chosen depending on the implementation: 100 Base-TX 100Base-FX 100BAse-T4 Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking Base-TX Uses two pairs of twisted-pair cable (either category 5 UTP or STP). Provide data rate of 100 Mbps MLT-3 scheme was selected since it has good bandwidth performance. (not selfsynchronization line coding) So 4B/5B block coding is used to provide bit synchronization. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 42 21

22 100Base-FX Uses two pairs of fiber-optic cables. Uses NRZ-I encoding scheme ( bit synchronization problem.) To overcome this problem, 4B/5B block coding is used. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking Base-T 4 Uses four pairs of category 3 or higher UTP.(not cost efficient compared to Category 5) Transmit 100 Mbps. Uses 8B/6T encoding Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 44 22

23 Summary of Fast Ethernet implementations 100Base -TX 10Base-FX 10Base-T4 Media Cat 5 UTP or STP Fiber Cat 3 UTP or higher Number of wires Maximum length 100 m 400 m: half duplex 2000m: full duplex 100 m Topology Star Star Star Data rate 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 100 Mbps Block encoding 4B/5B 4B/5B 8B/6T Line encoding MLT-3 NRZ-I Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking GIGABIT ETHERNET The need for an even higher data rate resulted in the design of the Gigabit Ethernet protocol (1000 Mbps). The IEEE committee calls the standard 802.3z. Behrouz A. Forouzan Data communication and Networking 46 23

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